Representativeness of the European social partner organisations: Audiovisual sector

  • National Contribution:

  • Observatory: EurWORK
  • Topic:
  • Darbo santykiai,
  • Representativeness,
  • Socialinis dialogas,
  • Date of Publication: 17 Balandis 2013



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This study provides information aimed at encouraging sectoral social dialogue in the audiovisual sector. The study is divided into three parts: a summary of the sector’s economic and employment background; an analysis of the social partner organisations in all EU Member States, with emphasis on their membership, their role in collective bargaining, social dialogue and public policy, and their national and European affiliations; and finally an analysis of the relevant European organisations, particularly their membership composition and their capacity to negotiate. The aim of the EIRO series of representativeness studies is to identify the relevant national and supranational social partner organisations in the field of industrial relations in selected sectors. The impetus of these studies arises from the goal of the European Commission to recognise the representative social partner organisations to be consulted under the provisions of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU).

The study was compiled on the basis of individual national reports submitted by the EIRO correspondents. The text of each of these national reports is available below. The national reports were drawn up in response to a questionnaire and should be read in conjunction with it.

Download the full report (4019KB PDF)
See also the executive summary

National contributions may be available


Objectives of the study

The aim of this representativeness study is to:

  • identify the relevant national and supranational social actors (that is, the trade unions/employee organisations and employer organisations) in the field of industrial relations in the audiovisual sector;
  • show how these actors relate to the sector’s European interest associations of labour and business.

The impetus for this study, and for similar studies in other sectors, arises from the aim of the European Commission to identify the representative social partner associations to be consulted under the provisions of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). Hence, this study seeks to provide the basic information needed to set up sectoral social dialogue in the audiovisual sector. The effectiveness of European social dialogue depends on whether its participants are sufficiently representative in terms of the sector’s relevant national actors across the EU Member States. Only European associations that meet this precondition will be admitted to the European social dialogue.


Concept and methodology at a glance

To accomplish these aims, the study identifies the relevant national social partner organisations in the audiovisual sector via a top–down approach (list of members of European social partners at national level) and a bottom–up approach (using national correspondents from the European Industrial Relations Observatory (EIRO)). This involves clarifying the unit of analysis at both national and European level of interest representation. The study includes only organisations whose membership domain is ‘sector-related’.

A European association is considered a relevant sector-related interest association if it is on the Commission’s list of interest organisations to be consulted on behalf of the sector under Article 154 of the TFEU and/or it participates in the sector-related European social dialogue and/or it has requested to be consulted under Article 154 of the TFEU.

National associations are considered a relevant sector-related interest association if they meet both criteria A and B:

  • A: The association’s domain relates to the sector.
  • B: The association is: (1) either regularly involved in sector-related collective bargaining and/or (2) affiliated to a ‘sector-related’ European association of business or labour on the Commission’s list of European social partner organisations consulted under Article 154 of the TFEU and/or which participates in the sector-related European social dialogue.

Sector relatedness (criterion A) is defined in terms of the Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community (NACE) to ensure the cross-national comparability of the study’s findings. More specifically, the audiovisual sector is defined as embracing NACE (Rev. 2) codes J.59 and J.60. This includes the following activities:

  • J59: Motion picture, video and television programme production, sound recording and music publishing activities;
  • J60: Programming and broadcasting activities.

A more detailed description of how it is established that an organisation is ‘sector-related’ is given in Annex 1.

With regard to criterion B(2), taking affiliation to a European social partner organisation as sufficient to determine a national association as a social partner does not necessarily imply that the association is involved in industrial relations in its own country. Although this selection criterion may seem odd at first glance, a national association that is a member of a European social partner organisation will become involved in industrial relations matters through its membership of the European organisation. Furthermore, it is important to assess whether the national affiliates to the European social partner organisations are engaged in industrial relations in their respective countries. Affiliation to a European social partner organisation and/or involvement in national collective bargaining are of utmost importance to the European social dialogue, since they are the two constituent mechanisms that can systematically connect national and European levels.

The specific conditions of the audiovisual sector, which in a number of countries is based primarily on companies providing public broadcasting services, led to the decision with Eurofound’s agreement to include companies that provide public broadcasting services as employers in the study. In addition, we have included at the end of the study individual private companies that are affiliated to a ‘sector-related’ European association because of their relevance in the sector.

According to the definition of the activities covered by this representativeness study (that is, NACE (Rev. 2) classes J59 and J60), the organisations listed by the European Commission as a social partner organisation consulted under Article 154 of the TFEU are as follows.

On the employees’ side:

  • UNI-Europa Media, Entertainment and Arts Group (EURO-MEI);
  • European Federation of Journalists (EFJ);
  • European Group of the International Federation of Actors (EuroFIA);
  • International Federation of Musicians (FIM).

On the employers’ side:

  • European Broadcasting Union (EBU);
  • European Coordination of Independent Producers (CEPI);
  • Association of Commercial Television (ACT);
  • Association of European Radios (AER);
  • International Federation of Films Producers Association (FIAPF).

In addition, the study considers any other sector-related European associations with sector-related national associations as defined below.

Data were collected for the study via a standard questionnaire through EIRO approaches to national organisations. To ensure the quality of the information gathered, several verification procedures and feedback loops with the different parties involved (European and national level social partner organisations, European Commission, Eurofound) were applied (see Annex 1).


Employment and economic trends

According to Eurostat’s Business Structural Statistics for 2009, the audiovisual sector covers more than 100,000 companies in Europe. This statistical set does not cover public administration and (largely) non-market services and so does not include the main public broadcasting services.

The majority of companies (about 89%) are involved in activities associated with the production of motion picture, video and television programmes; sound recording; and music publishing (NACE J59). In these activities, the average number of employees per company is below five. For programming and broadcasting activities (NACE J60), the average number of employees per company is over 21.

These figures highlight the importance of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the audiovisual sector. Hence, 73% of the companies in the sector are micro-enterprises (fewer than 10 employees) and 97% are small enterprises (fewer than 50 employees). This structure characterised by small enterprises is higher in the case of motion picture, video and television programme production, sound recording and music publishing activities (99%) than in programming and broadcasting activities (65%).

According to Eurostat’s Labour Force Survey (LFS) 2012, the sector employed more than 760,000 people in the EU27 in the second quarter of 2012. According to the most recent data available, employment in the sector does not seem to have been especially affected by the economic crisis. However, the two subsectors have both been hit at different times during the crisis. Despite this, more recent developments in the sector demonstrate employment reduction practices in a number of countries, with a particular incidence in companies providing public broadcasting services.

Employment characteristics

The statistics given below are based on LFS data for 2010.

Gender

Men made up the majority of employees, with more than 60% in both subsectors in 2010. The proportion of women was relatively higher in programming and broadcasting activities (39.9%) in 2010 than in motion picture, video and television programme production, sound recording and music publishing activities (34.6%). In both cases, however, their share was lower than the average female share in employment in the whole economy of EU27 (45.5%).

Age

The composition of the workforce by age groups in 2010 showed that motion picture, video and television programme production, sound recording and music publishing activities had a younger workforce than programming and broadcasting activities, in particular employing more people aged between 15 and 24 (11.4% and 8.6% respectively).

Type of employment contract

As highlighted in a 2010 European Commission report (1.23MB PDF) on recent developments in European sectoral social dialogue, workers in the audiovisual sector are particularly affected by atypical work, part-time work and unsocial working time.

Self-employment and non-employee relationships represented 21.4% of total employment in the sector in 2010 compared with 16.1% of total employment in the EU27. This affects unionisation opportunities in the sector; in particular, according to EURO-MEI, freelancers are often hindered by anti-trust laws in joining trade unions and thus have no access to collective bargaining. Temporary employees represented 21.4% of employees in the sector in 2010 compared with 11.7% of total employees in the EU27. Unsocial working hours were reported by 26.1% of workers in the sector.

