Slovenia: Representativeness of the European social partner organisations in the cross-industry social dialogue

  • Observatory: EurWORK
  • Topic:
  • Agreements,
  • Collective bargaining,
  • Social partners,
  • Dialogo sociale,
  • Relazioni industriali,
  • Published on: 17 Marzo 2014



About
Country:
Slovenia
Author:
Institution:

The economic crisis has affected Slovenia quite severely. GDP decreased by about 5% between 2009 and 2011 and was estimated to be negative at -2.3%, in 2012, while the unemployment rate increased from 7% in 2008 to 12% in 2012 The main framework of social dialogue remained in place (tripartite and bipartite negotiations, wage bargaining being a part of collective agreements); however, the quality and level of social dialogue deteriorated. The trade union density rate decreased, as did membership fee revenue of the employer organisations. Collective bargaining is highly structured and there are tripartite national pacts between the unions, employers and government, covering a range of economic and social issues.

Tripartite dialogue is organised within the Economic and Social Council (ESC), which deals with a range of labour and social issues. The decisions of the ESC are binding for the institutions represented in the Council; however, there are no sanctions for not following them. The Slovenian government took the position that it will respect the structure of tripartite social dialogue, but it has only an advisory and not the decision-making role, which is the responsibility of the government and National Assembly. As a result there have been many breaches of its procedures, especially on the government’s side. Trade unions responded by strikes and protests.

1. Cross-sector collective agreements

1.1. Are employees in your country covered by cross-sector collective bargaining conducted by peak-level social partner organisations, including economy-wide (covering all sectors), inter-sector (covering two or more sectors but not all) or occupational (across several sectors) bargaining?

Yes, economy-wide collective bargaining

Yes, inter-sector collective bargaining

Yes, occupational collective bargaining

1.2. If yes, please indicate whether cross-sector collective bargaining takes place at:

National level

If both national and regional/territorial cross-sector collective bargaining is present, please illustrate briefly the relative importance of the two levels.

1.3. If yes, please consider the five most relevant* cross-sector collective agreements valid in 2011 (or most recent data) and indicate their type (economy-wide, inter-sector, occupational), the name of the agreements and their duration, the geographical scope (national/territorial), the sectors, occupations and types of undertakings (e.g. only SME) covered by the agreements, the bargaining parties to the agreements and the numbers of employees covered (also estimate)

* Only (wage) agreements which are (re)negotiated on a reiterated basis.

The Minimum Wage Act adopted in February 2010, after a series of industrial actions, equated the minimum wage with the minimum living costs and stipulated that the minimum wage would rise once a year taking into account inflation, wages, economic growth and employment. Once a year, the minimum wage is adjusted at least to the rise in consumer prices. This indexation also influences wage collective bargaining. The employers must pay the worker a minimum wage also in cases when the lowest rates set by different sectoral collective agreements are lower than the minimum wage.

The wage system in the public sector is regulated by the Collective Agreement for the Public Sector (CAPS) and new Agreement on the Pay Policy Measures and other Incomes in the Public Sector for 2011 and 2012. In 2010, the parliament changed the law regulating public sector wages, allowing for their freeze in 2011 and lowering the quota of trade union agreement necessary to pass similar laws in the future, thus allowing the government to change the public sector collective agreement with lower rating of approval from the trade unions.

The Trade Union of Craft Workers of Slovenia (SODS) and two employers’ associations, the Chamber of Craft and Small Business of Slovenia (OZS) and the Association of Employers in Craft and Small Business of Slovenia (ZDOPS), signed new a Collective Agreement in July 2008 for Craft and Business (KPOP). In June 2010, SODS and only one employer association, ZDOPS, signed Amendments to the Collective Agreement for Craft and Business, including an article on meeting the housing and educational needs of their members, and a wage agreement.

The Collective Agreement between Workers and Small Companies (KPdg) was signed by SODS and the employers’ association PTZS in October 2010. The first collective agreement between workers and small companies was signed in 1991, and since then it has been changed only once, in 2000. The new collective agreement is in accordance with recent legislation and includes flexible working arrangements (project work, fixed-term contracts), and traineeship as knowledge transfer between younger and older generations. A new aspect of the agreement is the introduction of severance pay for fixed-term contract workers (project work) and an Alternative Dispute Resolution.

After the expiration (on 31 December 2009) of the national private sector intersectoral agreement on extraordinary pay adjustment for 2007 and the method of pay adjustment, the refund of work-related expenses and other personal incomes for 2008 and 2009 (CAMPA), covering the majority of workers in the private sector who were not covered by sectoral collective agreements social partners have not concluded a new one (SI0807019I). Today, according to trade unions statistics, about 100,000 workers in the private sector are not covered by collective agreements, so the coverage has declined sharply to about 80% in the private sector.

Table 1: Cross-sector (wage) agreements

Type

Name (years covered)

National/ Territorial (if territorial, please specify the geographical coverage)

Covered sectors, occupations, undertakings

Bargaining parties

Number of covered employees

Economy wide

Law on minimum wage 2010

National

All

Trade union confederations: ZSSS, KSJS, Pergam, Konfederacija90, KNSS, Solidarnost, SZS Alternativa

Employer organisations: GZS, OZS, ZDS, TZS and ZDOPS.

Six ministries represent the government: (labour, family and social affairs; finance; the economy; public administration; development and European

affairs), the director of the Institute of Macroeconomic Analysis and Development and the state secretary for social dialogue in the Prime minister's office.

About 800,000

Economy wide

Civil service in Slovenia is covered by the intersectoral Collective Agreement for the Public Sector, concluded in June 2008.

National

All civil services in Slovenia are covered by the intersectoral Collective Agreement for the Public Sector and 7 sectoral collective agreements.

Signatory parties to the intersectoral collective agreement are 21 public sector trade unions and representatives of the Government of Slovenia.

