Backdated to 1 January 1999, the minimum income level which people must
attain in order to be entitled to sick pay benefits, has been raised from
approximately NOK 23,000 a year to around NOK 57,000. The implication of the
changes is that the number of employees not entitled to sick pay benefits
from the state - ie benefits beyond the first 16 days covered by the employer
- will increase by approximately 200,000 persons.
In mid-1999, Spain's current system of continuing training for workers in
employment had been operational for some six and a half years. Here, we
examine its development, focusing on its joint management by the social
partners and the impact that it has had on less qualified workers.
On 2 July 1999, the UK's Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) published
draft Regulations  to implement the EU European Works Councils (s)
Directive  in the UK, together with a consultation document  seeking
views on the government's proposed approach. After further refinement, and
subject to approval by parliament, the Transnational Information and
Consultation of Employees Regulations 1999 will come into force on 15
December 1999 - the deadline set by the 1997 Directive  which reversed the
previous UK government's "opt-out" from the original EWCs Directive.
Communiqué is the newsletter of the Foundation It is published 10 times per year and provides up-to-date news and information on the Foundation's work and research. The March issue contains the following articles: Ageing; EMU and industrial relations; Financial participation; EUCO cooperation.
On 14 July 1999, the Prime Minister (Taoiseach), Bertie Ahern, launched a new
joint training initiative from theIrish Business and Employers Confederation
(IBEC) and the Irish Congress of Trade Unions (ICTU), which was developed
with the assistance of the National Centre for Partnership (IE9706202N ) a
body established under the current three-year national programme, Partnership
2000  (P2000) (IE9702103F ). The initiative is seen as a practical
contribution by the social partners to the achievement of the aims of P2000
in relation to the development of enterprise-level partnership.
On 6 July 1999, leading representatives of the federal government, trade
unions and employers' associations (see the annex at the end of this record
for details of the participants) met officially, chaired by the Federal
Chancellor, Gerhard Schröder, for the third round of top-level talks within
the framework of the Alliance for Jobs, Training and Competitiveness 
(Bündnis für Arbeit, Ausbildung und Wettbewerbsfähigkeit). The Alliance
was established in December 1998 as a new permanent tripartite arrangement at
national level, including various working groups on specific topics as well
as regular top-level talks between the leading representatives of all three
parties (DE9812286N ).
The issue of the rehabilitation of workers who have become incapacitated has
been the subject of a number of special commissions in recent years, and on 3
June 1999 another commissioner - Gerhard Larsson, the former head of Samhall,
a governmental rehabilitation organisation - was asked to study and analyse
the situation. Since 1992, the main responsibility for the rehabilitation of
employees has been placed on employers, and several changes have been made to
the regulations since then. For example, the rules on the costs of
rehabilitation and sick leave have been altered, as has the system for
cooperation between employers and the local social insurance office and other
authorities. In August 1998, a government committee proposed a clarification
of employers' responsibilities (SE9810114F ).
In two rulings issued on 30 June 1999, the Norwegian Supreme Court endorsed
the right of employees in some cases to avoid being transferred to a new
employer, when the enterprise is transferring support functions to another
employer (outsourcing). Both cases related to the outsourcing of defined task
areas with few employees, one concerning a switchboard operator and the other
three cleaners. The employees who brought the cases wanted to retain their
employment with the original employer. They claimed that employees have a
legal right to choose whether to work for the new employer or maintain
employment with the original employer.
On 1 July 1999, a reform of Spanish legislation on temporary employment
agencies was passed. Among other provisions, this gives temporary agency
workers the same pay as employees of the user companies in which they work,
and has brought severe criticism from the sector's employers' association.
The ICTU's two-yearly conference held in Killarney on 6-8 July 1999 reflected
the widespread positive mood in Ireland due to the country's enormous
economic growth of recent years. It is clear, however, that major challenges
lie ahead for the trade unions, not least regarding the negotiation of an
agreement to replace Partnership 2000  (P2000) (IE9702103F ), the
current national programme which runs from January 1997 to March 2000.
Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.
This report addresses the main developments in statutory and collectively agreed working time regulation in 2019 and 2020. It covers several aspects of the duration of working time in the EU, such as information on maximum numbers of working days and weeks, normal working weeks and paid annual leave across the countries and within selected sectors. The report focuses on the education, health, transport, retail and public administration sectors, and provides accounts of major developments in working time regulation as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the live performance sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the live performance sector in the EU Member States.
The European Jobs Monitor tracks changes in employment structure and contributes to the debate about whether European labour markets are polarising or upgrading. The European Jobs Monitor report in 2021 looks in particular at two dimensions of change in labour supply – increased female participation and population/workforce ageing – to show how they can contribute to an understanding of recent changes in employment structure.
This report analyses and compares the industrial relations landscape in a number of sectors and activities that form a public service cluster. The report draws on Eurofound’s recent representativeness studies investigating the following sectors: education, human health, central government administration and local and regional government sector (including social services).
This report explores the impact of the use of digital technologies on work organisation and job quality, as well as the role of social dialogue and employee involvement in the digitisation process. The three technologies analysed are the Internet of Things, 3D printing, and virtual and augmented reality. The report draws on the views of experts and policy stakeholders and includes insights from 10 case studies of European establishments that have deployed one or more of the three digital technologies.
While often considered staid, social partner organisations have developed different ways of using technology to communicate with their members, as well as to organise, mobilise and develop both internally, among staff, and externally, vis-à-vis members and the public. This topical update maps current practices in social partner organisations, describes developments in the use of technologies, and outlines the impact on social partner activities and organisation.
Following improvements in economic growth and labour market participation after the global financial and economic crisis, the COVID-19 pandemic constitutes a new, unprecedented challenge for the EU. The crisis threatens to pose an existential challenge to the EU’s cohesion and legitimacy. The subject of upward convergence is once again centre stage in the European policy debate. Expanding on work done on this topic in previous years, this flagship report traces developments in economic and social indicators between the economic crisis and the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic.
This report investigates the practical implementation of the European Works Council (EWC) Directive at company level. It explores the challenges faced by existing EWCs and provides examples of identified solutions and remaining issues from the point of view of both workers and management. The report looks at the way that EWCs meet the requirements of the EWC Directive in terms of establishing processes of information and consultation.
This report examines a number of collective labour disputes involving industrial action in EU Member States, Norway and the UK. It provides a comprehensive study of each labour dispute, including information on industrial action events and the context for each dispute, as well as the relevant topics, actors, attempts at resolution and outcomes. Different types of collective labour disputes and their occurrence in various countries and sectors are presented, indicating how they are linked to different industrial relations regimes.
What have been the major trends and policy developments regarding digitalisation in Europe? What do we know about the deployment of automation, digitisation and the platform economy? This flagship publication provides an overview of developments in Europe in recent years, as well as mapping the observable or expected effects on employment and working conditions, as well as exploring the implications from a policy perspective.