Furthermore, 6.2% of workers in the sector had more than one job in 2010. This is one reason why some national data reports show a decrease in employees in the sector while total employment remains constant. This seems to be the case of the Czech Republic, Lithuania, Romania and the UK, while in Spain and Portugal, the decrease is general in both employment and number of employees.

Educational attainment and occupations

However, workers in the audiovisual sector generally had a higher level of educational attainment in 2010 compared with total employees in the EU27.

  • 52.1% had a high level of educational attainment compared with 29% of total employees;
  • 40% had a medium level of educational attainment level compared with 49.2% of total employees;
  • only 7.9% had a low level of educational attainment compared with 21.5% of total employees.

Owing to this relatively higher education level, the majority of workers in the sector in 2010 were:

  • ‘technicians and associate professionals’ (37.8% compared with 16.6% of total employment);
  • ‘professionals’ (31.9% compared with 14.6% of total employment).

These categories were followed by:

  • ‘legislators, senior officials and managers’ (11.6% compared with 8.2% of total employment);
  • ‘clerks’ (8.8% compared with 10.6% of total employment).

Long-term trends

The progressive liberalisation of audiovisual industries has led to an increasing division of labour across the value chain. Research conducted for the European Commission by the Institut des Sciences du Travail (IST) at the Catholic University of Louvain concluded in a 2005 report (2.61MB PDF) that overall the sector had experienced increasing competition, greater demand for flexibility by employers, and a growing lack of job security and deteriorating working conditions.

Moreover, according to the EFJ, many workers from the audiovisual sector face irregular and unpredictable employment opportunities, atypical contractual relationships and lack of control over their working conditions (EU0712029I). In parallel, in some countries the use of self-employed people is an ever-increasing phenomenon and undeclared work was highlighted by the Social Dialogue Committee in the Audiovisual Sector (SCDAS) as a problem in the sector in joint position on the Green Paper (143KB PDF), Modernising labour law to meet the challenges of the 21st century, issued in April 2007.

The Sofia Declaration (519KB PDF) by the social partners on promoting social dialogue in the audiovisual industry following a European seminar in October 2010 encourages the development of social dialogue at national level and specifically highlights the necessity to include the diversity of workers, contracts and employment situations in workers’ representation and the diversity of employers in the sector (public, private and so on) in employers’ organisations.

Tables 1 and 2 provide a general overview of the development of the sector from 2000 to 2010. Most of the data in the two tables come from national sources (and are collected by national centres). Due to the low employment level in the sector, in some cases data are not completely reliable. In addition, the revision of the NACE classification strictly speaking makes comparison invalid and the figures should therefore be used with caution.

The audiovisual sector is rather small and has a very minor presence in several EU27 countries, a fact which could have an influence on the (low) degree of representation in some countries. In 16 of the 20 Member States with available data for 2000 and 2010, the number of companies increased though in many cases this does not imply a relevant increase in employment. In some cases the sector is apparently being fragmented into enterprises with fewer workers (see, for example Estonia and Spain, where the number of companies has increased and employment has decreased). In contrast, the number of companies has decreased in five countries. In some cases this seems to be linked to a huge employment decrease (Portugal, Spain) or to a small reduction in employment (Hungary, Romania), while in other cases this could be attributable to a trend towards market concentration (Netherlands).

Table 1: Total employers and employment, 2000 and 2010
 

Year

Number of companies

Total employment

Female employment

Male employment

Share of sectoral employment as % of total employment in EU economy

AT

2000

na

na

na

na

na

2010

2,148

11,484

na

na

~0.3

BE

2000

na

na

na

na

na

2010

~350

~9,740

na

na

~0.21

BG

2008

na

na

na

na

na

2010

na

na

na

na

na

CY

2005

109

2,048

na

na

0.65

2010

176

2,200

932

1,268

0.59

CZ

2000

3,852

13,200

6,500

6,700

0.28

2010

6,074

17,000

4,600

12,400

0.35

DE

2000

na

na

na

na

na

2010

12,446

130,000

55,000

75,000

3.3

DK

2001

1,436

11,993

7,151

4,842

0.4

2010

1,947 (2009)

13,069

7,966

5,103

0.5

EE

2005

233

14,900

6,200

8,700

2.4

2010

359

12,400

4,200

8,200

2.2

EL

2008

125

16,734

6,378

10,356

0.37

2010

414

18,509

5,780

12,729

0.42

ES

2008

10,297

88,800

31,800

57,000

0.4

2010

11,891

74,000

26,000

48,000

0.4

FI

2000

718

9,883

4,512

5,371

0.5

2010

1,554

9,846

4,432

5,414

0.4

FR

2000

6,352

na

na

na

na

2009

8,995

na

na

na

na

HU

2008

7,318

8,081

na

na

na

2010

7,241

7,546

na

na

na

IE

2000

na

na

na

na

na

2007

567

5,440 (full-time equivalents)

na

na

na

IT

2001

7,602

55,892

22,556

33,336

0.23

2009

8,626

63,459

25,609

37,850

0.79

LT

2006

233

na

na

na

na

2011

239

na

na

na

na

LU

2000

na

na

na

na

na

2010

<1500

na

na

na

0.43

LV

2000

173

1,272

832

440

0.16

2010

284

2,574

1,299

1,275

0.3

MT

2005

549

1,359

424

935

0.76

2010

602

1,450

448

1,002

0.73

NL

2000

2,241

na

na

na

na

2010

2,040

na

na

na

na

PL

2000

na

na

na

na

na

2010

10,858

29,600

9,800

19,800

0.2

PT

1999

1,942

25,032

na

na

1.0%

2010

869

9,467

na

na

0.3%

RO

2008

2589

na

na

na

na

2010

2251

na

na

na

na

SE

2003

1,200

na

na

na

na

2010

1,704

na

na

na

na

SI

2000

300

3,260

1,364

1,896

0.4

2010

709

3,614

1,445

2,169

0.44

SK

2000

211

2,100

900

1,200

0.1

2010

721

5,900

2,600

3,300

0.21

UK

2000

na

140,986

58,514

82,472

0.55

2010

17,490

144,298

41,679

102,619

0.5

Notes: According to Eurostat’s definition, the term ‘employees’ refers mainly to salaried employees, while the figures for employment would include the self-employed and temporary agency workers. However, national definitions may deviate from this. The table should therefore be read in conjunction with the respective national contribution.

For detailed description of sources please refer to national reports.

na = not available

Source: EIRO national centres, national statistics

Table 2: Total employees, 2000 and 2010
 

Year

Total employees

Female employees

Male employees

Share of sectoral employees as % of total employees in EU economy

AT

2000

8,965

3,997

4,968

0.3

2010

8,517

3,918

4,599

0.28

BE

2000

na

na

na

na

2010

6,251

2,678

3,573

0.14

BG

2008

9,845

4,861

4,984

na

2010

8,570

4,706

3,864

0.3

CY

2005

2,029

na

na

0.71

2010

2,189

929

1,260

0.62

CZ

2000

10,300

5,600

4,700

0.26

2010

11,600

3,900

7,700

0.29

DE

2000

na

na

na

na

2010

95,543

45,088

50,505

3.4

DK

2001

11,115

4,712

6,403

0.4

2010

11,527

4,874

6,653

0.5

EE

2005

13,800

6,000

7,800

2.5

2010

10,900

4,200

6,700

2.1

EL

2008

14,508

6,125

8,383

0.49

2010

16,954

5,448

11,506

0.59

ES

2008

75,800

28,600

47,100

0.4

2010

64,000

23,000

41,000

0.4

FI

2000

9,787

4,502

5,275

0.4

2010

9,211

4,339

4,872

0.4

FR

2000

162,610

63,418

99,192

0.71

2009

179,234

71,694

107,540

0.74 (2008)

