Backdated to 1 January 1999, the minimum income level which people must
attain in order to be entitled to sick pay benefits, has been raised from
approximately NOK 23,000 a year to around NOK 57,000. The implication of the
changes is that the number of employees not entitled to sick pay benefits
from the state - ie benefits beyond the first 16 days covered by the employer
- will increase by approximately 200,000 persons.
In mid-1999, Spain's current system of continuing training for workers in
employment had been operational for some six and a half years. Here, we
examine its development, focusing on its joint management by the social
partners and the impact that it has had on less qualified workers.
On 2 July 1999, the UK's Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) published
draft Regulations  to implement the EU European Works Councils (s)
Directive  in the UK, together with a consultation document  seeking
views on the government's proposed approach. After further refinement, and
subject to approval by parliament, the Transnational Information and
Consultation of Employees Regulations 1999 will come into force on 15
December 1999 - the deadline set by the 1997 Directive  which reversed the
previous UK government's "opt-out" from the original EWCs Directive.
Communiqué is the newsletter of the Foundation It is published 10 times per year and provides up-to-date news and information on the Foundation's work and research. The March issue contains the following articles: Ageing; EMU and industrial relations; Financial participation; EUCO cooperation.
On 6 July 1999, leading representatives of the federal government, trade
unions and employers' associations (see the annex at the end of this record
for details of the participants) met officially, chaired by the Federal
Chancellor, Gerhard Schröder, for the third round of top-level talks within
the framework of the Alliance for Jobs, Training and Competitiveness 
(Bündnis für Arbeit, Ausbildung und Wettbewerbsfähigkeit). The Alliance
was established in December 1998 as a new permanent tripartite arrangement at
national level, including various working groups on specific topics as well
as regular top-level talks between the leading representatives of all three
parties (DE9812286N ).
On 14 July 1999, the Prime Minister (Taoiseach), Bertie Ahern, launched a new
joint training initiative from theIrish Business and Employers Confederation
(IBEC) and the Irish Congress of Trade Unions (ICTU), which was developed
with the assistance of the National Centre for Partnership (IE9706202N ) a
body established under the current three-year national programme, Partnership
2000  (P2000) (IE9702103F ). The initiative is seen as a practical
contribution by the social partners to the achievement of the aims of P2000
in relation to the development of enterprise-level partnership.
In two rulings issued on 30 June 1999, the Norwegian Supreme Court endorsed
the right of employees in some cases to avoid being transferred to a new
employer, when the enterprise is transferring support functions to another
employer (outsourcing). Both cases related to the outsourcing of defined task
areas with few employees, one concerning a switchboard operator and the other
three cleaners. The employees who brought the cases wanted to retain their
employment with the original employer. They claimed that employees have a
legal right to choose whether to work for the new employer or maintain
employment with the original employer.
The issue of the rehabilitation of workers who have become incapacitated has
been the subject of a number of special commissions in recent years, and on 3
June 1999 another commissioner - Gerhard Larsson, the former head of Samhall,
a governmental rehabilitation organisation - was asked to study and analyse
the situation. Since 1992, the main responsibility for the rehabilitation of
employees has been placed on employers, and several changes have been made to
the regulations since then. For example, the rules on the costs of
rehabilitation and sick leave have been altered, as has the system for
cooperation between employers and the local social insurance office and other
authorities. In August 1998, a government committee proposed a clarification
of employers' responsibilities (SE9810114F ).
On 1 July 1999, a reform of Spanish legislation on temporary employment
agencies was passed. Among other provisions, this gives temporary agency
workers the same pay as employees of the user companies in which they work,
and has brought severe criticism from the sector's employers' association.
The ICTU's two-yearly conference held in Killarney on 6-8 July 1999 reflected
the widespread positive mood in Ireland due to the country's enormous
economic growth of recent years. It is clear, however, that major challenges
lie ahead for the trade unions, not least regarding the negotiation of an
agreement to replace Partnership 2000  (P2000) (IE9702103F ), the
current national programme which runs from January 1997 to March 2000.
Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.
This report examines the contribution of social and employment services in EU Member States to the inclusion of people with disabilities, specifically in relation to the impact these have on labour market integration – in line with the 2006 UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The report includes a discussion of the costs and benefits of different approaches.
Living and working in Europe, Eurofound’s 2020 yearbook, provides a snapshot of what is happening in the work and lives of Europeans as explored in the Agency’s research activities over the course of 2020. The scope is broad, from the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on employment and on people’s well-being to the inequalities in the working conditions of women and men. It also highlights the connections between Eurofound’s work and EU policy priorities in the coming years.
The third round of Eurofound's e-survey, fielded in February and March 2021, sheds light on the social and economic situation of people after nearly a full year of living with COVID-19 restrictions: How are people doing? What is their outlook on life? How has the availability of vaccinations changed their perceptions? This report presents an overview of the main findings and tracks the developments across the 27 EU Member States since the survey was first launched in April 2020.
While the EU is considered to be a global leader in gender equality, it is not yet a reality for millions of Europeans given the different dynamics in the Member States. The EU Gender Equality Strategy 2020–2025 acknowledges the slow speed of progress and outlines key actions to promote gender equality. Have all countries improved their performance? Which countries have been able to dramatically reduce gender inequality? Which countries lag behind?
As part of an annual series on minimum wages, this report summarises the key developments during 2020 and early 2021 with an emphasis on social partners’ roles and views. It looks at how minimum wages were set in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and how minimum wages act as a reference for income support measures. Information from interviews with decision-makers on the process of setting the minimum wage in 2020, along with their assessment of impacts of the proposed EU Directive on adequate minimum wages is also included.
This joint publication with the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents the findings from complementary research carried out simultaneously by both agencies on the socioeconomic impacts of climate policies and measures. While Eurofound focuses particularly on the distributional effects of these policies based on the experiences of Member States, the EEA analyses scientific research about the monetary and non-monetary social impacts of climate mitigation policies and its outcome in terms of inequalities.
The European Green Deal features high on Member State agendas. However, there are concerns that the necessary changes to climate policy may have undesirable socioeconomic consequences, such as regressive distributional effects and increased inequality. This report attempts to identify those policies where there is a significant risk involved and aims to provide guidance on how negative distributional risk can be mitigated.
Based on data from the European Company Survey 2019, this policy brief examines the characteristics of innovative companies and explores the types of workplace practices that are significantly associated with establishments' likelihood of introducing innovation. It also investigates differences between workplace practices of innovative and non-innovative companies. Additionally, data gathered through case studies analyse the role of workplace practices in different phases of the innovation process.
This report investigates the convergence of Member States in various dimensions of living conditions. Indicators are drawn from the European Quality of Life Surveys and other surveys. The analysis pays special attention to particular subgroups such as young people and women. The analysis also investigates the key drivers of convergence in living conditions.
As the EU embarks on the transition to a climate-neutral economy, it is crucial to understand the impact of such a transition on production models, employment, work organisation, working conditions, social dialogue and citizens’ lives and living conditions.