A survey by researchers at the "Bocconi University" of Milan, published in
June 1999, indicates that the burden of social security contributions in
Italy is higher than that in France, Germany, Spain and the UK.
Filing for a company's bankruptcy or petitioning for the suspension of
payments usually spells trouble for its workers, but a Dutch case at the
beginning of June 1999 suggests that it can also provide an effective way for
employees and their representatives to bring pressure to bear on their
The European social dialogue in the private security industry between the
European Confederation of Security Services (CoESS) on the employer side and
the European Regional Organisation of the International Federation of
Commercial, Clerical, Professional and Technical Employees (Euro-FIET) on the
employee side, is a relatively recent addition to the sectoral social
dialogue process, with an informal working group having been established at
Community level in 1993 (EU9902150F ). The initiation of a dialogue at the
European level was partly a reflection of the increasing importance of the
sector in providing internal security functions which had previously been
provided by state authorities. The sector also featured among the "new
sources of employment" pinpointed in the 1993 White Paper on Growth,
competitiveness and employment . Between 500,000 and 1 million staff are
currently employed in this sector, which includes diverse tasks such as the
guarding of industrial sites, shops, public buildings and money transport.
There is apparently a strong commitment among both sides of the industry to
make progress in the European sectoral social dialogue and there are many
common concerns, particularly in relation to the "professionalisation" of the
sector and concern over damaging lowest-price competition.
A collective agreement to cover wage earners employed by temporary work
agencies whilst not actually hired out to user companies became an important
demand of the Austrian Trade Union Federation (Österreichischer
Gewerkschaftsbund, ÖGB) during the 1990s. At the beginning of July 1998,
there were 20,772 agency workers hired out by 742 agencies to 6,408
employers. While this number was very small it had risen from 8,000 since the
summer of 1989. The salary earners amongst the agency workers - 18% of the
total - are covered by a collective agreement, but the wage earners are not.
The main issue is the wage whilst not actually hired out, and a somewhat
lesser issue is the specification of wage entitlements once working for an
In May 1999, an agreement on the reduction of working time, in line with the
1998 legislation on the 35-hour week, was signed in France by the CFDT trade
union and the management of the IKEA furniture retail group. The other unions
concerned have not yet given their reactions to this agreement, which
includes managerial staff in the hours cuts.
On 10 June 1999, a new enterprise-level collective agreement was signed for
workers at the Hellenic Telecommunications Organisation (OTE). The deal
provides for a new pay scale and new staff regulations, as well as the pilot
implementation of a 35-hour working week without loss of pay.
In June 1999 the Belgian press and television carried pictures of Flemish
lorry drivers blocking highways, verges and access roads to important
seaports. The protests resembled those of strikers in France during 1997
(FR9711177F ). As in the French case, the issues underlying the Belgian
protests are complex. The gulf between lorry drivers and employers in the
sector is very deep. Although the current dispute appears to be rather
trivial, much more is actually at stake: trade unions are demanding a wage
increase of BEF 10 an hour, but the employers are offering only BEF 8 an
hour. A difference of BEF 2 can in itself hardly explain the tough stance
adopted by the trade unions and the blockades. Indeed, a great deal more lies
behind the dispute.
An analysis conducted by the Danish Employers' Confederation (Dansk
Arbejdsgiverforening, DA), of the development of the total labour market
participation rate in Denmark since 1950, has prompted the organisation to
conclude that Danish GDP could have been much higher than it is today. The
analysis is contained in DA's annual labour market report for 1999 .
Dissatisfaction on the part of junior doctors in the UK over out-of-hours pay
and excessive workload has been fuelled by the outcome of the meeting of the
EU's Council of Labour and Social Affairs Ministers on 25 May 1999 concerning
proposals for extending the 1993 EU Directive on certain aspects of the
organisation of working time (93/104/EC)  (EU9906178F ). The Council
reached political agreement on a common position on the proposed "horizontal"
Directive extending the provisions of the original Directive to non-mobile
workers in previously excluded sectors. The Council proposed a nine-year
transition period before the standard 48-hour limit on average weekly working
hours would apply to doctors in training: a maximum average working week of
60 hours would apply for the first three years; a 56-hour limit would apply
for the following three years; and a 52-hour limit would apply for a further
three years. Taking account of the proposed four-year timetable for national
transposition of the Directive, the limit on the weekly working hours of
doctors in training would be brought down to 48 hours over a total of 13
years after the adoption of the Directive.
Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2020, the seventh edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.
Access to key social services, especially education and healthcare, as well as stable family life and decent housing are necessary for the well-being and development of children. Ensuring that all children have these resources is an EU priority; the European Commission is currently undertaking to recommend a Child Guarantee to address the situations of children in need. Service provision has been complicated by the COVID-19 outbreak, however, and the pandemic has put psychological and material strains on families.
How can working conditions be improved to make work more sustainable over the life course? This question has been the guiding principle for analysis of the 2015 European Working Conditions Survey data during the period of Eurofound’s work programme for 2017–2020. This flagship report brings together the different research strands from this work and gives a comprehensive answer to the question. It includes an analysis of trends in working conditions, examining whether these are the same for all workers or whether inequalities between different groups of workers are increasing.
This report analyses the involvement of the national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, and their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs) and other key policy documents of the European Semester cycle.
This report builds on Eurofound's existing research on social mobility, assessing the distribution and transmission of wealth in Member States. It examines the roles of inheritance and household debt in explaining the transmission of advantage or disadvantage between the generations across Member States. The analysis is based on Eurosystem's Household Finance and Consumption Survey (HFCS).
This report will focus on assessing the employment impact of the COVID-19 crisis, including its effects across sectors and for different categories of workers. It will also be looking at measures implemented to limit negative effects following the Coronavirus outbreak in Europe.
This report examines the contribution of social and employment services in EU Member States to the inclusion of people with disabilities, specifically in relation to the impact these have on labour market integration – in line with the 2006 UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The report includes a discussion of the costs and benefits of different approaches.
This report examines people's optimism about the future, for themselves and for others, and the extent to which it varies depending on one's social situation and perceptions of the quality of society. The study includes an analysis of the relationships between people’s perceptions of fairness and objective indicators of their social and economic situation and living standards.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the civil aviation (flight crew) sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.
The European Green Deal is at the very top of Member State agendas across the EU. This topical update maps the national discussions – in policy, public and research debates – on the potential, ongoing or already felt impact on work and employment of the transition to a low-carbon economy. It attempts to identify the most active actors involved in these discussions (governments, social partners, NGOs and so on) and their perspectives.
This report will draw from case studies of establishments across the EU that have introduced advanced digital technologies in the workplace. The technologies in focus are the Internet of Things, 3D printing and virtual and augmented reality. Each case study – illustrated in the report - will explore the approach or strategy taken by the establishment to manage the digital transition and the impact of the deployment of the technology on the work organisation and job quality.