23 Kovas 2006
After some delay, Law 53/2000 implemented into Italian law Council Directive 96/34/EC  of 3 June 1996 on the ‘framework agreement on parental leave’, concluded by the European employer and trade union organisations - the Union of Industrial and Employers’ Confederations of Europe (UNICE), the European Centre of Enterprises with Public Participation and of Enterprises of General Economic Interest (CEEP) and the European Trade Union Congress (ETUC). This led to the introduction of significant changes in Italy:  http://europa.eu.int/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexapi!prod!CELEXnumdoc&lg=en&numdoc=31996L0034&model=guichett
09 Vasaris 2006
The Italian transport industry makes higher than average use of the road system (88%, compared with an EU average of 74.6%), due to the underdevelopment of internal shipping (both coastal trade and river navigation) and inefficiencies in the Italian railway system.
22 Lapkritis 2005
The 2005 publication, /Il lavoro che cambia/ (/Changing work/ ), edited by Carrieri, Damiano and Ugolini, summarises the results of an enquiry launched in 2002 by Democratici di Sinistra (DS), the main centre-left Italian party, by means of its local organisations, newspaper and related websites. More than 22,000 completed questionnaires were collected through various channels: most from workplaces, while more than 3,000 were filled in online.
13 Spalis 2005
Immigration in Italy is a relatively recent phenomenon, compared with other European countries. Over the last 10 years, its growth has been remarkable: in 1995, immigrants represented less than 1.5% of the population in Italy, increasing over threefold to more than 4% in 2004. Estimates vary widely: according to Istat 2005 (227Kb pdf; in Italian) , the Italian statistics office, immigrants numbered less than two million in January 2004 (10% less than the figures reported by the Ministry of Internal Affairs), while the 2005 report on immigration by Caritas (82Kb pdf; in Italian) , a Church aid association, puts the total at 2.7 million, including at least 450,000 minors.  http://www.istat.it/salastampa/comunicati/non_calendario/20050324_00/stranieri_2004.pdf  http://www.caritasroma.it/Prima pagina/Download/Anticipazioni Dossier 2005.pdf
20 Kovas 2005
Levels of formal training, participation in decision-making, and teamwork in the Italian workplace are lower than the European average, according to the 2002 Isfol quality of work survey. Despite these issues, however, and a lack of work-life balance, the survey reveals that work satisfaction in Italy is high.
20 Vasaris 2005
The 2003 Cnel  labour market report was presented in Rome in November 2004. It shows weak labour market growth, with a largely stagnant participation rate. Women are still the main contributors to growth: of the 225,000 newly employed workers, 141,000 are women, almost totally concentrated in services and retail.  http://www.cnel.it/
06 Sausis 2005
Economically dependent workers (326 Kb pdf)  constitute a grey area in the labour market, displaying both employed and self-employed characteristics. However, they are economically dependent on the company that hires them, and a significant proportion are, in effect, subordinate employees, who have to respect work schedules and shifts (e.g. in call centres).  http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/labour_law/docs/parasubordination_report_en.pdf