HU

2008

8,081

na

na

na

2010

7,546

na

na

0.3

IE

2000

na

na

na

na

2007

6,905

na

na

0.3

IT

2001

45,589

20,046

25,543

0.26

2009

53,470

23,511

29,959

0.3

LT

2006

2,921

na

na

0.24

2011

2,264

na

na

0.21

LU

2000

na

na

na

na

2010

na

na

na

na

LV

2000

1,245

812

433

0.16

2010

2,268

1,149

1,119

0.46

MT

2005

1,135

403

732

na

2010

1,227

421

856

na

NL

2000

129,900

61,900

68,000

1.8

2010

179,300 (2009)

85,200

94,100

2.3

PL

2000

na

na

na

na

2010

na

na

na

na

PT

1999

24,130

na

na

1.1

2009

8,904

na

na

0.3

RO

2008

21,125

na

na

0.42

2010

17,758

na

na

0.41

SE

2003

13,995

na

na

0.37

2010

15,647

na

na

0.39

SI

2000

3,153

1,338

1,815

0.44

2010

3,155

1,378

1,777

0.43

SK

2000

1,500

700

800

0.08

2010

4,400

2,000

2,000

0.21

UK

2000

110,791

49,613

61,178

0.46

2010

97,902

33,834

64,068

0.39

Notes: For detailed description of sources please refer to national reports.

na = not available

Source: EIRO national centres, national statistics

Female employment was higher than the European average in Denmark, Finland and Latvia, and also Belgium in the case of employees, but lower in Greece, Malta and the UK. There was increase in overall employment in the sector in 11 out of the 15 countries for which comparative data are available, with only Estonia, Hungary, Portugal and Spain showing a decrease (Table 1).

Data on the evolution of employees from 2000 to 2010 show significant differences (Table 2). In this case, 10 out of the 22 countries for which comparative data are available show a decrease in the number of employees. However, two countries studied either maintained or increased employment and a reduced number of employees (Finland, UK); the increase in employment in these countries is attributed to self-employment. The use of self-employed workers, sporadic workers, as well as other atypical contractual relationships, also implies new orientations in the organisation of work and the individualisation of wage formation and working conditions. According to the IST report (2.61MB PDF), these were not being addressed by industrial relation structures at the time of writing.

Figure 1 shows the evolution share of employees in employment since the beginning of the 2000s to 2010 in 14 countries where data are available. The share of employees in employment increased during this period in four out of 14 countries; in Greece, Italy and Spain, data suggest that employment reduction has mainly affected self-employment, while an increase of employees in employment is recorded in Slovakia. In eight countries, the share of employees in employment fell – with larger declines seen in the Czech Republic, Latvia, Slovenia and the UK.

Figure 1: Share of employees in employment, 2000–2010

Figure 1: Share of employees in employment, 2000–2010

Note: For a detailed description of sources please refer to national reports.

Source: Authors’ elaboration according to data from national centres and national statistics

The available data for 2010 show that self-employment and other non-employee relationships (apprentices, freelancers and so on) were especially relevant in Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Slovakia and the UK. However, the relevance of non-standard employment forms remained low in Cyprus, Finland, Greece and Portugal.

Recent developments

According to LFS data the employment level in the audiovisual sector across the EU27 has not been affected particularly hard by the economic recession, with employment growth being relatively stable overall (Figure 2). Employment dropped to just over 700,000 in the fourth quarter of 2008, stayed at around 740,000 from beginning of 2009 until mid-2010, and peaked at 810,000 workers in the second quarter of 2011. Although this peak was not maintained, employment still stood at 760,000–785,000 in the first three quarters of 2012.

Figure 2: Employment in the audiovisual sector, 2008–2012

Figure 2: Employment in the audiovisual sector, 2008–2012

Note: Employment data include: salaried employees, self-employed and temporary agency workers.

Source: LFS (2012), Employment by sex, age and detailed economic activity (lfsq_egan22d)

However, the aggregate data hide different developments at subsectoral and national level. Figures 3 and 4 show the percentage change of employment compared with the same quarter in the previous year for the two subsectors. While the programming and broadcasting industry still displayed high rates of employment growth at the beginning of the crisis in 2009, the production sector was losing employment. In contrast, when employment levels in the latter picked up again, employment in the programming industry was adversely affected.

Figure 3: Employment in the programming and broadcasting subsector, 2009–2012

Figure 3: Employment in the programming and broadcasting subsector, 2009–2012

Note: Percentage change to same quarter in previous year

Source: LFS (2012), Employment by sex, age and detailed economic activity (lfsq_egan22d)

Figure 4: Employment in motion picture, video and television programme production, sound recording and music publishing activities subsector, 2009–2012

Figure 4: Employment in motion picture, video and television programme production, sound recording and music publishing activities subsector, 2009–2012

Note: Percentage change to same quarter in previous year

Source: LFS (2012), Employment by sex, age and detailed economic activity (lfsq_egan22d)


National level of interest representation

The analysis of the national level of interest representation focuses on:

  • the membership domain and strength of the organisations;
  • their role in collective bargaining;
  • their role in public policymaking.

Membership domain and strength

The study uses the quantitative data on membership and relative strength collected through the EIRO network of correspondents from the categories listed in Table 3.

Table 3: Definitions of membership
Type of organisation Membership Density
Employee

Number of active members in employment

Number of active members in employment in audiovisual sector

Sectoral density: number of active members in employment in audiovisual sector divided by total number of employees in audiovisual sector

Employer

Number of member companies

Number of employees working in member companies

Number of member companies in audiovisual sector

Number of employees working in member companies in audiovisual sector

Sectoral density (companies): number of member companies in audiovisual sector divided by total number of companies in audiovisual sector

Sectoral density (employees): number of employees working in member companies in audiovisual sector divided by total number of employees in audiovisual sector

Trade unions and employee interest representation

The names and abbreviations of the various trade unions and employee interest representation bodies are listed in Table A2I in Annex 2. Data on the domains and membership strength of the employee organisations are presented in Tables A2II and A2III, which list all sector-related organisations which are either involved in collective bargaining and/or affiliated to one of the European level organisations.

Specific to the audiovisual sector on the employee’s side, at least one European level organisation (EFJ) has some ‘interest representations’ rather than genuine trade unions as affiliates. These are not involved in collective bargaining at national level and also do not often have a national status as trade union. Nevertheless, they are included in this study because, via their membership of European level organisations, they take part in sector-related social dialogue.

All 27 countries have at least two sector-related trade unions or employee organisations. A total of 169 sector-related employee organisations were identified that meet the criteria to be included in this representativeness study.

The employee representation landscape is generally dispersed. In the vast majority of countries (that is, three-quarters of all Member States), four or more sector-related trade unions or interest representations were found. The organisation of the employee side is scattered, especially in France which has 21 organisations included in the study. As described in the French national contribution, this has led the French authorities to ask the social partners to clarify and simplify their collective bargaining system.

In four countries (Austria, Hungary, Luxembourg, Malta), only two sector-employee organisations were recorded. Three employee organisations are included in Denmark, Lithuania, Latvia and Slovakia.

The undefined boundaries of the audiovisual sector mean that no employee organisations have demarcated their domain in a way which is congruent with the sector definition. This highlights the fact that the statistical definitions of the sector’s business activities differ from the lines of how employees identify their interests. The latter are based mainly on trades, occupational categories or being employed in public and semi-public broadcasting companies.

Sectional overlaps prevail in the audiovisual sector, being found in 63% of the cases (Figure 5). This circumstance usually derives from domain demarcations that focus on certain categories of employees, which are then organised across several or all sectors. Employee categories are specified by various parameters as indicated below.

