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  • Article
    27 Giugno 1999

    On 2-6 May 1998, industrial action was organised at Arlanda airport, near
    Stockholm, by the Swedish Transport Workers' Union (Svenska
    Transportarbetareförbundet, Transport) in support of Danish workers who were
    then engaged in a major nationwide strike (DK9805168F [1]). In a blockade,
    the union's members at the airport refused to load and unload luggage, reload
    food supplies and refuel aircraft which had been diverted to Arlanda from
    Denmark (SE9805186F [2]). On 19 May 1999, the Swedish Labour Court held
    (/1999/65/) that the industrial action had been entirely in line with trade
    union procedures.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined-industrial-relations/parliament-intervenes-to-end-major-conflict
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined/swedish-sympathy-action-for-danish-workers-challenged-in-the-labour-court

  • Article
    27 Giugno 1999

    Over the two-year period 1997-9, the social partners in Vienna and its city
    government have joined forces to develop a more innovative approach to
    Austria's most problem-ridden and least responsive labour market. In 1997 it
    contained more than half of the unemployed people whose unemployment lasted
    longer than 12 months and 42% of those whose unemployment lasted more than
    six months. The number of people registered as unemployed at some time over
    the year had risen by 1.4% over the 1996 level and made up 23% of the
    Austrian total, roughly equivalent to the capital's share in employment.
    However, the average number of people registered as unemployed stood at 29%
    of the Austrian total. Employment kept being created outside the city limits,
    centred in particular on the airport and the shopping and business parks.
    Industrial employment was continually being relocated to "greenfield" sites.
    No end to these structural disadvantages seemed in sight.

  • Article
    27 Giugno 1999

    Since coming to power in May 1997 (UK9704125F [1]), the Labour government has
    placed a strong emphasis upon skills policies. The government sees
    "upskilling" not only as an answer to problems of economic competitiveness
    and the UK's generally poor record on productivity (UK9902182F [2]), but also
    as a means of engendering greater social inclusion and cohesion. The main
    thrust of the government's skills policies over the past two years has
    centred on the education system, with further reform of the national
    curriculum in schools, a policy of "naming and shaming" schools that are seen
    to be failing, additional growth in student numbers in further and higher
    education, and an increase in educational spending. In the field of training,
    the scope and scale of changes has been more limited, but many of the
    developments here have significant implications for the social partners. Here
    we provide an overview of the most significant of these developments as they
    relate to the employed workforce (as distinct from the range of measures
    being pursued under the banner of "welfare to work" which aim to help
    unemployed people back into work via jobs, education, training or work
    experience).

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined-labour-market/the-industrial-relations-consequences-of-the-new-labour-government
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined-labour-market-business/productivity-competitiveness-and-the-knowledge-driven-economy-a-new-agenda

  • Article
    27 Giugno 1999

    In June 1999, the social partners in the woodworking and furniture sector of
    Italy's north-eastern regions signed an agreement which aims at modifying the
    pay system through a lower tax levy, and at introducing flexible working
    hours. This new inter-regional collective bargaining level represents a
    further development of the Italian bargaining process.

  • Article
    27 Giugno 1999

    In April 1999, the Dutch social partners reached agreement within the Labour
    Foundation on a framework for the further individualisation of terms of
    employment. Whilst the essential lines of collective agreements will be
    retained under the Foundation's recommendations, certain conditions of
    employment may be swapped within a company on a "multiple-choice" basis.

  • Article
    27 Giugno 1999

    On 4 June 1999, CGT and CFDT, the majority trade unions at France's SNCF rail
    network, signed an agreement with the management on the reduction of working
    time. This agreement, rejected by the other unions, had been the subject of a
    referendum among the company's staff organised by management and the two
    largest unions.

  • Article
    27 Giugno 1999

    In May 1999, in response to a request from the Greek government,
    representatives of trade unions and employers' organisations lodged their
    proposals for the 1999 National Action Plan (NAP) on employment to implement
    the EU Employment Guidelines. Here we focus on the proposals aimed at
    encouraging the adaptability of businesses and their employees.

  • Article
    27 Giugno 1999

    In June 1999, Spanish unions called a strike to demand the implementation of
    the 1998-2005 coal mining plan, signed in July 1997. The strike received
    massive support among the 20,000 coal miners, but the government criticised
    the unions for exaggerating the problems.

  • Article
    27 Giugno 1999

    Two mediators, Mr Ingemar Mundebo and Mr Gunnar Samuelsson, had been having
    intense contacts throughout a week in the middle of June with the pay
    negotiators from the Coach Employers' Association (Bussarbetsgivarna, BUA)
    and the Swedish Transport Workers' Union (Svenska
    Transportarbetareförbundet, Transport). Transport had given notice of a ban
    on overtime and a boycott of any new charter tourist traffic. The industrial
    action was due to commence on 22 June 1999.

  • Article
    27 Giugno 1999

    The reduction of taxation on labour and other non-wage labour costs has been
    part of the European Commission's strategy to raise employment for almost
    five years, as it is considered that high non-wage labour costs, particularly
    on low-paid labour, are leading to high rates of unemployment among
    low-skilled workers and are encouraging clandestine, undeclared activity. The
    Commission's 1999 Broad Economic Policy Guidelines [1] re-emphasised the
    importance of Member States' reducing taxes, particularly on low-paid labour.
    It is intended that this reduction in taxation of labour be offset by new
    taxes or tax increases on environmental pollution, energy or consumption. The
    social partners are similarly called upon to commit themselves to control
    wage and other non-wage costs, as a contribution to the European employment
    strategy. The draft Broad Economic Policy Guidelines estimate that, with an
    average rate of 43% of GDP, the tax burden in the European Union in 13%
    higher than in the USA. The tax burden indeed exceeds 40% in most of the EU
    Member States, with only Ireland being comparable with the USA in this
    respect. Despite the fact that the effective tax rate on labour and the
    labour "tax wedge" have declined in the EU since 1994, the level of the "tax
    wedge" indicates that around 50% of the gross wage is absorbed by taxes in a
    number of EU Member States,

    [1] http://europa.eu.int/comm/dg02/document/econeur/beg/begidxen.htm

Series

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2020. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in two rounds – in April and in July 2020. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

  • European Quality of Life Surveys

    The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.

Forthcoming publications