The dawn of 2022 brought muted optimism to a Europe beginning to emerge from the COVID-19 pandemic, and the progress of vaccination programmes worldwide brought hope. Government and EU support during the pandemic had kept unemployment at bay, averting the widescale collapse of businesses. In step with the EU’s plans for the year, Eurofound’s focus was firmly on a post-pandemic Europe: the recovery and the twin transition to a green and digital economy. All this changed with Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and the start of a war of aggression. The EU and its institutions were compelled to respond rapidly.
Europe faces a winter of uncertainty and potentially discontent. The cost of living is rising rapidly and the spectre of recession looms.
Economic concerns are affecting citizens’ trust in institutions. Research by Eurofound has indicated a decrease in trust in national institutions across the European Union – including in governments, healthcare systems and the police.
La presente relazione presenta la ricerca di Eurofound sul telelavoro durante la pandemia di COVID-19 nel 2020 e nel 2021. Esamina i cambiamenti nell’incidenza del telelavoro, soffermandosi sulle condizioni di lavoro dei dipendenti che lavorano da casa e sulle modifiche apportate alla regolamentazione per affrontare le questioni relative a questa modalità di lavoro.
L’indagine Vita, lavoro e COVID-19, inaugurata da Eurofound all’inizio del 2020, mira a rilevare l’impatto della pandemia sul lavoro e sulla vita dei cittadini dell’UE in tutte le sue dimensioni. La quinta tornata dell’indagine di Eurofound, realizzata nella primavera del 2022, fa luce anche su una nuova realtà incerta causata dalla guerra in Ucraina, dai livelli record dell’inflazione e dal forte aumento del costo della vita. Come indagine pilota, la Fondazione europea per la formazione (ETF) ha presentato una versione più breve del questionario in 10 paesi vicini dell’UE.
Eurofound’s European Restructuring Monitor database reveals the impact of the energy crisis on employment in the EU. Following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, energy prices have hit record highs. The European Commission imposed sanctions and limitations on the import of oil and gas from Russia, which has reacted by reneging on supply commitments to many Member States. Compared to other countries, market disruption has been especially acute in the EU, given the bloc’s overdependence on Russian energy supply.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the electricity sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.
Questa relazione analizza il ruolo del dialogo sociale e della contrattazione collettiva nell’affrontare le sfide incontrate dal settore dell’aviazione civile durante la pandemia di COVID-19. Il ruolo svolto dalle parti sociali nell’attuazione delle misure introdotte per attenuare gli effetti negativi della pandemia varia da un paese europeo all’altro. Il dialogo sociale e la contrattazione collettiva hanno svolto un ruolo di primo piano nella maggior parte dei paesi, mentre in altri ne hanno avuto uno più limitato.
Questa relazione analizza il ruolo del dialogo sociale e della contrattazione collettiva nell’affrontare le sfide create o esacerbate dalla pandemia COVID-19 nel settore ospedaliero. Inoltre valuta se i processi di dialogo sociale e di contrattazione collettiva esistenti a livello nazionale siano stati adattati per far fronte a queste nuove sfide. La ricerca ha incluso un esame della letteratura per contestualizzare le caratteristiche strutturali del settore ospedaliero e un’analisi delle iniziative politiche di gestione della crisi attuate nell’UE-27 e in Norvegia.
La presente relazione è realizzata nel contesto del progetto pilota triennale (2021-2023), «Ruolo del salario minimo nell’istituzione della Garanzia universale per i lavoratori», commissionato a Eurofound dalla Commissione europea. È incentrata sul modulo 3 del progetto, che esamina i salari minimi e altre forme di retribuzione per i lavoratori autonomi.
Le rigorose restrizioni in materia di sanità pubblica attuate dai governi nel 2020 per controllare la pandemia di COVID-19 hanno improvvisamente cambiato la vita lavorativa e hanno continuato a plasmarla nei due anni successivi. Tra marzo e novembre 2021, oltre 70 000 interviste sono state condotte in 36 paesi nell’ambito dell’indagine telefonica europea sulle condizioni di lavoro (EWCTS), un’indagine di elevata qualità effettuata con campionamento probabilistico. L’obiettivo era fornire un quadro dettagliato della vita lavorativa degli europei in questo periodo eccezionale.
The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
The use of artificial intelligence, advanced robotics and the Internet of Things technologies in the workplace can bring about fundamental changes in work organisation and working conditions. This report analyses the ethical and human implications of the use of these technologies at work by drawing on qualitative interviews with policy stakeholders, input from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents and Delphi expert surveys, and case studies.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the professional football sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the professional football sector in the EU Member States.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in European sectoral social dialogue taking place at cross-sectoral level. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations at cross-sectoral level in the EU Member States.