26 júlí 2022
Work–life balance is a satisfactory state of equilibrium between an individual’s work and private liRead more
Work–life balance is a satisfactory state of equilibrium between an individual’s work and private life. Enabling a better work–life balance for workers across the life course has been an EU policy goal for many years as it is central to ensuring that work is sustainable for all. It is also an important factor in determining the participation of women and older workers in the labour market.Read less
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On 17 November 2017, the European Parliament, the Council and the European Commission formally proclaimed the European Pillar of Social Rights, which included an initiative to support work–life balancRead more
On 17 November 2017, the European Parliament, the Council and the European Commission formally proclaimed the European Pillar of Social Rights, which included an initiative to support work–life balance. Subsequently, in June 2019, the Council adopted a new Directive on work–life balance for parents and carers. The Directive aims to increase women's participation in the labour market and outlines a number of new or improved minimum standards for parental, paternity and carer’s leave, as well as flexible working arrangements, aiming to also increase men's take-up of these.
- European Commission: European Pillar of Social Rights
- Council of the EU: Better work-life balance for parents and carers in the EU: Council adopts new rules
- European Commission: Work-life balance
Work–life balance continues to be a significant research topic for Eurofound, in its surveys and other studies, including in the outputs from the European Quality of Life Survey 2016.Read more
Work–life balance continues to be a significant research topic for Eurofound, in its surveys and other studies, including in the outputs from the European Quality of Life Survey 2016.
- Publication: European Quality of Life Survey 2016
Survey data on work–life balance issues
Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Surveys (EQLS) provide comparisons between countries on the reconciliation of work and family life, flexible working time arrangements and the provision of quality care services. The European Company Surveys (ECS) provide data on why and how companies make use of a broad variety of working time arrangements. The European Working Conditions Surveys (EWCS) look at the organisation of working time across the EU and issues related to it including flexible arrangements, working time preferences and work–life balance.
- Survey: European Quality of Life Surveys
- Survey: European Company Surveys
- Survey: European Working Conditions Surveys
COVID-19 and work–life balance
Eurofound’s unique e-survey, Living, working and COVID-19, provides a snapshot of the impact of the changes that occurred during the pandemic on people’s lives, with the aim of helping policymakers shape the response to the crisis. Conducted in five rounds during 2020, 2021 and 2022, it allows for comparison of the challenges that arose during the different stages of living through the pandemic. A range of questions focus on people’s work situation, their level of teleworking during COVID-19, experiences of working from home and the impact on work–life balance.
- Publication: Fifth round of the Living, working and COVID-19 e-survey: Living in a new era of uncertainty
The latest findings, published in July 2022 show that despite some improvement in work–life balance issues, there has been a sharp decline in family time among workers in 2022, with almost 30% reporting that their job is preventing them from spending time with their family, from a much lower 19% in 2020.
Working life and work–life balance
Eurofound's European Observatory of Working Life (EurWORK) provides information on working conditions and sustainable work, and the implications for work–life balance for parents and caregivers, including a database on wages, working time and collective disputes. Eurofound has also estimated the economic and social costs of the gender employment gap and can offer information on the creation of employment in care services.
Eurofound’s annual review of developments in working life in the EU looks at national and EU-level policies to promote work–life balance and investigates the role of collective agreements in this area.
In the context of the negotiations on the work–life balance package at EU level, and at the European Commission’s request, Eurofound has produced a review of national statistics on the uptake of family-related leave by fathers over time across the EU Member States and Norway.
- Observatory: EurWORK
Key outputs over the years
Publications & dataTop
The sections below provide access to a range of publications, data and ongoing work on this topic.
- Publications (311)
- Ongoing work (2)
Eurofound publications come in a variety of formats, including reports, policy briefs, blogs, articles and presentations.
Quality of work and employment in Europe: Issues and challenges (Foundation paper No. 1 February 2002)Publication 12 March 2002
Employment, family and community activities: a new balance for women and men - Summary of the Portuguese national reportPublication 16 nóvember 2000
Employment, family and community activities: a new balance for women and men - Summary of the Italian national reportPublication 16 nóvember 2000
Employment, family and community activities: a new balance for women and men - Summary of the UK national reportPublication 16 nóvember 2000
A selection of related data on this topic are linked below.
- Data: EQLS 2016: Work–life balance and care questions
- Data: EWCS 2015: Working time questions
- Data: Database of wages, working time and collective disputes
Research continues in this topic on a variety of themes, which are outlined below with links to forthcoming titles.