On the trade union side: Police Trade Union of Slovenia (PSS),Trade Union of Customs Officials of Slovenia (SCS), Trade Union of the Government Agency of Slovenia (SVAS),Trade Union of State and Societal Bodies of Slovenia (SDDO), Trade Union of Health and Social Services of Slovenia (SZSVS), Trade Union of Health and Social Welfare (SZSSS), Social Insurance Trade Union (SSZS), Nursing Workers’ Trade Union of Slovenia (SDZNS), Trade Union of Justice Workers (SDP), Trade Union of Doctors and Dentists of Slovenia (FIDES), Trade Union of Culture of Slovenia (GLOSA), Association of Trade Unions in Health-Pergam, Trade Union of Professional Fireman of Slovenia (SPGS), Union of Pharmacists of Slovenia (SIFARM), Slovenian Union of Journalists (SNS), Union of Cultural and Artistic Creators of RTV Slovenia (SKUU RTVS), The Trade Union of Laboratory Medicine of Slovenia (SILMES), Trade Union of Veterinaries of Slovenia- KNSS, Trade Union of Social Work Centres-Pergam, Trade Union Confederation KS 90 and Union of Emitters of Slovenia (SSS). On the employer side: Minister of Public Administration (MJU) and Minister of Finance (MF).

  1. Agreement for the Public Sector covers all employees in the public sector.
  2. service employees are also covered by 7 specific sectoral collective agreements.

Altogether 160,000

SME

The Collective Agreement for Craft and Business

National

different activities, services, production, craft and business

Employers’ Association of Craft and Entrepreneurs of Slovenia (ZDOPS)

Trade unions: Trade Union of Craft Workers of Slovenia (SODS) – member of ZSSS

About 97,000

SME

The Collective Agreement between Workers and Small Companies

National

80 different activities commerce, production, services and other activities

Employer organisation: Chamber of Small Business and Trade (PTZ) – member of GZS

Trade unions: Trade Union of Craft Workers of Slovenia (SODS) – member of ZSSS

About 40,000

2. Formulation and implementation of cross-industry public policies

2.1. Do bipartite or tripartite statutory bodies dealing with labour market and industrial relations regulation at cross-sector level exist? If yes, please indicate their main domain of activity (for instance, health and safety, equal opportunities, labour market, social security and pensions etc.) and the interest organisations having representatives in them:

There is one tripartite statutory body: the Economic and Social Council (ESC), which was founded in 1994 and represents a framework that has consolidated democratic relationships between the social partners. The ESC is a consultative body whose decisions, which are taken unanimously, are binding for all three partners. The significance of the ESC is reflected also in the position of the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia, according to which all acts and policies that in any way affect the interests of social partners must first be negotiated at the ESC level.

Special ad-hoc working groups can be established within ESC; their status is legitimised through the Economic and Social Council (ESC), which is informed of their appointment.

For some strategic issues a special council dealing with specific issues can be established by the government (based on the Government of the Republic of Slovenia Act). There are five such councils where social partners participate (for competitiveness, for sustainable development, for telecommunications, for higher education and tourism).

Table 2: Cross-sector public policies*
Name of the body and scope of activity Bipartite/tripartite Trade unions (union confederations) having representatives (reps) Employer associations having reps.

Economic and Social Council

All issues related to the labour market, social security, pensions, health and safety

Specific issues are discussed at ad-hoc established working groups

tripartite

ZSSS, KSJS, Pergam, Konfederacija90, KNSS, Solidarnost, SZS Alternativa

GZS, ZDS, OZS, ZDOPS, TZS

Competitiveness Council of the Government of the Republic of Slovenia''

Bipartite

 

GZS, OZS

Sustainable Development Council

Bipartite

 

ZDOPS

Telecommunications Council

Bipartite

 

GZS

Higher Education Council

Tripartite

Representatives of trade union (in this mandate Pergam and from sector trade union SVIZ)

Representatives of employers (in this mandate from ZDS, GZS)

Tourism Council

Tripartite

GIT (ZSSS member)

GZS, OZS, ZDS

* Cross-sector policies target and affect (major part of) the national economy.

3. The peak-level associations on the labour and employer side

This section includes the following cross-sector, peak-level trade union confederations and cross-sector, peak-level employer organisations:

(i) cross-sector, peak-level trade union confederations which are directly or indirectly (via their member unions) party to cross-sector collective bargaining/collective employment regulation OR directly involved in bipartite or tripartite consultation in labour market and industrial relations regulation at cross-sector level

The trade unions covered by the report: Union of Free Trade Unions of Slovenia (Zveza svobodnih sindikatov Slovenije, ZSSS) – the largest union organisation; Confederation of Public Sector Trade Unions (Konfederacija sindikatov javnega sektorja Slovenije, KSJS); Confederation of Trade Unions of Slovenia Pergam (Konfederacija sindikatov Pergam Slovenije, Pergam); the Confederation of Trade Unions ‘90 of Slovenia (Konfederacija sindikatov '90 Slovenije, Konfederacija '90); KNSS – Independence, Confederation of New Trade Unions of Slovenia (KNSS – Neodvisnost, Konfederacija novih sindikatov Slovenije, KNSS); Union of Workers’ Trade Unions of Slovenia – Solidarity (Zveza delavskih sindikatov Slovenije – Solidarnost, Solidarnost) and Slovene Union of Trade Unions Alternativa (Slovenska zveza sindikatov Alternativa, SZS Alternativa).

(ii) cross-sector, peak-level trade union confederations which are a member of at least one of the cross-sector European Union Federations (i.e. the European Trade Union Confederation – ETUC; Eurocadres; and the European Confederation of Executives and Managerial Staff – CEC)

Trade unions covered by the report: Union of Free Trade Unions of Slovenia (Zveza svobodnih sindikatov Slovenije, ZSSS) – the largest union organisation and the Managers' Association of Slovenia (Zdruzenje Manager).