Distinct occupations include:

  • actors and directors – Actors’ Union of Cyprus (EHK); Federation of Artists of the Spanish State (FAEE) and Organization of Actors’ and Actresses’ Union of the Spanish State (OSAAEE); Union of Finnish Actors (SNL); Trade Union of Italian Actors (SAI); Trade Union of Polish Actors (ZZAP); Slovenian Association of Dramatic Artists (ZDUS); and Actors’ Commune of Slovakia (HOS);
  • technicians – Association of Entertainment Institutions Trade Unions (USIS) in Romania and Building; and Allied Trade Union (BATU) in Ireland;
  • musicians and dancers – German Orchestra Association (DOV); Estonian Professional Dancers Union (EKTL); Finnish Musicians Union (SML); National Federation of Musician Artists’ Unions (SNAM CGT) and National Musicians Union (Force Ouvrière) (SNM-FO) in France; and Musicians Union of Ireland (MUI);
  • performers – EQUITY in the UK;
  • artists – Free Union of Artists (Force Ouvrière) (SNLA-FO) in France;
  • journalists – Union of Cyprus Journalists (ΕΣΚ); Syndicate of Journalists of the Czech Republic (SNCR); German Federation of Journalists (DJV); Federation of Associations of Journalists of Spain (FAPE); Finnish Union of Journalists (SJL); National Union of Journalists (General Confederation of Labour) (SNJ-CGT), National Union of Journalists (SNJ), General Union of Journalists (Force Ouvrière) (SGJ-FO) and Union of Journalists (French Democratic Confederation of Labour) (USJ-CFDT) in France; National Federation of the Italian Media (FNSI); Lithuanian Journalists Union (LŽS) and Lithuanian Journalists’ Association (LŽD) in Lithuania; Association of Luxemburgish Journalists (ALJ); Dutch Association of Journalists (NVJ); Association of Journalists of the Republic of Poland (SDRP); Union of Journalists (SJ) in Portugal; Slovak Syndicate of Journalists (SSN); Slovene Association of Journalists (DNS); and National Union of Journalists (NUJ) in the UK.

Examples of employment status include:

  • white-collar workers – Union for Municipal Employees and the Small Arts, Media, Sports and Liberal Professions (GdG-KMSfB) and Union of Salaried Employees, Graphical Workers and Journalists (GPA-djp) in Austria; Belgian Union of White-Collar Staff, Technicians and Managers (SETCa-BBTK) and National Federation of White-Collar Workers (CNE-LBC) in Belgium; Employees’ Union of Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation (EYRIK); Danish Metalworkers’ Union (Dansk Metal); The Union (De Unie/MHP) in the Netherlands; Union of Associated Artists FORUM (ZZST FORUM) in Poland; Trade Union Association of Professional Musicians of Slovakia (Únia-OZ PHS); and Graduates Union of Culture and Information (DIK) and Unionen (Unionen) in Sweden;
  • blue-collar employees – Employees’ Union in Technical Services of Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation (SYTYRIK) and French Performers’ Union (SFA);
  • self-employed – Union Conference of Freelance Workers in Culture and Media at GLOSA (SUKI-GLOSA) in Slovenia;
  • workers in public companies – General Confederation of Public Services (CGSP-ACOD) and Federation of Liberal Trade Unions of Belgium (CGSLB-ACLVB) in Belgium; Local Authority Workers’ and Employees’ Trade Union (SIDIKEK) in Cyprus; Trade Union of Workers of the Mass Media of the Czech Republic (OS MEDIA); Federation of Trade Unions of Hungarian Posts and Communications Employees (PHDSZS) in Hungary; and Education, Science and Culture Trade Union of Slovenia (SVIZ) and Union of Cultural and Artistic Creators of RTV Slovenia (SKUU RTV).

Some unions are only active in certain geographical regions such as the Services Federation of the Galician Interunion Confederation (Servizos CIG), Basque Workers’ Solidarity (ELA-STV) and the Catalan Musicians’ Union (UMC) in Spain, and the Athens Daily Newspapers Staff Union (ΕPIΕΑ) in Greece, which are active only in certain regions.

Domain demarcations resulting in overlap in relation to the sector occur in 21% of cases (Figure 5). Overlap by and large arises from two different modes of demarcation. The first one refers to general (for example, cross-sectoral) domains – General Workers’ Union (GWU) in Malta and the Dutch Trade Union Federation (FNV). The second and more frequent mode relates to various forms of multi-sector domains, covering continuous sectors, frequently in the broader distribution of private services segments of the economy such as:

  • United Services Union (ver.di) in Germany;
  • Film and TV Workers’ Union (FAF) in Denmark;
  • National Union of Directors, Technicians from the Audiovisual and Film Industries (Force Ouvrière) (FASAP-FO), Communications Federation of the French Confederation of Christian Workers (FEDECOM-CFTC), National Union of Media (French Democratic Confederation of Labour) (SNM-CFDT), Independent Union of Artists and Performers (National Union of Autonomous Trade Unions Confederation) (SIA-UNSA) and United Union for Culture & Media Solidarity (SUD) in France;
  • Union of Printing Houses, Media and Culture (OGBL-FLTL) in Luxembourg;
  • Latvian Trade Union Federation for People Engaged in Cultural Activities (LKDAF);
  • Christian Services Trade Union – Media (CNV Media) in the Netherlands;
  • Union of Audiovisual Media (SMAV), National Union of Telecommunication and Audiovisual Workers (SINTTAV), Democratic Union of Communication and Media Workers (Sindetelco), National Union of Telecommunication and Audiovisual Communication Workers (STT) and Union of Musicians, of Professionals in Live Performance and of Audiovisual (CENA) in Portugal;
  • Romanian Federation of Journalists (MediaSind), Association of Culture Industry Trade Unions (USRC) and Federation of Performing Artists Unions of Romania (FAIR) in Romania;
  • Federation of Citizens Services of the Trade Union Confederation of Workers’ Commissions (FSC-CCOO), Services Federation of the General Workers Confederation (FeS-UGT) and Workers’ Union Organisation – Services Area (USO-AS) in Spain;
  • Swedish Union for Theatre, Artists and Media (TF) in Sweden;
  • Union of Culture of the Republic of Slovenia (GLOSA) and Union Conference of Musicians at GLOSA (GLOSA-SKG) in Slovenia;
  • Broadcasting, Entertainment, Cinematograph and Theatre Union (BECTU) and Musicians’ Union (MU) in the UK.

Finally, sectionalism arising from the existence of sector-specific employee organisations and those that do not organise employees outside the audiovisual sector, can be found in 16% of cases (Figure 5). Examples of the former include:

  • directors – French Union of Directors (General Confederation of Labour) (SFR-CGT) and National Union of Directors and Technicians from the Audiovisual and Film Industries (Force Ouvrière) (FORTAC-FO) in France);
  • blue-collar workers – Confederation of Christian Trade Unions Transcom Culture (CSC-ACV) in Belgium; National Union for Radio and Television (Force Ouvrière (SNFORT) in France; Union of Greek Private Television Technicians of Attica (ETITA) and Greek Union of Film, Television and Audiovisual Technicians (ETEKT-OT) in Greece;
  • white-collar workers – Danish Union of Journalists (DJ); and National Union of Managers, Employees and Technicians in the Film Industry (SNCAMTC) and National Union of Artists and Conductors of Variety Shows and Arrangers (SNACOPVA) in France;
  • actors – Federation of Film and Television Actors (BFFS) in Germany;
  • workers in public broadcasting – Trade Union of Television Creative Workers (TLL) and Professionals’ Union of Technical Workers of Radio and Television (RTTTA) in Estonia; Trade Union Unification for Creative Workers of Lithuanian Radio and Television (LRTKDPS); Domestic Section of Radio and Television Employees of the Self-Governing Trade Union ‘Solidarity’ (KSPRiT NSZZ ‘Solidarność’) in Poland; and Union of Workers in Broadcasting of Slovenia (SDRS) in Slovenia;
  • musicians – Swedish Union for Professional Musicians (SYMF);
  • radio-technicians – Hellenic Union of Radio Technicians (ETEP) in Greece;
  • journalists –National Union of Journalists (NUJ) in Ireland and Union of Slovenian Journalists (SNS) in Slovenia;
  • cinema activities – Union of Audiovisual and Cinematographic Technicians of the Spanish State (TACE).

