The European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) held its ninth Statutory
Congress in Helsinki from 29 June to 2 July 1999 (EU9907182F ). The event
coincided with the beginning of Finland's six-month term in the EU Presidency
and on 1 July a delegation presented a memorandum to the Finnish Prime
Minister and EU President in Office, Paavo Lipponen. The delegation consisted
of the ETUC president, Fritz Verzetnitsch, and general secretary, Emilio
Gabaglio, plus Lauri Ihalainen, chair of the Central Organisation of Finnish
Trade Unions (Suomen Ammattiliittojen Keskusjärjestö, SAK), Esa Swanljung,
chair of the Finnish Confederation of Salaried Employees
(Toimihenkilökeskusjärjestö, STTK) and Risto Piekka, chair of the
Confederation of Unions for Academic Professionals (Akateemisten
Toimihenkilöiden Keskusjärjestö, AKAVA). The memorandum sets out ETUC's
demands, proposals and recommendations for the EU Presidency.
On 2 July 1999, the provisions of the Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998 
were brought into force, one year after receiving Royal Assent (UK9807137N
). The Act has been described as the most far-reaching "whistleblowing"
legislation in the world. It provides remedies to workers who are dismissed
or subjected to detriment by their employer for making certain categories of
disclosure, ie a disclosure of information which, in the reasonable belief of
the worker making the disclosure, concerns:
In June 1999, an agreement was signed on the reorganisation of Rome's public
environmental services company, Ama, leading to differences between the three
main trade union confederations. Cisl and Uil disagree with Cgil on the way
in which 2,200 people will be recruited by the newly-established company, Ama
Negotiations have been going on for several months between the Belgian
Bankers' Association (BVB/ABB) and the various trade unions involved -
ACV/CSC, ABVV/FGTB and ACLVB/CGSLB- on a new national collective agreement
for the banking sector. However, the talks became completely deadlocked in
June 1999. The trade unions had already called several short stoppages and
lightning strikes, but discontent about the failure to secure an agreement
continued to mount and a one-day national strike was organised by the unions
for 9 July.
The total number of requests to terminate employment contracts declined in
the Netherlands in 1998, according to the Annual Report on termination
statistics, issued in summer 1999. However, the number of requests related to
occupational disability has increased.
The Spanish government's 1999 National Action Plan (NAP) for employment, in
response to the EU Employment Guidelines, has been severely attacked by the
trade unions. The unions criticise the content of the NAP, approved in May
1999, and the funds assigned to it, and claim that it appeared late and
lacked social dialogue in its preparation.
In 1998's rather favourable economic climate, collective bargaining in France
was dominated by the reduction of working time, according to the Ministry for
Employment and Solidarity's annual bargaining report, published in June 1999.
Other trends recorded included: intersectoral bargaining falling off to an
extremely low point; a recovery in the amount of sector-level bargaining at
the end of the year; and considerable growth in company-level bargaining.
In June 1999, the Greek General Confederation of Labour (GSEE) and the
Confederation of Public Servants (ADEDY) officially adopted a position in
favour of applying a "Tobin tax" to short-term capital movements.
In July 1999, four weeks of strike action by 130 midwives ended when members
of the midwives' trade union (Den almindelige Danske Jordmoderforening, DADJ)
voted by a large majority to accept the collective agreement which DADJ had
negotiated with the Association of County Authorities (Amtsrådsforeningen)
and Copenhagen's joint hospital administration (Hovedstadens
Sygehusfællesskab, HS). More than 60% of the union's members voted in the
ballot and more than 71% of those voting were in favour of the proposed
Following legislation adopted in May 1999, Portugal's legal regime on
collective redundancies has been adopted to bring it fully into line with the
1992 EU collective redundancies Directive. Furthermore, the law abolishes a
previous rule that a worker who has accepted redundancy compensation cannot
legally challenge the redundancy.
Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.
The COVID-19 pandemic radically reshaped workplace practices and work organisation across the EU. This report explores changes that occurred as a result of or during the COVID-19 pandemic in areas such as technological transformation, decision-making and remote working. The research sets out to learn from company experiences and measures that have proved critical to keeping businesses running. It aims to inform policymakers, employers and trade unions on how to make businesses, workplaces and workers more resilient in the face of a crisis such as COVID-19.
Social dialogue lies at the heart of the EU treaties and governance. Social partners are core stakeholders who can assess policy needs and contribute to policy formation and to designing and implementing national reforms in the social and employment fields. This report focuses on the timely and meaningful involvement of national social partners in the preparation of the new resilience and recovery plans and the national reform programmes (NRPs) that were temporarily integrated under the European Semester in 2021.
This report captures the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the quality of life of older citizens, including the impact on their well-being, finances, employment and social inclusion. It explores the effects on care use and reliance on other support. The report analyses policy measures that have been implemented in EU Member States that have proven particularly important for the quality of life of older citizens, for example, measures to support independent living.
This report offers a backward look at the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the work and life of Europeans. The main focus is on Eurofound’s e-survey ‘ Living, working and COVID-19’ which was launched on 9 April 2020 just after the onset of the crisis. Through four rounds of the survey (two in 2020 and two in 2021), the range of questions changed to match the evolving situation and to understand the effects on the everyday lives of citizens and workers.
Platform work – the matching of supply of and demand for paid labour through an online platform or app – is gaining increasing importance in Europe. It has attracted policy attention due to its inherent opportunities and challenges. Across Europe, initiatives have been introduced by governments, social partners and grassroots organisations aimed at harnessing the potential and reducing the risks of this employment form. The areas covered include regulation, representation, advice and information provision, as well as measures addressing social protection, ratings and training.
Hospital and civil aviation workers have been severely impacted by COVID-19. While hospitals are on the frontline when it comes to fighting this global pandemic, civil aviation is experiencing the most challenging crisis ever encountered in the sector. This study explores how social dialogue and collective bargaining are playing a role in the way both sectors are adapting to the pandemic. What kind of changes have been introduced, either through social dialogue or collective bargaining? Are the changes temporary or permanent?
The report provides an overview of the scale of teleworking before and during the COVID-19 crisis and gives an indication of ‘teleworkability’ across sectors and occupations. Building on previous Eurofound research on remote work, the report investigates the way businesses introduced and supported teleworking during the pandemic, as well as the experience of workers who were working from home during the crisis. The report also looks at developments in regulations related to telework in Member States and provides a review of stakeholders’ positions.
The COVID-19 pandemic triggered an extraordinary level of provision of social services across the EU. Healthcare and care providers carried much of the burden and, together with essential services, played a crucial role in getting citizens through the crisis. This report explores how public services adapted to the new reality and what role was played by the digital transformation of services. The aim is to contribute to the documentation and analysis of changes in funding, delivery and use of healthcare and social services during the pandemic.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the civil aviation sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the textiles and clothing sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the textiles and clothing sector in the EU Member States.