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  • Article
    27 Giugno 1999

    A survey by researchers at the "Bocconi University" of Milan, published in
    June 1999, indicates that the burden of social security contributions in
    Italy is higher than that in France, Germany, Spain and the UK.

  • Article
    27 Giugno 1999

    Filing for a company's bankruptcy or petitioning for the suspension of
    payments usually spells trouble for its workers, but a Dutch case at the
    beginning of June 1999 suggests that it can also provide an effective way for
    employees and their representatives to bring pressure to bear on their
    employer.

  • Article
    27 Giugno 1999

    The European social dialogue in the private security industry between the
    European Confederation of Security Services (CoESS) on the employer side and
    the European Regional Organisation of the International Federation of
    Commercial, Clerical, Professional and Technical Employees (Euro-FIET) on the
    employee side, is a relatively recent addition to the sectoral social
    dialogue process, with an informal working group having been established at
    Community level in 1993 (EU9902150F [1]). The initiation of a dialogue at the
    European level was partly a reflection of the increasing importance of the
    sector in providing internal security functions which had previously been
    provided by state authorities. The sector also featured among the "new
    sources of employment" pinpointed in the 1993 White Paper on Growth,
    competitiveness and employment [2]. Between 500,000 and 1 million staff are
    currently employed in this sector, which includes diverse tasks such as the
    guarding of industrial sites, shops, public buildings and money transport.
    There is apparently a strong commitment among both sides of the industry to
    make progress in the European sectoral social dialogue and there are many
    common concerns, particularly in relation to the "professionalisation" of the
    sector and concern over damaging lowest-price competition.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined/new-era-in-sectoral-social-dialogue-takes-shape
    [2] http://europa.eu.int/en/record/white/c93700/contents.html

  • Article
    27 Giugno 1999

    A collective agreement to cover wage earners employed by temporary work
    agencies whilst not actually hired out to user companies became an important
    demand of the Austrian Trade Union Federation (Österreichischer
    Gewerkschaftsbund, ÖGB) during the 1990s. At the beginning of July 1998,
    there were 20,772 agency workers hired out by 742 agencies to 6,408
    employers. While this number was very small it had risen from 8,000 since the
    summer of 1989. The salary earners amongst the agency workers - 18% of the
    total - are covered by a collective agreement, but the wage earners are not.
    The main issue is the wage whilst not actually hired out, and a somewhat
    lesser issue is the specification of wage entitlements once working for an
    employer.

  • Article
    27 Giugno 1999

    In May 1999, an agreement on the reduction of working time, in line with the
    1998 legislation on the 35-hour week, was signed in France by the CFDT trade
    union and the management of the IKEA furniture retail group. The other unions
    concerned have not yet given their reactions to this agreement, which
    includes managerial staff in the hours cuts.

  • Article
    27 Giugno 1999

    On 10 June 1999, a new enterprise-level collective agreement was signed for
    workers at the Hellenic Telecommunications Organisation (OTE). The deal
    provides for a new pay scale and new staff regulations, as well as the pilot
    implementation of a 35-hour working week without loss of pay.

  • Article
    27 Giugno 1999

    In May 1999, a new regulation was introduced in Luxembourg which allows
    refugees from the Kosovo region to take up paid employment for a maximum
    renewable period of six months.

  • Article
    27 Giugno 1999

    In June 1999 the Belgian press and television carried pictures of Flemish
    lorry drivers blocking highways, verges and access roads to important
    seaports. The protests resembled those of strikers in France during 1997
    (FR9711177F [1]). As in the French case, the issues underlying the Belgian
    protests are complex. The gulf between lorry drivers and employers in the
    sector is very deep. Although the current dispute appears to be rather
    trivial, much more is actually at stake: trade unions are demanding a wage
    increase of BEF 10 an hour, but the employers are offering only BEF 8 an
    hour. A difference of BEF 2 can in itself hardly explain the tough stance
    adopted by the trade unions and the blockades. Indeed, a great deal more lies
    behind the dispute.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/industrial-relations-undefined/lorry-drivers-strike-raises-european-issues

  • Article
    27 Giugno 1999

    An analysis conducted by the Danish Employers' Confederation (Dansk
    Arbejdsgiverforening, DA), of the development of the total labour market
    participation rate in Denmark since 1950, has prompted the organisation to
    conclude that Danish GDP could have been much higher than it is today. The
    analysis is contained in DA's annual labour market report for 1999 [1].

    [1] http://www.da.dk/nyhed/amrap99/samfat99/index.htm

  • Article
    27 Giugno 1999

    Dissatisfaction on the part of junior doctors in the UK over out-of-hours pay
    and excessive workload has been fuelled by the outcome of the meeting of the
    EU's Council of Labour and Social Affairs Ministers on 25 May 1999 concerning
    proposals for extending the 1993 EU Directive on certain aspects of the
    organisation of working time (93/104/EC) [1] (EU9906178F [2]). The Council
    reached political agreement on a common position on the proposed "horizontal"
    Directive extending the provisions of the original Directive to non-mobile
    workers in previously excluded sectors. The Council proposed a nine-year
    transition period before the standard 48-hour limit on average weekly working
    hours would apply to doctors in training: a maximum average working week of
    60 hours would apply for the first three years; a 56-hour limit would apply
    for the following three years; and a 52-hour limit would apply for a further
    three years. Taking account of the proposed four-year timetable for national
    transposition of the Directive, the limit on the weekly working hours of
    doctors in training would be brought down to 48 hours over a total of 13
    years after the adoption of the Directive.

    [1] http://europa.eu.int/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexapi!prod!CELEXnumdoc&lg=en&numdoc=31993L0104&model=guichett
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined-working-conditions/council-agrees-to-extend-working-time-directive-to-excluded-sectors

Series

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2003

    Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2007

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2012

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003. 

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2005

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2010

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2020

    ​Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2020, the seventh edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Manufacturing employment outlook

    This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.

Forthcoming publications