Figure 5: Audiovisual sector-related employee organisations and their domain patterns

Figure 5: Audiovisual sector-related employee organisations and their domain patterns

Note: n = 163

Source: EIRO national contributions

In the audiovisual sector, the employee organisations’ domain refers to different occupations and employment statuses; the presence of sector-specific employee organisations is also high. Table A2IV in Annex 2 shows the overlap of these inter-organisations domains in 23 out of 27 countries. In most countries (except Luxembourg, Malta, Latvia and Poland) the domain of any of the organisations overlaps with the domains of all or most of the others. Depending on the scale of the mutual overlap, this results in competition for members. Noticeable competition between organisations was noted Finland, France, Germany, Slovenia and Sweden, in some cases resulting in competition for members and, in other cases, the reaching of agreements.

Membership of the sector-related employee organisations is, in principle, voluntary in 26 of the 27 countries under consideration. In the case of the Services, Industrial, Professional and Technical Union (SIPTU) in Ireland, its membership is mixed.

The number of members of employee organisations differs widely, ranging from more than two million (in the case of Germany’s ver.di) to only a few dozen. This considerable variation reflects differences in the size of the economy and the comprehensiveness of the membership domain rather than the ability to attract members. Thus, sectoral density is used in this study to measure an organisation’s membership strength within the audiovisual sector as this more appropriate for comparative analysis. In the context of this study, the sectoral density for each organisation is defined as the organisation’s members in active employment in relation to total sectoral employees.

Density figures in this section refer to net ratios, which means that they are calculated on the basis of active employees only, rather than taking into account all members of an employee organisation (that is, those in a job and those who are not). This is mainly because research usually considers net employee organisation densities as more informative compared with gross densities, since the former tends to reflect unionisation trends among the active workforce more quickly and accurately than the latter (only the active workforce is capable of taking industrial action).

Sectoral density rates are available for only a number of sector-related organisations (57 of 151 cases). These statistics show that:

  • sectoral density exceeded 20% in 5% (DJ in Denmark, SJL in Finland and SIPTU in Ireland) of the employee organisations which document figures on density;
  • 19% (11) of employee organisations claimed to gather 10–20% of the sectors’ employees;
  • 21% (12) of the employee organisations for which data are available stated that they organised 5–10% of the active employees in the sector;
  • 54% (31) of the employee organisations recorded a sector density rate of less than 5% of the employees in the sector.

In this sense, in addition to the fact that the employee organisations’ domains mainly overlap in the sector and represent different occupations through other sectors, sectoral domain varies depending on the countries and different employee organisations’ domains.

These low sector density rates are caused by:

  • the fragmentation of the employee organisation domains;
  • the existence of a number of employee organisations in each country;
  • the presence of self-employment and other types of atypical employment in the sector.

In addition, data are not available in the majority of cases. The small size of the establishments in the sector hinders workplace organisation and the high incidence of atypical work within the sector may serve as an explanation for low unionisation rates.

Employers’ organisations and public broadcasting services

The names and abbreviations of the various employers’ organisations are listed in Table A3I in Annex 3. Tables A3II, A3III, A3IV, A3V, A3VI and 3VII present individual membership data for employers’ organisations and companies providing public service broadcasting services in 26 out of the 27 Member States. Neither the top–down nor the bottom–up approach identified any organisation in Luxembourg.

A total of 148 sector-related employers’ organisations and companies providing public broadcasting services fulfilling the study’s criteria were identified. This total includes 47 public broadcasting services; in four countries, the public broadcasting company was the only organisation recorded – Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation (CYBC) in Cyprus, Czech Television (ČT) and Czech Radio (ČRO) in the Czech Republic, Estonian Public Broadcasting (ERR) in Estonia and Lithuanian National Radio and Television (LRT) in Lithuania – and no other sectoral employers’ organisations falling within the scope of this study were detected.

In 12 of the EU27 countries, some of the listed organisations (both employers’ organisations and companies) are not party to collective bargaining (see Tables A3IV and A3VI). They are included into this study because of their European level affiliations to EBU, CEPI, ACT, AER or FIAPF. Of the 26 countries for which related data are available, 22 have one or more organisations engaged in sector-related collective bargaining. In general, business interest organisations may also deal with interests other than those related to industrial relations. Organisations specialised in matters other than industrial relations are commonly defined as ‘trade associations’ (see TN0311101S). Such sector-related trade associations also exist in the audiovisual sector. In terms of their national scope of activities, all the organisations not involved in collective bargaining, according to Tables A3IV and A3V, either primary or exclusively act as trade organisations in their country. It is only the conceptual decision to include all organisations affiliated to EBU, CEPI, ACT, AER and FIAPF, regardless of whether they have a role in collective bargaining, which made us include these organisations in the present study. Of the 137 organisations listed in Tables A3II and A3III, at least 15 organisations belong to this group.

Only one of the 26 countries for which information on the sector-related organisational landscape is given (Malta) has a single organisation. Pluralist associational systems thus prevail on the employee and employer side, though to a greater extent in the former than in the latter.

Moreover, the employer organisations’ domain tends to be narrower than those of employee organisations. Of all of the organisations for which related information is available, a small minority have overlapping and approximately a fifth have sectionally overlapping domains. Only relatively few of these organisations have cross-sectoral domains.

Most cases of domain overlaps ensue from coverage of the broader trade and audiovisual sector, often including activities of the live performance sector. Overlaps of this kind can be found in all countries apart from Cyprus, Estonia, France, Lithuania, the Netherlands and Slovakia. In all these cases, except France and the Netherlands, only public service broadcasting services were found. Sectionalism or sectionalist overlap (in the case of broader domain demarcation in terms of sector) is mainly caused by domain demarcations which focus on subsectors (radio, films, documentaries, television and so on) or the kind of service they specialise in (producers, distributors and so on).

For instance, in Portugal there are three employer organisations each specialising in narrowly defined activities (cinema, radio and television producers). A more pronounced fragmentation of the associational ‘landscape’ on the employers’ side can be observed in countries such as Belgium, Italy and particularly France, with its 25 sector-related employer organisations. The latter may serve as an example of a country in which subsectors and kind of service merge and result in organisations for audiovisual producers (three organisations), producers and creators of television, film producers, cable and satellite television enterprises, film producers (two organisations), radios, cinema, audiovisual and multimedia, and so on.

In line with this fragmentation, nearly three-quarters of all the organisations have a membership domain which is sectionalist. Only four organisations (3%) show a domain more or less congruent with the sector definition (Figure 6). This means that the domain of these organisations largely focuses on the audiovisual sector as defined earlier. However, one cannot rule out the possibility that these organisations may also organise companies of a contiguous sector or do not really organise the entire audiovisual sector. The clear predominance of membership domains which are sectionalist with regard to the sector indicates that the technocratic definition of the sector is broader than the lines along which most sector-related employers identify common interests and band together in associations.

Two of the three existing sector-related employer organisations in Austria can rely on obligatory membership. This is due to their public law status as chamber units.

Figure 6: Audiovisual sector-related organisations/business associations and their domain patterns

Figure 6: Audiovisual sector-related organisations/business associations and their domain patterns

Note: n = 137

Source: EIRO national contributions

In countries with a pluralist structure in relation to employer organisations, the organisations have usually – with the exception of France – managed to arrive at non-competing relationships. Their activities are complementary to each other as a result of inter-associational differentiation by their membership demarcation (as is the case of Austria, Belgium, Germany, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and the UK) or functions and tasks (as is, at least partially, the case of Denmark).

Membership strength in terms of companies varies widely with regard to sector-related densities (Table A3IV). The same holds true of the densities in terms of employees. When information is available, the sectoral densities of companies tend to be lower than the sectoral density of employees, except in some cases in Denmark, France and Italy. This indicates a slightly higher propensity of larger companies to associate than their smaller counterparts. In general, densities of the employer/business organisations in the sector tend to be higher than employee organisation densities (see above).