(iii) cross-sector, peak-level employer organisations which are directly or indirectly (via their member associations) a party to cross-sector collective bargaining/collective employment regulation OR directly involved in bipartite or tripartite consultation in labour market and industrial relations regulation at cross-sector level

Employer organisations covered by the report: Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Slovenia (GZS), Association of Employers of Slovenia (ZDS), Slovenian Chamber of Commerce (TZS), Chamber of Craft and Small Businesses of Slovenia (OZS) and Association of Employers of Craft and Small Business of Slovenia (ZDOPS).

(iv) cross-sector, peak-level employer organisations which are a member of at least one of the cross-sector European Employer/Business Federations (i.e.BUSINESSEUROPE; the European Centre of Employers and Enterprises providing Public Services – CEEP; and the European Association of Craft and Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises – UEAPME)

Employer organisations covered by the report: Association of Employers of Slovenia (ZDS) and Chamber of Craft and Small Businesses of Slovenia (OZS).

3a Overview of the Industrial relations landscape in the economy

In 2011 trade union confederations and employers’ organisations were of the opinion that the level of social dialogue in Slovenia continued to be very low. The government considered and adopted labour market legislation without discussing it with social partners. Lack of social dialogue has already resulted in the need for deputies to interfere in the content of legislation. The low level of social dialogue between government and social partners caused further problems when adopting necessary labour market legislation, with referendums rejecting adopted reforms.

There were no main developments on the trade union side. Trade union membership had been declining before the crisis (from 43.8% in 2003 to 26.6% in 2008), while employer organisation membership, based on 2008 figures, still represented a high share of member companies that employed 80–90% of private sector employees (SI1004019Q). But with the recent change in the employer organisation OZS to voluntary membership, it is expected that the density rate will further decline.

3b Data on the cross-sector, peak-level trade union confederations

Table 3: Trade union confederation fact sheet: Union of Free Trade Unions of Slovenia (ZSSS; Zveza svobodnih sindikatov Slovenije)

According to its domain, does the union confederation potentially cover the entire economy (in terms of sectors)?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union confederation potentially cover all occupations among both blue-collar workers and white-collar workers?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union confederation potentially cover all forms and size classes of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, SMEs, etc.)?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union confederation potentially cover all regions of your country?

Yes

General information on the union confederation

Is the union confederation directly or indirectly (via its member unions) engaged in cross-sector collective bargaining?

Yes, directly

If Yes. Is this a form of economy-wide (covering all sectors), inter-sector (covering two or more sectors but not all) or occupational (across several sectors) bargaining?

Economy-wide/Inter-sector

If Yes. Is this a form of national (covering all regions) or regional/territorial (covering only certain regions or geographical areas) bargaining?

National

Type of membership

Voluntary

Is the union confederation directly consulted by the authorities in matters of cross-sector significance?

Yes

If Yes. Is the consultation carried out…

Within established tripartite structures

If Yes. Do consultations in matters of cross-sector significance involve this union confederation…?

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis.

Members

How many lower-level trade union organisations are affiliated to the trade union confederation?

22 (2012)

How many active members in employment does the union confederation have in total (directly or indirectly via its member unions)?

250,000 (2012)

Please indicate/ estimate the union confederation’s density in terms of active members.

30%

Affiliations

To which international organisations is the union confederation affiliated?

N/A

To which European-level organisations is the union confederation affiliated?

The European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC)

Source of information

Trade union confederation secretary and president

Website: http://www.zsss.si/

EIRO national correspondent: Samo Pavlin

Table 4: Trade union confederation fact sheet: Confederation of Public Sector Trade Unions (KSJS; Konfederacija sindikatov javnega sektorja Slovenije)

According to its domain, does the union confederation potentially cover the entire economy (in terms of sectors)?

No. Only public sector.

According to its domain, does the union confederation potentially cover all occupations among both blue-collar workers and white-collar workers?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union confederation potentially cover all forms and size classes of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, SMEs, etc.)?

No. Only public sector.

According to its domain, does the union confederation potentially cover all regions of your country?

Yes.

General information on the union confederation

Is the union confederation directly or indirectly (via its member unions) engaged in cross-sector collective bargaining?

Yes, directly

If Yes. Is this a form of economy-wide (covering all sectors), inter-sector (covering two or more sectors but not all) or occupational (across several sectors) bargaining?

Economy-wide/Inter-sector

If Yes. Is this a form of national (covering all regions) or regional/territorial (covering only certain regions or geographical areas) bargaining?

National

Type of membership

Voluntary

Is the union confederation directly consulted by the authorities in matters of cross-sector significance?

Yes

If Yes. Is the consultation carried out…

Within established tripartite structures

If Yes. Do consultations in matters of cross-sector significance involve this union confederation…?

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis

Members

How many lower-level trade union organisations are affiliated to the trade union confederation?

7 (2012)

How many active members in employment does the union confederation have in total (directly or indirectly via its member unions)?

74,000 (2012)

Please indicate/ estimate the union confederation’s density in terms of active members.

50%

Source of information

Trade union confederation secretary and president

Website: http://www.konfederacija-sjs.si/

EIRO national correspondent: Samo Pavlin

Table 5: Trade union confederation fact sheet: PERGAM –Confederation of Trade Unions of Slovenia Pergam (Konfederacija sindikatov Pergam Slovenije)

According to its domain, does the union confederation potentially cover the entire economy (in terms of sectors)?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union confederation potentially cover all occupations among both blue-collar workers and white-collar workers?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union confederation potentially cover all forms and size classes of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, SMEs, etc.)?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union confederation potentially cover all regions of your country?

Yes.

General information on the union confederation

Is the union confederation directly or indirectly (via its member unions) engaged in cross-sector collective bargaining?

Yes, directly

If Yes. Is this a form of economy-wide (covering all sectors), inter-sector (covering two or more sectors but not all) or occupational (across several sectors) bargaining?

Economy-wide/Inter-sector/Occupational

If Yes. Is this a form of national (covering all regions) or regional/territorial (covering only certain regions or geographical areas) bargaining?

