Publications

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  • Article
    27 Giugno 1999

    In June 1999, the social partners in the woodworking and furniture sector of
    Italy's north-eastern regions signed an agreement which aims at modifying the
    pay system through a lower tax levy, and at introducing flexible working
    hours. This new inter-regional collective bargaining level represents a
    further development of the Italian bargaining process.

  • Article
    27 Giugno 1999

    Over the two-year period 1997-9, the social partners in Vienna and its city
    government have joined forces to develop a more innovative approach to
    Austria's most problem-ridden and least responsive labour market. In 1997 it
    contained more than half of the unemployed people whose unemployment lasted
    longer than 12 months and 42% of those whose unemployment lasted more than
    six months. The number of people registered as unemployed at some time over
    the year had risen by 1.4% over the 1996 level and made up 23% of the
    Austrian total, roughly equivalent to the capital's share in employment.
    However, the average number of people registered as unemployed stood at 29%
    of the Austrian total. Employment kept being created outside the city limits,
    centred in particular on the airport and the shopping and business parks.
    Industrial employment was continually being relocated to "greenfield" sites.
    No end to these structural disadvantages seemed in sight.

  • Article
    27 Giugno 1999

    In April 1999, the Dutch social partners reached agreement within the Labour
    Foundation on a framework for the further individualisation of terms of
    employment. Whilst the essential lines of collective agreements will be
    retained under the Foundation's recommendations, certain conditions of
    employment may be swapped within a company on a "multiple-choice" basis.

  • Article
    27 Giugno 1999

    On 2-6 May 1998, industrial action was organised at Arlanda airport, near
    Stockholm, by the Swedish Transport Workers' Union (Svenska
    Transportarbetareförbundet, Transport) in support of Danish workers who were
    then engaged in a major nationwide strike (DK9805168F [1]). In a blockade,
    the union's members at the airport refused to load and unload luggage, reload
    food supplies and refuel aircraft which had been diverted to Arlanda from
    Denmark (SE9805186F [2]). On 19 May 1999, the Swedish Labour Court held
    (/1999/65/) that the industrial action had been entirely in line with trade
    union procedures.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined-industrial-relations/parliament-intervenes-to-end-major-conflict
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined/swedish-sympathy-action-for-danish-workers-challenged-in-the-labour-court

  • Article
    27 Giugno 1999

    In June 1999, Spanish unions called a strike to demand the implementation of
    the 1998-2005 coal mining plan, signed in July 1997. The strike received
    massive support among the 20,000 coal miners, but the government criticised
    the unions for exaggerating the problems.

  • Article
    27 Giugno 1999

    On 4 June 1999, CGT and CFDT, the majority trade unions at France's SNCF rail
    network, signed an agreement with the management on the reduction of working
    time. This agreement, rejected by the other unions, had been the subject of a
    referendum among the company's staff organised by management and the two
    largest unions.

  • Article
    27 Giugno 1999

    In May 1999, in response to a request from the Greek government,
    representatives of trade unions and employers' organisations lodged their
    proposals for the 1999 National Action Plan (NAP) on employment to implement
    the EU Employment Guidelines. Here we focus on the proposals aimed at
    encouraging the adaptability of businesses and their employees.

  • Article
    27 Giugno 1999

    On 14 June 1999, the UK government launched a new, non-statutory code of
    practice to encourage employers to adopt policies designed to avoid age
    discrimination in employment. The code - Age diversity in employment [1]-
    covers good practice in six areas of the employment "cycle", urging employers
    to:

    [1] http://www.dfee.gov.uk/agediversity/practice.htm

  • Article
    27 Giugno 1999

    June 1999 saw the conclusion of new national agreements for Italy's key
    metalworking and food industries. The most innovative aspects of the deals
    concern pay increases, the role of Rsu representative bodies in decentralised
    bargaining, and the reduction and management of working time.

  • Article
    27 Giugno 1999

    The reduction of taxation on labour and other non-wage labour costs has been
    part of the European Commission's strategy to raise employment for almost
    five years, as it is considered that high non-wage labour costs, particularly
    on low-paid labour, are leading to high rates of unemployment among
    low-skilled workers and are encouraging clandestine, undeclared activity. The
    Commission's 1999 Broad Economic Policy Guidelines [1] re-emphasised the
    importance of Member States' reducing taxes, particularly on low-paid labour.
    It is intended that this reduction in taxation of labour be offset by new
    taxes or tax increases on environmental pollution, energy or consumption. The
    social partners are similarly called upon to commit themselves to control
    wage and other non-wage costs, as a contribution to the European employment
    strategy. The draft Broad Economic Policy Guidelines estimate that, with an
    average rate of 43% of GDP, the tax burden in the European Union in 13%
    higher than in the USA. The tax burden indeed exceeds 40% in most of the EU
    Member States, with only Ireland being comparable with the USA in this
    respect. Despite the fact that the effective tax rate on labour and the
    labour "tax wedge" have declined in the EU since 1994, the level of the "tax
    wedge" indicates that around 50% of the gross wage is absorbed by taxes in a
    number of EU Member States,

    [1] http://europa.eu.int/comm/dg02/document/econeur/beg/begidxen.htm

Series

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2003

    Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2007

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2012

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003. 

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2005

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2010

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2020

    ​Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2020, the seventh edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Manufacturing employment outlook

    This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.

Forthcoming publications