EMCC European Monitoring Centre on Change

European Restructuring Monitor

Since 2002, the European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has been monitoring the employment impact of large-scale restructuring events in Europe and covers the 27 EU Member States plus Norway. Over the years, the monitoring has been expanded from only collecting company restructuring cases to a compilation of datasets and tools that can help to understand restructuring in Europe.

ERM data collection and monitoring tools

Restructuring events

The ERM events database contains factsheets with data on large-scale restructuring events reported in the principal national media in each EU Member State and Norway. Created in 2002, it has recorded more than 28,000 restructuring events to date. The dataset monitors large restructurings in Europe on a daily basis.

Detailed information is available about the data collection methodology, the media sources used and data limitations.

Restructuring related legislation

Since 2013, the ERM database on restructuring related legislation gives an overview on national regulations related to, for example, definitions of collective dismissal and dismissal procedures or information/consultation requirements in restructuring. The dataset is updated every two years.

Restructuring support instruments

Since 2011, the ERM also provides a database on national public support instruments which assist companies and workers in anticipating and managing restructuring. To date, the database provides information on around 300 national schemes. Due to the increasing impact of wide-reaching themes, such as COVID-19 and the ‘green transition’, the restructuring support instrument dataset is now integrated within Eurofound’s EU PolicyWatch dataset.


The ERM publication series includes all restructuring related reports, blogs, articles and working papers.

A key publication is the ERM report, which focuses on a specific topic that reflects current policy priorities, based on the ERM datasets. The latest ERM report Going digital: Restructuring trends in retail banking describes restructuring activity taking place in the retail banking sector. It explores the effect of digitalisation in retail banking and its restructuring drivers, trends and employment outcomes. The report includes quantitative data from the ERM events database and other sources, in addition to six case studies which describe examples of recent restructuring events in the sector, what motivated the restructuring, how it was managed and how it affected employment and work organisation.

The ERM quarterly publication was discontinued after the January 2017 issue. Comparative analytical reports, carried out until 2014, provide information on developments at EU and national level on specific themes, including company case examples. The various editions are still accessible below.

Research carried out prior to the UK’s withdrawal from the European Union on 31 January 2020, and published subsequently, may include data relating to the 28 EU Member States. Following this date, research only takes into account the 27 EU Member States (EU28 minus the UK), unless specified otherwise.