Despite this the fragmentation implies that, of the associations for which related data are available, only 13.6% show a sectoral density greater than 10% in terms of companies (only in the case of the Austrian Association of Film and Music Industry (FVFM) is it higher than 50%), and more than half show a sectoral density exceeding 10% in terms of employees, while no organisation has a high employee coverage exceeding 50%. This reflects the sector’s company structure, which is characterised by a high proportion of SMEs and their fragmentation according to specialised services, subsectors and public broadcasting services. In general, the data suggest that employers in the audiovisual sector are weakly organised and very fragmented in their organisation according to different activities and business segments. However, density data are available for only a minority of the employer/business associations and again the data should be treated be caution.

Collective bargaining

Multi-employer bargaining is defined as being conducted by an employer organisation on behalf of the employer side. In the case of single-employer bargaining, the company or its divisions is party to the agreement. This includes cases where two or more companies jointly negotiate an agreement.

The relative importance of multi-employer bargaining, measured as a percentage of the total number of employees covered by a collective agreement, provides an indication of the impact of the employer organisations on the overall collective bargaining process.

The questionnaire sent to trade unions and employers organisations asked whether they participated in collective bargaining on behalf of their members, and whether this was single-employer, multi-employer or both forms of collective bargaining. The questionnaire addressed to EBU members asked whether a company level agreement was in place and/or whether a multi-employer agreement applied (that is, an agreement made at a level higher than the company level).

Despite numerous cases of inter-union domain overlap and of unclear domain demarcation, only in two countries (France and Slovenia) was inter-union rivalry and competition for bargaining capacities identified. In the case of the sector-related employer organisations, competition over collective bargaining capacities was reported in the case of France, mainly between those organisations representing large companies and those representing smaller ones.

Less than a fifth of sector-related employee organisations with available information do not participate in collective bargaining, more than 20% participate in single-employer bargaining, less than 12% participate in multi-employer bargaining, and about a half participate both in single and multi-employer bargaining (Tables A2III).

From the employers’ side, more than 12% of the organisations (both employers’ organisations and public broadcasting companies) for which information is available do not participate in collective bargaining, 25% participate in single-employer bargaining, less than a half participate in multi-employer bargaining and about the 15% participate in both single and multi-employer bargaining (Tables A3IV and A3VI). If we analyse only the companies providing public broadcasting services, 7% of those with available information do not participate in collective bargaining, while 75% participate in single-employer bargaining and about 17% participate in both types of collective bargaining (Table A3VI). Engagement in single-employer bargaining is a characteristic feature of individual companies providing public broadcasting services (Figure 7).

Figure 7: Involvement in different forms of collective bargaining

Figure 7: Involvement in different forms of collective bargaining

Note: Percentage of total organisations in the study.

Source: EIRO national contributions

The importance of collective bargaining as a means of employment regulation is measured by calculating the total number of employees covered by collective bargaining as a proportion of the total number of employees within a certain segment of the economy (see Traxler, F., Blaschke, S. and Kittel, B., National labour relations in internationalised markets, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2001). Accordingly, the sector’s rate of collective bargaining coverage is defined as the ratio of the number of employees covered by any kind of collective agreement to the total number of employees in the sector.

To delineate the bargaining system, two further indicators are used. The first refers to the relevance of multi-employer bargaining (MEB) compared with single-employer bargaining (SEB) (Table 4).

The second indicator considers whether statutory extension schemes have been applied to the sector. For reasons of brevity, this analysis is confined to extension schemes that widen the scope of a collective agreement to employers not affiliated to the signatory employer organisation. Extension regulations targeting employees are therefore not included in the study as they are not significant because:

  • extending a collective agreement to employees who are not unionised in a company covered by the collective agreement is a standard rule of the International Labour Organization (ISO), aside from any national legislation;
  • if employers did not extend a collective agreement concluded by them, even when not formally obliged to do so, they would set an incentive for their workforce to unionise.
Table 4: System of sectoral collective bargaining, 2011
 

Total collective bargaining coverage (CBC) (%) (estimates)

Share of MEB (%) (estimates)

Extension practices

AT

100

60

No practice

BE

100

MEB prevailing

Pervasive

BG

55–60

100

No practice

CY

na

0

na

CZ

<50

0

na

DE

50

SEB prevailing

No practice

DK

95

SEB prevailing

None

EE

na

0

na

EL

na

na

Abolished in 2011

ES

24

99

Pervasive

FI

na

60

Pervasive

FR

70

60

Pervasive

HU

38

0

na

IE

<40

SEB prevailing

No practice

IT

100

MEB prevailing

Pervasive practices on wage agreements

LT

27

0

na

LU

na

na

Limited/exceptional

LV

17

0

Limited/exceptional

MT

12.1

0

na

NL

na

50

None

PL

0.5

0

Not applicable

PT

50

37

Pervasive

RO

100

MEB prevailing

Only for the mass media sector agreement, signed before a change in legislation (2011)

SE

>75

MEB prevailing

Limited/exceptional

SI

100

SEB prevailing

None

SK

30

0

na

UK

30

MEB prevailing

None

Notes: CBC = collective bargaining coverage: employees covered as a percentage of the total number of employees in the sector

MEB = multi-employer bargaining relative to single-employer bargaining

SEB = single-employer bargaining

na = not available

Only 11 of the 22 countries with available data recorded coverage in 2011 of 50% or more, indicating a low coverage rate (Table 4). Countries with high coverage are mainly Scandinavian ones (Denmark, Sweden) together with Austria, Belgium, France and Italy.

Of note is that countries with high rates of coverage in other sectors record low percentages in the audiovisual sector; this is the case of Germany (50%), while Ireland, which traditionally records low collective bargaining coverage rates, shows a rate of 40% for 2007.

The coverage of collective bargaining is low in some of the old Member States (EU15) such as Spain (24%) and the UK (30%), and especially so in most of New Member States (NMS). For example, in these countries the coverage rate in Bulgaria was 55–60%, followed by Hungary (38%), Lithuania (27%) and Latvia (17%), and dropping to 0.5% in Poland. However, coverage is high in NMS such Slovenia (100%) where public broadcasting companies have a predominant role and when the company has a collective agreement. Romania had 100% coverage in 2011 due to a multi-employer agreement which ends in 2013; recent legislation abolished extension practices (RO1107029I) and single-employment agreement coverage is calculated to be about 50%.

In most of the countries with available information, a number of factors, which sometimes interact with each other, account for the higher coverage rates. These are:

  • the predominance of multi-employer bargaining (Table 4);
  • relatively higher density rates of employee and/or employer organisations (Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Sweden);
  • the existence of pervasive extension practices such as in Belgium and Finland;
  • the predominant role of public service broadcasting with single-employer agreements (Austria, Slovenia).

With the exception of Denmark, Romania and Slovenia, coverage in countries with prevalent multi-employer bargaining is generally high. However, single-employer bargaining arrangements in the sector are the only existing type of bargaining in the Czech Republic, Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Malta, Poland and Slovakia. In the latter group of countries, collective bargaining coverage tends to be rather low.

Due to the relevant presence of multi-employer settlements in the sector, the use of extension practices is significant (Table 4). In the case of Greece (GR1203019I) and Romania (see above), however, legislation in 2011 eliminated extension practices.

Participation in public policy

Interest associations can influence public policy by being:

  • consulted by the authorities on matters affecting their members;
  • represented on ‘corporatist’ (in other words tripartite) committees and boards of policy concertation.

This study considers only cases of consultation and corporatist participation which explicitly relate to sector-specific matters. Because consultation processes can be wide-ranging, the organisations consulted by the authorities may vary according to the issues and also depend on changes in government. Moreover, consultation may be occasional rather than regular.

