On 2 July 1999, the provisions of the Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998 
were brought into force, one year after receiving Royal Assent (UK9807137N
). The Act has been described as the most far-reaching "whistleblowing"
legislation in the world. It provides remedies to workers who are dismissed
or subjected to detriment by their employer for making certain categories of
disclosure, ie a disclosure of information which, in the reasonable belief of
the worker making the disclosure, concerns:
In June 1999, an agreement was signed on the reorganisation of Rome's public
environmental services company, Ama, leading to differences between the three
main trade union confederations. Cisl and Uil disagree with Cgil on the way
in which 2,200 people will be recruited by the newly-established company, Ama
An informal Labour and Social Affairs Council of Ministers meeting was held
under the Finnish Presidency in Oulu, Finland from 8 to 10 July 1999, with
the participation of the European-level social partners and the European
Parliament. In line with the priorities of Finnish labour market policy in
recent years (FI9708125F ), the Finnish government - which took over the
EU Presidency in July 1999 - was keen to shift the focus of labour market
policy away from youth unemployment towards the problems facing older
workers. Ministers expressed concern at the lack of older workers in the
The European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) held its ninth Statutory
Congress in Helsinki from 29 June to 2 July 1999 (EU9907182F ). The event
coincided with the beginning of Finland's six-month term in the EU Presidency
and on 1 July a delegation presented a memorandum to the Finnish Prime
Minister and EU President in Office, Paavo Lipponen. The delegation consisted
of the ETUC president, Fritz Verzetnitsch, and general secretary, Emilio
Gabaglio, plus Lauri Ihalainen, chair of the Central Organisation of Finnish
Trade Unions (Suomen Ammattiliittojen Keskusjärjestö, SAK), Esa Swanljung,
chair of the Finnish Confederation of Salaried Employees
(Toimihenkilökeskusjärjestö, STTK) and Risto Piekka, chair of the
Confederation of Unions for Academic Professionals (Akateemisten
Toimihenkilöiden Keskusjärjestö, AKAVA). The memorandum sets out ETUC's
demands, proposals and recommendations for the EU Presidency.
Negotiations have been going on for several months between the Belgian
Bankers' Association (BVB/ABB) and the various trade unions involved -
ACV/CSC, ABVV/FGTB and ACLVB/CGSLB- on a new national collective agreement
for the banking sector. However, the talks became completely deadlocked in
June 1999. The trade unions had already called several short stoppages and
lightning strikes, but discontent about the failure to secure an agreement
continued to mount and a one-day national strike was organised by the unions
for 9 July.
The total number of requests to terminate employment contracts declined in
the Netherlands in 1998, according to the Annual Report on termination
statistics, issued in summer 1999. However, the number of requests related to
occupational disability has increased.
The ninth European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) Congress held in Helsinki
from 29 June to 2 July 1999 (EU9907182F ) arguably indicated the European
trade union movement's wish for far-reaching harmonisation in the area of
social and employment policy. In the eyes of Danish public debate, the
Congress presented an emerging picture of a trade union movement which wants
to head a process towards, if not the "United Nations of Europe", then at
least a strengthening of the federal features of the European Union. Even
though the Danish public's attitude towards the EU has grown more positive
(DK9906127F ), there is general scepticism about an extensive process of
integration. This became evident at the European Parliament elections in June
1999, at which the Danish parties and movements which are directly opposed
to, or strongly sceptical towards, the EU maintained their support.
The Spanish government's 1999 National Action Plan (NAP) for employment, in
response to the EU Employment Guidelines, has been severely attacked by the
trade unions. The unions criticise the content of the NAP, approved in May
1999, and the funds assigned to it, and claim that it appeared late and
lacked social dialogue in its preparation.
In 1998's rather favourable economic climate, collective bargaining in France
was dominated by the reduction of working time, according to the Ministry for
Employment and Solidarity's annual bargaining report, published in June 1999.