National

Type of membership

Voluntary

Is the union confederation directly consulted by the authorities in matters of cross-sector significance?

Yes

If Yes. Is the consultation carried out…

Within established tripartite structures

If Yes. Do consultations in matters of cross-sector significance involve this union confederation…?

On a regular basis

Members

How many lower-level trade union organisations are affiliated to the trade union confederation?

16 (2012)

How many active members in employment does the union confederation have in total (directly or indirectly via its member unions)?

72,000 (2012)

Please indicate/ estimate the union confederation’s density in terms of active members.

12%

Affiliations

To which international organisations is the union confederation affiliated?

UNI Global Union

To which European-level organisations is the union confederation affiliated?

UNI Global Union Europa

IndustriALL – European Trade Union

Source of information

Trade union confederation officials

Website: http://www.sindikat-pergam.si/

EIRO national correspondent: Samo Pavlin

Table 6: Trade union confederation fact sheet: Confederation of Trade Unions ΄90 of Slovenia (Konfederacija sindikatov '90 Slovenije)

According to its domain, does the union confederation potentially cover the entire economy (in terms of sectors)?

Yes.

According to its domain, does the union confederation potentially cover all occupations among both blue-collar workers and white-collar workers?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union confederation potentially cover all forms and size classes of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, SMEs, etc.)?

Yes.

According to its domain, does the union confederation potentially cover all regions of your country?

Yes. Better coverage in Primorska, Osrednja Slovenija and Gorenjska region.

General information on the union confederation

Is the union confederation directly or indirectly (via its member unions) engaged in cross-sector collective bargaining?

Yes, directly

If Yes. Is this a form of economy-wide (covering all sectors), inter-sector (covering two or more sectors but not all) or occupational (across several sectors) bargaining?

Economy-wide/Inter-sector

If Yes. Is this a form of national (covering all regions) or regional/territorial (covering only certain regions or geographical areas) bargaining?

National

Type of membership

Voluntary

Is the union confederation directly consulted by the authorities in matters of cross-sector significance?

Yes

If Yes. Is the consultation carried out…

Within established tripartite structures

If Yes. Do consultations in matters of cross-sector significance involve this union confederation…?

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis.

Members

How many lower-level trade union organisations are affiliated to the trade union confederation?

25 (2012)

How many active members in employment does the union confederation have in total (directly or indirectly via its member unions)?

Altogether 61,000 which 25,000 are in employment and about 36,000 retired members (2012)

Please indicate/ estimate the union confederation’s density in terms of active members.

5%

Source of information

Trade union confederation secretary general

Website: http://www.sindikat-ks90.si/

EIRO national correspondent: Samo Pavlin

Table 7: Trade union confederation fact sheet: KNSS – Independence, Confederation of New Trade Unions of Slovenia (KNSS – Neodvisnost, Konfederacija novih sindikatov Slovenije)

According to its domain, does the union confederation potentially cover the entire economy (in terms of sectors)?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union confederation potentially cover all occupations among both blue-collar workers and white-collar workers?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union confederation potentially cover all forms and size classes of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, SMEs, etc.)?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union confederation potentially cover all regions of your country?

Yes

General information on the union confederation

Is the union confederation directly or indirectly (via its member unions) engaged in cross-sector collective bargaining?

Yes, directly

If Yes. Is this a form of economy-wide (covering all sectors), inter-sector (covering two or more sectors but not all) or occupational (across several sectors) bargaining?

Economy-wide/Inter-sector/Occupational

If Yes. Is this a form of national (covering all regions) or regional/territorial (covering only certain regions or geographical areas) bargaining?

National

Type of membership

Voluntary

Is the union confederation directly consulted by the authorities in matters of cross-sector significance?

Yes

If Yes. Is the consultation carried out…

Within established tripartite structures

If Yes. Do consultations in matters of cross-sector significance involve this union confederation…?

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis.

Members

How many lower-level trade union organisations are affiliated to the trade union confederation?

8 (2012)

How many active members in employment does the union confederation have in total (directly or indirectly via its member unions)?

No data available (2012)

Please indicate/ estimate the union confederation’s density in terms of active members.

No data available (2012)

Source of information

Trade union confederation secretary and secretary general

Website: http://www.knssneodvisnost.si/ http://www.sindikatljubljana-knss.si/

EIRO national correspondent: Samo Pavlin

Table 8: Trade union confederation fact sheet: Slovene Union of Trade Unions Alternativa (SZS Alternativa; Slovenska zveza sindikatov Alternativa)

According to its domain, does the union confederation potentially cover the entire economy (in terms of sectors)?

No. Mainly transport activities.

According to its domain, does the union confederation potentially cover all occupations among both blue-collar workers and white-collar workers?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union confederation potentially cover all forms and size classes of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, SMEs, etc.)?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union confederation potentially cover all regions of your country?

Yes

General information on the union confederation

Is the union confederation directly or indirectly (via its member unions) engaged in cross-sector collective bargaining?

Yes, directly

If Yes. Is this a form of economy-wide (covering all sectors), inter-sector (covering two or more sectors but not all) or occupational (across several sectors) bargaining?

Economy-wide/Inter-sector/Occupational

If Yes. Is this a form of national (covering all regions) or regional/territorial (covering only certain regions or geographical areas) bargaining?

National

Type of membership

Voluntary

Is the union confederation directly consulted by the authorities in matters of cross-sector significance?

Yes

If Yes. Is the consultation carried out…

Within established tripartite structures

If Yes. Do consultations in matters of cross-sector significance involve this union confederation…?

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis.

Members

How many lower-level trade union organisations are affiliated to the trade union confederation?

9 (2012)

How many active members in employment does the union confederation have in total (directly or indirectly via its member unions)?

No data available (2012)

Please indicate/ estimate the union confederation’s density in terms of active members.