Trade unions and employee interest representations

The vast majority (80%) of the sector-related employee organisations with available data stated they are consulted on sector-specific matters. Consultation is mainly carried out unilaterally in more than a third of the cases. Authorities consult employee organisations in all countries where sector-related employee organisations are recorded. However, employee organisations are not consulted regularly in Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Greece, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sweden, Slovenia and Slovakia. Since a multi-union system is established in most of the countries with sector-related employee organisations, the possibility cannot be ruled out that the authorities favour certain employee organisations over others, or that the employee organisations compete for participation rights. In most countries with a multi-union system where a noticeable practice of consultation is observed, any existing employee organisations may take part in the consultation process. In contrast in Cyprus, Finland, France, Greece, Ireland, Lithuania, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, Slovakia and Spain, only some of the sector-related employee organisations are consulted.

Employer organisations or business associations

The authorities consulted 103 of the 111 employers’ organisations (93%) for which related data are available. Employers’ organisations are consulted in 23 of the 26 countries with sector-related organisations. However, organisations are not consulted regularly in Austria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia and Slovakia. In most countries with a multi-organisation system where consultation is recorded, any existing trade employers’ organisations may take part in the consultation process. In contrast in Belgium, Germany, Finland, Italy and Latvia only some of the sector-related organisations are consulted.

Tripartite participation

Genuine sector-specific bodies have been established in 14 of the 27 countries under consideration (Table 5). Tripartite bodies have been established in Finland, Germany, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Portugal and Romania. The scope of activity of the tripartite bodies is focused on:

  • atypical work and non-standard situations (Germany, Finland);
  • management of film or cinema bodies (Greece, Italy, Portugal);
  • legislation on culture and media (Poland);
  • social dialogue in culture and mass media (Romania).
Table 5: Tripartite and bipartite sector-specific public policy boards, 2011
 

Name of body and scope of activity

Bipartite/ tripartite

Origin

Participating organisations

Employee

Employer

CZ

Film council: unites members of professional associations and schools; participates in the legislative process regarding cinematography

Bipartite

Agreement

KINOS

APA, UFD, ACO, FITES

DE

Künstlersozialkasse (KSK): trans-sectoral social security system for artists, journalists (freelancers)

Tripartite

Statutory

Ver.di, DJV

na

DK

Industrial Committee for the Visual Media Education

Bipartite

Statutory

DJ, FAF, Dansk Metal

Confederation of Danish Industries

EL

Committee of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism to provide licence to practise the profession

Bipartite

Statutory

ETEKT-OT

Board of the Greek Film Centre

Tripartite

Statutory

ETEKT OT

SAPOE

FI

Atypical work in the audiovisual sector

Tripartite

Agreement

TEME, PRO, SJL

PALTA

FR

Commission Paritaire Nationale pour l'Emploi et la Formation de l'Audiovisuel

Bipartite

Statutory

CGT (FNSAC, SFA, SNTR, SNRT), CFDT, CFTC, FASAP-FO, CGC (Media), SNTPCT, SNJ, SNJ-CGT

EESPA, ACCES, AFPF, APC, API, CNRA, FICAM, FFRC, SEPP, SIRTI, SNRL, SPFA, SPI, SNRC, SRGP, SRN, STP, UPF, USPA

HU

Communication Social Dialogue Committee

Bipartite

Statutory

PHDSZSZ

VASAS

IVSZ

Hungarian Association of Content Industry

VOSZ

IE

Radio Television Ireland (RTE) Industrial Relations Tribunal (IRT): issues in dispute including work practices, grading and so on can be referred to it for recommendation

Bipartite (RTE unions and management)

Agreement

All unions in RTE

Film Industry Arbitration Tribunal (FIAT): makes recommendations on disputed issues under the disputes procedure in the agreement

Bipartite

Agreement

SIPTU

SPI

Film Partnership Forum*Scope includes monitoring and implementation of the agreement; review of work practices in light of international best practice; health and safety; pensions; development of trends within the industry.

na

Agreement

SIPTU

SPI

IT

Show Business Committee at the Ministry of Arts and Culture (Consulta dello Spettacolo) – Cinema Section. Consultation in norms regarding live shows and the sharing of public funding for the show business sector

Tripartite

Statutory

SLC-CGIL, FISTEL-CSIL, UILCOM-UIL

ANICA, ANEC-AGIS

AS.For.Cinema (professional training)

Bipartite

Agreement

SLC-CGIL, FISTEL-CSIL, UILCOM-UIL

ANICA

Commission set up to monitor working conditions of freelance journalists

Bipartite

Agreement

FNSI

FIEG

Bilateral Commission for the establishment of a professional training institute for journalists

Bipartite

Agreement

FNSI

FIEG

LV

National Tripartite Cooperation Council (NTSP): general framework, including sector-specific policies

Tripartite

Statutory

LBAS

LDDK

PL

The Seym Committee of Culture and Media, The Senate Committee of Culture and Media Komisja: Radio and Television Licence Act, copyright law, Broadcasting Act, Public Media Act, Digital Video Broadcasting – Terrestrial Implementation Act

Tripartite

statutory

KSPRiT NSZZ ‘Solidarność’, FZZPKiS, SDRP

ZPMP, ZPPM

PT

National Council of Culture –Section Cinema and Audiovisual

Tripartite

Law (Decreto Regulamentar 35/2007)

STE

SINTTAV

Na

RO

Social Dialogue Committee for Culture and Mass Media (MCPN)

Tripartite

Statutory

All national representative trade union confederations

All the national representative employer associations

SI

Work Group

Activity domain: labour market, social security, equal opportunities for self-employed journalists.

Bipartite

na

DNS

Ministry of Culture

Note: * To be established under the ‘Comprehensive Agreement for the Feature Film, both TV & Cinema, and Television Drama Industry in Ireland’ (2010). However, it is not clear if it has actually been set up.

na = not available


European level of interest representation

Under Article 1 of the Commission Communication COM(1998) 322 final, sectoral dialogue committees are:

established in those sectors where the social partners make a joint request to take part in a dialogue at European level and where the organizations representing both sides of industry fulfil the following criteria:

(a) they shall relate to specific sectors or categories and be organized at European level;

(b) they shall consist of organizations which are themselves an integral and recognized part of Member States' social partner structures and have the capacity to negotiate agreements, and which are representative of several Member States;

(c) they shall have adequate structures to ensure their effective participation in the work of the Committees.

The constituent feature of social dialogue is the ability of such organisations to negotiate on behalf of their members and to conclude binding agreements. Accordingly, this section analyses the membership domain, the composition of the membership and the ability to negotiate of these organisations.

Membership domain

Four sector-related European associations on the employee side (UNI-MEI, EFJ, EuroFIA and FIM) and five on the employer side (EBU, CEPI, ACT, AER and FIAPF) are active in the audiovisual sector and are listed by the European Commission as a social partner organisation consulted under Article 154 of the TFEU. The following analysis therefore concentrates on these organisations while providing supplementary information on others that are linked to the sector’s national industrial relations actors.

  • EURO-MEI is part of Union Network International (UNI) and is affiliated to the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC). It organises workers from commercial and public broadcasting, directors, film and TV production, live performance and writers.
  • EFJ is part of the International Federation of Journalists (IFJ) and is affiliated to ETUC. It organises journalists working in all sectors of the media.
  • EuroFIA is the European group of the International Federation of Actors (FIA). It covers affiliated performers’ unions, guilds and associations in all EU Member States.
  • FIM is the international organisation for musicians’ unions, guilds and professional associations and has a regional group for Europe, the FIM European Group.
  • EBU organises radio and television companies, most of which are publicly owned public service broadcasters or privately owned stations with public missions.
  • CEPI represents the interest of the independent cinema and television producers.
  • ACT represents the interests of the commercial (private) television sector.
  • AER represents the interests of private/commercial radio stations.
  • FIAPF represents the interests of films producers.