Other trends recorded included: intersectoral bargaining falling off to an
extremely low point; a recovery in the amount of sector-level bargaining at
the end of the year; and considerable growth in company-level bargaining.
In June 1999, the Greek General Confederation of Labour (GSEE) and the
Confederation of Public Servants (ADEDY) officially adopted a position in
favour of applying a "Tobin tax" to short-term capital movements.
This series brings together publications and other outputs of the European Jobs Monitor (EJM), which tracks structural change in European labour markets. The EJM analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives a qualitative assessment of these shifts using various proxies of job quality – wages, skill-levels, etc.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2016, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2015, the sixth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2009, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2013, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Since 2016, Eurofound has closely monitored the involvement of national social partners in policymaking as part of the European Semester cycle. In 2020, the focus was on their involvement during the first months of the COVID-19 outbreak. While the pandemic has presented a huge challenge to social dialogue, the results of the analysis highlight how social dialogue can be an effective tool in shaping policy initiatives and finding solutions to emergency situations affecting businesses, workers, the economy and society.
This report explores the distribution of household wealth in the EU Member States and analyses the role of wealth in social mobility. Using data from three datasets (the Household Finance and Consumption Survey, the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe and the Luxembourg Wealth Study), it focuses on wealth per household member. Wealth composition is compared across social groups and countries, and the role of housing assets in wealth distribution and negative wealth is assessed.
This report sets out to assess the first employment impacts of the COVID-19 crisis in Europe (up to Q2 2020), including its effects across sectors and on different categories of workers. It also looks at measures implemented by policymakers in a bid to limit the negative effects of the crisis. It first provides and overview of policy approaches adopted to mitigate the impact of the crisis on businesses, workers and citizens.
This report examines the contribution of social and employment services in EU Member States to the inclusion of people with disabilities, specifically in relation to the impact these have on labour market integration – in line with the 2006 UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The report includes a discussion of the costs and benefits of different approaches.
The third round of Eurofound's e-survey, fielded in February and March 2021, sheds light on the social and economic situation of people after nearly a full year of living with COVID-19 restrictions: How are people doing? What is their outlook on life? How has the availability of vaccinations changed their perceptions? This report presents an overview of the main findings and tracks the developments across the 27 EU Member States since the survey was first launched in April 2020.
Living and working in Europe, Eurofound’s 2020 yearbook, provides a snapshot of what is happening in the work and lives of Europeans as explored in the Agency’s research activities over the course of 2020. The scope is broad, from the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on employment and on people’s well-being to the inequalities in the working conditions of women and men. It also highlights the connections between Eurofound’s work and EU policy priorities in the coming years.
As part of an annual series on minimum wages, this report summarises the key developments during 2020 and early 2021 with an emphasis on social partners’ roles and views. It looks at how minimum wages were set in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and how minimum wages act as a reference for income support measures. Information from interviews with decision-makers on the process of setting the minimum wage in 2020, along with their assessment of impacts of the proposed EU Directive on adequate minimum wages is also included.
While the EU is considered to be a global leader in gender equality, it is not yet a reality for millions of Europeans given the different dynamics in the Member States. The EU Gender Equality Strategy 2020–2025 acknowledges the slow speed of progress and outlines key actions to promote gender equality. Have all countries improved their performance? Which countries have been able to dramatically reduce gender inequality? Which countries lag behind?
This joint publication with the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents the findings from complementary research carried out simultaneously by both agencies on the socioeconomic impacts of climate policies and measures. While Eurofound focuses particularly on the distributional effects of these policies based on the experiences of Member States, the EEA analyses scientific research about the monetary and non-monetary social impacts of climate mitigation policies and its outcome in terms of inequalities.
This report examines people's optimism about the future, for themselves and for others, and the extent to which it varies depending on one's social situation and perceptions of the quality of society. The study includes an analysis of the relationships between people’s perceptions of fairness and objective indicators of their social and economic situation and living standards.