No data available (2012)

Source of information

Trade union confederation president

Website: http://www.szs-alternativa.si/

EIRO national correspondent: Samo Pavlin

Table 9: Trade union confederation fact sheet: Association of Workers Trade Unions of Slovenia – Solidarity (Zveza delavskih sindikatov Slovenije – Solidarnost)

According to its domain, does the union confederation potentially cover the entire economy (in terms of sectors)?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union confederation potentially cover all occupations among both blue-collar workers and white-collar workers?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union confederation potentially cover all forms and size classes of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, SMEs, etc.)?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union confederation potentially cover all regions of your country?

Yes

General information on the union confederation

Is the union confederation directly or indirectly (via its member unions) engaged in cross-sector collective bargaining?

Yes, directly

If Yes. Is this a form of economy-wide (covering all sectors), inter-sector (covering two or more sectors but not all) or occupational (across several sectors) bargaining?

Economy-wide/Inter-sector/Occupational

If Yes. Is this a form of national (covering all regions) or regional/territorial (covering only certain regions or geographical areas) bargaining?

National

Type of membership

Voluntary

Is the union confederation directly consulted by the authorities in matters of cross-sector significance?

Yes

If Yes. Is the consultation carried out…

Within established tripartite structures

If Yes. Do consultations in matters of cross-sector significance involve this union confederation…?

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis.

Members

How many lower-level trade union organisations are affiliated to the trade union confederation?

(2012)

How many active members in employment does the union confederation have in total (directly or indirectly via its member unions)?

No data available (2012)

Please indicate/ estimate the union confederation’s density in terms of active members.

No data available (2012)

Source of information

Trade union confederation secretary and Vice president

Website: http://sindikat-solidarnost.si/

EIRO national correspondent: Samo Pavlin

Table 10: Trade union confederation fact sheet: The Managers' Association of Slovenia (Združenje Manager)

According to its domain, does the union confederation potentially cover the entire economy (in terms of sectors)?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union confederation potentially cover all occupations among both blue-collar workers and white-collar workers?

No: it covers managerial workers.

According to its domain, does the union confederation potentially cover all forms and size classes of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, SMEs, etc.)?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union confederation potentially cover all regions of your country?

Yes

General information on the union confederation

Is the union confederation directly or indirectly (via its member unions) engaged in cross-sector collective bargaining?

No

If No. Is the union confederation engaged in cross-sector collective employment regulation?

Yes

Type of membership

Voluntary

Is the union confederation directly consulted by the authorities in matters of cross-sector significance?

Yes

If Yes. Is the consultation carried out…

Unilaterally and self-initiated.

If Yes. Do consultations in matters of cross-sector significance involve this union confederation…?

On an ad-hoc basis

Members

How many lower-level trade union organisations are affiliated to the trade union confederation?

N/A

How many active members in employment does the union confederation have in total (directly or indirectly via its member unions)?

1,200 (2012)

Please indicate/ estimate the union confederation’s density in terms of active members.

3%

Affiliations

To which international organisations is the union confederation affiliated?

 

To which European-level organisations is the union confederation affiliated?

European Managers association CEC and SUMMIT 100 business leaders of South-East Europe

Source of information

Trade union confederation officials

Website: http://www.zdruzenje-manager.si/

EIRO national correspondent: Samo Pavlin

3c Data on the cross-sector, peak-level employer associations

Table 11: Employer organisation fact sheet: Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Slovenia (GZS; Gospodarska Zbornica Slovenije)

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover the entire economy (in terms of sectors)?

Yes

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover (directly or indirectly via its member associations) all (legal) forms and size classes of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, cooperatives, SMEs, etc.)?

Yes

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover companies in all regions of your country?

Yes

General information on the organisation

Is the employer organisation directly or indirectly (via its member associations) engaged in cross-sector collective bargaining?

Yes, directly.

If Yes. Is this a form of economy-wide (covering all sectors), inter-sector (covering two or more sectors but not all) or occupational (across several sectors) bargaining?

Economy-wide/Inter-sector.

If Yes. Is this a form of national (covering all regions) or regional/territorial (covering only certain regions or geographical areas) bargaining?

National

Type of membership

Voluntary

Is the employer organisation directly consulted by the authorities in matters of cross-sector significance?

Yes

If Yes. Is the consultation carried out…

Within established tripartite structures

If Yes. Do consultations in matters of cross-sector significance involve this employer organisation …?

On an ad-hoc basis and on a regular basis

Members

The members of the employer organisation are…

Sectoral federations

Regional/Territorial federations

Companies

How many member companies does the employer organisation have in total (directly or indirectly via its member associations)?

9,600 (2012), register

How many employees work in these member companies in total?

200,000 (2012), est.

Please indicate/ estimate the employer organisation’s density in terms of companies.

13% (2012)

Please indicate/ estimate the employer organisation’s density in terms of employees employed by member companies.

35% (2012)

Affiliations

To which international organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

ICC

To which European-level organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

Eurochambers

Source of information

Employer organisation executive director for social dialogue

Website: www.gzs.si

EIRO national correspondent: Samo Pavlin

Table 12: Employer organisation fact sheet: Chamber of Craft and Small Business of Slovenia (OZS; Obrtno-podjetniska zbornica Slovenije)

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover the entire economy (in terms of sectors)?

Yes

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover (directly or indirectly via its member associations) all (legal) forms and size classes of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, cooperatives, SMEs, etc.)?

Yes, mainly SME and craft.

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover companies in all regions of your country?

Yes.

General information on the organisation

Is the employer organisation directly or indirectly (via its member associations) engaged in cross-sector collective bargaining?

Yes, directly.

If Yes. Is this a form of economy-wide (covering all sectors), inter-sector (covering two or more sectors but not all) or occupational (across several sectors) bargaining?

Economy-wide/Inter-sector.

If Yes. Is this a form of national (covering all regions) or regional/territorial (covering only certain regions or geographical areas) bargaining?

National

Type of membership

Mandatory

Is the employer organisation directly consulted by the authorities in matters of cross-sector significance?

Yes

If Yes. Is the consultation carried out…

Within established tripartite structures

If Yes. Do consultations in matters of cross-sector significance involve this employer organisation …?

On an ad-hoc basis

… on a regular basis

Members

The members of the employer organisation are…

Sectoral federations

Regional/Territorial federations

Companies

How many member companies does the employer organisation have in total (directly or indirectly via its member associations)?

51,651 (2011), register

How many employees work in these member companies in total?

96,880 (2011), register

Please indicate/ estimate the employer organisation’s density in terms of companies.

35% (2011)

Please indicate/ estimate the employer organisation’s density in terms of employees employed by member companies.

12% (2011

Affiliations

To which international organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

N/A

To which European-level organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

UEAPME, NORMAPME

Source of information

Employer organisation head for international affairs

Website: www.ozs.si

EIRO national correspondent: Samo Pavlin

Table 13: Employer organisation fact sheet: Association of Employers in Craft and Small Business of Slovenia (ZDOPS; Združenje delodajalcev obrti in podjetnikov Slovenije)

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover the entire economy (in terms of sectors)?

Yes, 13 sectors

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover (directly or indirectly via its member associations) all (legal) forms and size classes of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, cooperatives, SMEs, etc.)?

Yes, mainly SME and craft.

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover companies in all regions of your country?

Yes.

General information on the organisation

Is the employer organisation directly or indirectly (via its member associations) engaged in cross-sector collective bargaining?

Yes, directly.

If Yes. Is this a form of economy-wide (covering all sectors), inter-sector (covering two or more sectors but not all) or occupational (across several sectors) bargaining?

Economy-wide/Inter-sector.

If Yes. Is this a form of national (covering all regions) or regional/territorial (covering only certain regions or geographical areas) bargaining?

National

Type of membership

Voluntary

Is the employer organisation directly consulted by the authorities in matters of cross-sector significance?

Yes

If Yes. Is the consultation carried out…

Within established tripartite structures

If Yes. Do consultations in matters of cross-sector significance involve this employer organisation …?

On an ad-hoc basis and on a regular basis

Members

The members of the employer organisation are…

Regional/Territorial federations

Companies

How many member companies does the employer organisation have in total (directly or indirectly via its member associations)?

20,000 (2012), ZDOPS

How many employees work in these member companies in total?

97,000 (2012), ZDOPS

Please indicate/ estimate the employer organisation’s density in terms of companies.

50% (2012)

Please indicate/ estimate the employer organisation’s density in terms of employees employed by member companies.

35% (2012)

Affiliations

To which international organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

ILO

To which European-level organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

ECOSC, European Agency for OSH, EC advisory comities for OSH, migrant workers, social security for migrant workers

Source of information

Employer organisation general secretary

Website: www.zdops.si

EIRO national correspondent: Samo Pavlin

Table 14: Employer organisation fact sheet: Association of Employers of Slovenia (ZDS; Združenje delodajalcev Slovenije)

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover the entire economy (in terms of sectors)?

Yes.

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover (directly or indirectly via its member associations) all (legal) forms and size classes of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, cooperatives, SMEs, etc.)?

Yes.

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover companies in all regions of your country?

Yes.

General information on the organisation

Is the employer organisation directly or indirectly (via its member associations) engaged in cross-sector collective bargaining?

Yes, directly.

If Yes. Is this a form of economy-wide (covering all sectors), inter-sector (covering two or more sectors but not all) or occupational (across several sectors) bargaining?

Economy-wide/Inter-sector.

If Yes. Is this a form of national (covering all regions) or regional/territorial (covering only certain regions or geographical areas) bargaining?

National

Type of membership

Voluntary

Is the employer organisation directly consulted by the authorities in matters of cross-sector significance?

Yes

If Yes. Is the consultation carried out…

Within established tripartite structures

If Yes. Do consultations in matters of cross-sector significance involve this employer organisation …?

On an ad-hoc basis and on a regular basis

Members

The members of the employer organisation are…

Companies

How many member companies does the employer organisation have in total (directly or indirectly via its member associations)?

1,400 (2012), www.zds.si

How many employees work in these member companies in total?

n.a. (2012)

Please indicate/ estimate the employer organisation’s density in terms of companies.

1% (2012)

Please indicate/ estimate the employer organisation’s density in terms of employees employed by member companies.

n.a.

Affiliations

To which international organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

BIAC – OECD, IOE – ILO, Eurofound

To which European-level organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

BUSINESSEUROPE

Source of information

Website:www.zds.si

EIRO national correspondent: Samo Pavlin

Table 15: Employer organisation fact sheet: Slovenian Chamber of Commerce(TZS; Trgovinska Zbornica Slovenije)

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover the entire economy (in terms of sectors)?

No. 60% of SCC members perform commercial activities, while the remaining 40% deal with activities directly related to commerce (food service, tourism, consulting, manufacturing, transport, construction, etc.)

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover (directly or indirectly via its member associations) all (legal) forms and size classes of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, cooperatives, SMEs, etc.)?

Yes.

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover companies in all regions of your country?

Yes.

General information on the organisation

Is the employer organisation directly or indirectly (via its member associations) engaged in cross-sector collective bargaining?

Yes, directly.

If Yes. Is this a form of economy-wide (covering all sectors), inter-sector (covering two or more sectors but not all) or occupational (across several sectors) bargaining?

Economy-wide/Inter-sector.

If Yes. Is this a form of national (covering all regions) or regional/territorial (covering only certain regions or geographical areas) bargaining?

National

Type of membership

Voluntary

Is the employer organisation directly consulted by the authorities in matters of cross-sector significance?

Yes

If Yes. Is the consultation carried out…

Within established tripartite structures

If Yes. Do consultations in matters of cross-sector significance involve this employer organisation …?

On an ad-hoc basis and on a regular basis

Members

The members of the employer organisation are…

Companies

How many member companies does the employer organisation have in total (directly or indirectly via its member associations)?

6,300 (2011)

How many employees work in these member companies in total?

89,000 (2011)

Please indicate/ estimate the employer organisation’s density in terms of companies.

5% (2011)

Please indicate/ estimate the employer organisation’s density in terms of employees employed by member companies.

10% (2011)

Affiliations

To which international organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

World Franchise Association – WFA

To which European-level organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

EuroCommerce, European Franchise Federation – EFF, European Association of Pharmaceutical Wholesalers – GIRP, European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association – ACEA, World Federation of Direct Selling Associations – WFDSA, Federation of European Direct Selling Associations – FEDSA, Slovenian Economic Association in Austria – SGZ, Slovenian Regional Economic Association in Italy – SDGZ, Austrian-Slovenian Chamber of Commerce

Source of information

Employer organisation executive secretary

Website: www.tzslo.si

EIRO national correspondent: Samo Pavlin

4. Inter-associational relationships

4a Inter-union relationships

4a.1 Please list all trade union confederations covered by this study whose domains overlap.

Union of Free Trade Unions of Slovenia (Zveza svobodnih sindikatov Slovenije, ZSSS) – the largest union organisation, Confederation of Trade Unions of Slovenia Pergam (Konfederacija sindikatov Pergam Slovenije, Pergam), the Confederation of Trade Unions ΄90 of Slovenia (Konfederacija sindikatov '90 Slovenije, Konfederacija '90), KNSS – Independence, Confederation of New Trade Unions of Slovenia (KNSS – Neodvisnost, Konfederacija novih sindikatov Slovenije, KNSS); Union of Workers’ Trade Unions of Slovenia – Solidarity (Zveza delavskih sindikatov Slovenije – Solidarnost, Solidarnost) and Slovene Union of Trade Unions Alternativa (Slovenska zveza sindikatov Alternativa, SZS Alternativa).

The Confederation of Public Sector Trade Unions (Konfederacija sindikatov javnega sektorja Slovenije, KSJS) represents only the employers from the public sector.

4a.2 Do rivalries and competition exist among the trade union confederations, concerning the right to conclude collective agreements and to be consulted in public policy formulation and implementation?

No. All are members of ESC; however there is some degree of rivalry for the membership.

4a.3 If yes, are certain trade union confederations excluded from these rights?

The Managers' Association of Slovenia is not a member of ESC but it is active with its own legislative initiatives in the field of interests of their members.

4b Inter-employer association relationships

4b.1 Please list all employer associations covered by this study whose domains overlap.

The employer associations covered by this study whose domains overlap are: ZDS and GZS and – to some extent – TZS. Membership in OZS is still compulsory but many of its members are already members of ZDOPS, which represents employers in the craft and SME sector.

4b.2 Do rivalries and competition exist among the employer associations, concerning the right to conclude collective agreements and to be consulted in public policy formulation and implementation?

No rivalries and competition exist among the employer associations in the field of consultation and formulation of policies. Some degree of rivalry exists in the field of membership.

4b.3 If yes, are certain employer associations excluded from these rights?

Not applicable.

4b.4 Are there cross-sector employer associations which refuse to recognise the trade unions and refuse to enter collective bargaining?

There are no such employer associations.

5. The system of collective bargaining

5.1.a Estimate the national economy’s rate of collective bargaining coverage (i.e. the ratio of the number of employees covered by any kind of collective agreement to the total number of employees in the economy).

The tripartite Social Agreement for 1995 stated that a minimum wage ought to be determined by law. The Law on Minimum Wage adopted on 11 February 2010 considerably increased the gross minimum rate for 2010 from €597.43 to €734.15 a month, increasing the net rate from €460 to €562. It was also agreed that the amount should be determined by the current labour minister after prior consultation with the social partners, through the ESC on a yearly basis.

Estimated rate of collective bargaining coverage is about 90%, 100% in public and about 80% in private sector.

5.1.b Estimate the national economy’s rate of collective bargaining coverage adjusted for those parts of the economy which are excluded from the right to collective bargaining (i.e. the ratio of the number of employees covered by any kind of collective agreement to the total number of employees in the economy minus those excluded from the right to collective bargaining).

N/A.

5.2. Illustrate the relative importance of cross-sector agreements, sectoral agreements and single-employer agreements both in terms of:

  • The percentage of the total number of employees covered;
  • The existence of centralisation/coordination rules and mechanisms concerning the level of wage increases and/or the different topics treated at the various levels (cross-sector, sectoral, and single-employer levels).

Estimated rate of collective bargaining coverage is about 90%, 100% in public and about 80% in private sector.

Only the minimum wage is regulated on the national level.

The Public Sector Salary System Act of 2009 regulates wage adjustments for the civil service, local administration and public agencies, so that wages must be negotiated annually and increased by the amount stipulated in the sector. The Act of Intervention Step because of Economic Crises restricted the wage adjustments.

Wages increases are regulated by sectoral or single-employer collective agreements.

5.3a. Is there a practice of extending multi-employer agreements to employers who are not affiliated to the signatory employer associations? Does it apply to both cross-sector and sectoral agreements?

Yes, although it is not the case in the cross-sector agreements; the institute of extended validation is applied mainly for sectoral agreements.

5.3b. If there is a practice of extending collective agreements, is this practice pervasive or rather limited and exceptional? Is there any difference between cross-sector and sectoral agreements?

According to the Collective Agreements Act the collective agreement for one or more branches – signed by one or more representative associations of trade unions and one or more representative associations of employers – could be extended to all employers and workers in the branch (regardless of their membership in associations that signed the agreement) by the Minister, responsible for labour, on the request of one of the parties to the collective agreement. The Minister decides on the extension of part or all of the collective agreement, if it was signed by one or more representative unions and one or more representative employers – which represent more than half of workers employed in the companies that would be affected by the extension of such an agreement. The regulation makes no distinction between cross-sector and sectoral agreements.

6. Statutory regulations of representativeness

6a Statutory regulations of representativeness for trade union confederations

6a.1 In the case of the trade union confederations, do statutory regulations exist which establish criteria of representativeness which a union confederation must meet, so as to be entitled to conclude collective agreements at cross-sector level? If yes, please briefly illustrate these rules and list the organisations which meet them.

The Collective Agreements Act defines general rules for concluding collective agreements and does not limit the right to conclude collective agreements only to the representative trade unions. However, parties who are representative may be seen as more serious partners in the bargaining procedures, be more respected and have greater influence.

The Law on Representative Trade Unions (LRTU) (SI0210102F) stipulates that the representative trade unions shall sign contracts with general validity. Furthermore it defines representative trade unions as those which are democratic, have open membership, ensure functional freedom of the union, and put into effect membership rights and obligations; have been operating without interruption for at least the last six months; are independent of state organs and employers; finance themselves primarily through union dues and their own resources; and have a certain number of members.

An association or confederation of trade unions – which covers the territory of the state and which includes trade unions from different branches, activities or professions – has to represent at least 10% of the workers from individual branches, activities or professions. To qualify as representative, trade unions that are not members of an association or confederation should represent at least 15% of the workers in individual branches, activities, professions, municipalities or wider local communities. The same applies to a trade union within an organisation.

6a.2 In the case of the trade union confederations, do statutory regulations exist which establish criteria of representativeness which a union confederation must meet, so as to be entitled to be consulted in matters of public policy and to participate in tripartite bodies at cross-sector level? If yes, please briefly illustrate these rules and list the organisations which meet them.

In order for trade unions to participate in the tripartite Economic Social Council and to be entitled to be consulted in matters of public policy, as a part of the agreement between social partners, they must meet the criteria of representativeness. According to the latest amendments to the Rules of Procedure, each of the categories of social partner and the government can have up to eight members, and alternate members, within the ESC. The ESC is currently made up of 24 members, and their alternates. The initial number of 15 members (5 per group) was changed due to the increased number of trade unions’ associations, fulfilling the criterion of representativeness at the national level.

The representative trade union confederations are as follows: the Association of Free Trade Unions of Slovenia (ZSSS), the Confederation of New Trade Unions of Slovenia (KNSS), the Confederation of Trade Unions of Slovenia Pergam (Pergam), the Trade Union Confederation 90 of Slovenia (KS 90), the Union of Workers’ Solidarity (Zveza delavskih sindikatov Slovenije – Solidarnost), the Slovene Association of Trade Unions – Alternativa (Slovenska zveza sindikatov Alternativa) and the Confederation of Trade Unions of the Public Sector of Slovenia (KSJS). (SI0712029I)

6a.3 Are elections for a certain representational body (e.g. works councils) established as criteria for trade union representativeness at cross-sector level? If yes, please report the most recent electoral outcome for the sector.

No.

6b Statutory regulations of representativeness for employer organisations

6b.1 In the case of the employer organisations, do statutory regulations exist which establish criteria of representativeness which an organisation must meet, so as to be entitled to conclude collective agreements at cross-sector level? If yes, please briefly illustrate these rules and list the organisations which meet them.

The criteria of representativeness for employer organisations have never been agreed, which presents a problem in some cases. The Collective Agreements Act defines the representativeness of employers’ organisations only for the purpose of extended validation of the collective agreement or some of its part.

In practice, the criteria of chamber of commerce representativeness are applied (members whose sales amount to at least 10% of sales of the whole economy for the last fiscal year and that has members which represent at least 5% of companies) to employer organisations to be members of ESC. The status of representativeness is recognised by the Ministry of Economy.

6b.2 In the case of the employer organisations, do statutory regulations exist which establish criteria of representativeness which an organisation must meet, so as to be entitled to be consulted in matters of public policy and to participate in tripartite bodies at cross-sector level? If yes, please briefly illustrate these rules and list the organisations which meet them.

In order for social partners to participate in the tripartite Economic Social Council (SI0207103F) and to be entitled to be consulted in matters of public policy, as a part of the informal agreement between social partners, employers’ organisations must meet the criteria of representativeness. But there are no clear rules on which employers' organisations are eligible to be represented on the ESC, so there is an agreement among employers' organisations on the representation of employers' interests in the ESC.

There are five employer associations, which are members of the ESS:

  • the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Slovenia (GZS);
  • the Association of Employers of Slovenia (ZDS);
  • the Chamber of Craft and Small Business of Slovenia (OZS);
  • the Slovenian Chamber of Trade (TZS);
  • the Employers’ Association of Craft and Entrepreneurs of Slovenia (ZDOPS) (SI0712029I).

6b.3 Are elections for a certain representational body established as criteria for the representativeness of employer associations at cross-sector level? If yes, please report the most recent outcome for the sector.

No.

Collective bargaining in the public sector is still highly centralised (the coverage rate is 100%), while in the private sector it became less centralised during the crisis and the coverage rate is only about 80%. According to trade unions statistics about 100,000 workers in the private sector are not covered by collective agreements. The membership of trade unions and employer organisations is decreasing. The main framework of social dialogue remained in place (tripartite and bipartite negotiations, wage bargaining being a part of collective agreements). All representative organisations are recognised and included in tripartite social dialogue within the ESC. There have, however, been many breaches of its procedures, especially on the government’s side. The number of industrial actions initiated by trade unions has increased. The new Social Agreement 2012–2017 is still being delayed even though social partners have concluded the agreement on the guidelines for drafting it. The need for widest consensus possible is well recognised so the representatives of the younger generation and pensioners will be also involved. New agreement is important as Slovenia will have to face far-reaching systemic changes to the labour market, the pension and healthcare system.

Samo Pavlin, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Social Science, Centre for Organisational and Human Resources Research

Useful? Interesting? Tell us what you think. Hide comments

Aggiungi un commento