Membership composition

Employee side

The list of membership-related employee organisations for EURO-MEI, EFJ, EuroFIA and FIM shown in Table 6 is confined to the sector-related associations of the countries under consideration in this study. It therefore does not include members of the European level organisations that do not have any members in the audiovisual sector.

Table 6: European level employees’ organisations and national members, 2011
 

UNI-MEI members

EFJ members

EuroFIA members

FIM members

AT

GdG-KMSfB*

GdG-KMSfB*, GPA-djp+

GdG-KMSfB*

GdG-KMSfB*

BE

SETCa-BBTK*, CSC-ACV*, CGSP-ACOD*, CNE-LBC*

AGJPB/AVBB

CSC-ACV*, CGSP-ACOD*

CGSP-ACOD*, CSC-ACV*

BG

Union of Journalists PODKREPA*

UBA*

UBMD*

CY

ESK+

EHK+

PA.SYN.EK

CZ

OS MEDIA, Czech TV-ITU+

SNČR

HA

DE

ver.di*

DJU (ver.di)*, DJV*

ver.di*

ver.di*, DOV*

DK

FAF#

DJ*

DSF*, DAF*

DMF*

EE

EAL+

EKTL*, ENL*

 
EL

POSPERT+

ESIEMTH+, PFJU, PEPU, ESIEA*

SEI (*)c

PMS

ES

FeS-UGT*, FSC-CCOO*, ELA-STV+, TACE+

FSC-CCOO*, ELA-STV+, FAPE

FSC-CCOO*. FAEE#, OSAAEE#

FSC-CCOO*, UMC

FI

TEME*, AMMATTILITTO PRO*, ERTO

SJL#

SNL (merged with FSSF), STTL affiliated to TEME*

SML

FR

SNTPCT*, SFR-CGT*, SNRT-CGT Audiovisual*, FASAP-FO#, SNM (F3C-CFDT)* CFDT-CADRES**, SPIAC (former SNTR/SGTIF)*, UGICT-CGT

SNJ-CGT*, SNJ*, USJ-CFDT*

SFA*

SNAM-CGT*

HU

FFSz+

MUOSZ

 

IE

SIPTU*

NUJ+

SIPTU#

MUI*

IT

FISTEL-CSIL*, SLC-CGIL*

FNSI*

SAI#

SLC-CGIL*

LT

LRTKDPS+

LZS

LU

OGBL-FLTL+

ALJ**

LV

LKDAF*, LSAB*

LZS*

LKDAF*, LAA**

LKDAF*

MT

GWU+

IGM**

GWU+

NL

FNV-Kiem*

NVJ*

FNV-Kiem*

FNV-Kiem*

PL

FZZPKiS+

SDP, SDRP

ZZAPP, ZASP

ZZST FORUM

PT

STT*, SINTTAV*, Sindetelco+, SERS#, SITESE#

SJ+

STE

RO

MediaSind#

FAIR#, USIS#

FAIR#

SE

TF*, Unionen*

SJF#

TF*

SYMF*, SMF*

SI

SUKI-GLOSA

DNS, SNS+

ZDUS

SVIZ+, GLOSA SKG

SK

SSN

HOS

Únia- OZ PHS+,

UK

WGGB*, BECTU*

NUJ**

EQUITY*

BMU*

Involved in collective bargaining in general

40 out of 45 organisations with available information

23 out of 35 organisations with available information

24 out of 32 organisations with available information

20 out of 26 organisations with available information

Type of collective bargaining

SEB: 9

MEB: 4

Both forms: 27 organisations

SEB: 7

MEB: 3

Both forms: 13

SEB: 1

MEB: 6

Both forms: 16

SEB: 3

MEB: 1

Both forms: 16

Country coverage

22 out of 27

27 out of 27

23 out of 27

21 out of 27

Notes: The membership of employee organisations was obtained from membership lists provided by the organisations and checks of the membership lists published on their websites.

* Involved in collective bargaining – both single and multi-employer bargaining.

+Involved in single employer bargaining.

#Involved in multi-employer bargaining.

** No information available on collective bargaining involvement.

aNot included in national report. No information available on collective bargaining involvement.

bNo information received by the national correspondent.

cLast concluded agreement was in 2000.

Source: National reports

At least one affiliation is recorded for EURO-MEI in each country except for Bulgaria, Cyprus, Estonia, Romania and Slovakia. Multiple memberships are observed in Belgium, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Italy, Latvia, Portugal, Spain and Sweden. EURO-MEI has 45 direct affiliations from the countries under consideration, and 40 of them with available information participate in collective bargaining. About a quarter of the employee organisations listed in Tables A2II, A2III and A2IV are directly affiliated to EURO-MEI.

EFJ records at least one affiliation in each country. Multiple memberships are observed in Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, France, Greece, Slovenia and Spain. EFJ has 39 direct affiliations from the countries under consideration and more than half (that is, 23) of them participate in collective bargaining. More than a fifth of the employee organisations listed in Tables A2II, A2III and A2IV are directly affiliated to EFJ.

At least one affiliation is recorded to EuroFIA in each country except in Hungary, Lithuania, Luxembourg and Malta. EuroFIA has 32 direct affiliations from the countries under consideration and 24 of them participate in collective bargaining. Less than a fifth of the employee organisations listed in Tables A2II, A2III and A2IV are affiliated to EuroFIA.

FIM records at least one affiliation in each country except in the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Luxembourg and Portugal. Multiple memberships are observed in Belgium, Germany, Spain, Sweden and Slovenia. FIM has 26 direct affiliations in the countries under consideration and 20 of them participate in collective bargaining. About 15% of the employee organisations listed in Tables A2II, A2III and A2IV are directly affiliated to FIM.

From the available data on sectoral membership of the employee organisations, it can be concluded that EURO-MEI, EFJ, EuroFIA and FIM cover the sector's most important labour representatives. Cases of uncovered major employee organisations can be found only in Cyprus (EYRIK), Poland (KSPRiT NSZZ ‘Solidarność’) and Slovenia (SDRS).

Table 7 lists those members of European level organisations that are not related to the audiovisual sector (that is, they do not have members in the sector) and are therefore not included within the scope of this study. Finally, the Finnish EuroFIA member the Swedish-speaking Actors Union of Finland (FSSF) has merged with the Union of Finnish Actors (SNL) and the Union of Finnish Dance Artists (STTL) is currently affiliated to the Theatre and Media Employees in Finland (TEME).

Table 7: Affiliates to European level sectoral social partners with no members in audiovisual sector

 

Employee organisation

EU-level organisation

BG

Bulgarian Journalist Union

EFJ

CY

OVIEK/SEK

EURO-MEI

DE

GDBA

EuroFIA

DK

TL

EURO-MEI

DJOF

EURO-MEI

EE

ETU a

EURO-MEI

ES

FeSP

EFJ

FR

SYNPTAC-CGT

EURO-MEI

FEC-FO

EURO-MEI

FR

INOVA

EURO-MEI

HU

SDS

EuroFIA

MZTSZ b

FIM

Hungarian Press Union

EFJ

LT

LPSDPS

EURO-MEI

NL

FNV Mondiaal c

EURO-MEI

KNTV

FIM

PT

Sincelpagrafi d

EURO-MEI

SMP (ceased to be FIM member in 2011)

FIM

SK

SOSZSP

EURO-MEI

Notes: a Confirmed by the Estonian correspondent’s interview with ETU.

bConfirmed by the Hungarian National correspondent, interview with MZTSZ on 26 November 2012.

cFNV Mondiaal is a staff unit at this central level. Staff employees of Mondiaal can participate in EURO-MEI, respecting and supporting members of unions of FNV (such as Kiem).

dSincelpagrafi was integrated in 2011 into the four newly created unions for the manufacturing sector (called SITEsouth, SITE Centre South, SITE Centre and SITE North). Sincelpagrafi had workers in the printing industries, some of whom worked for newspaper companies.

Source: Information from national correspondents

Employers’ side

The members of EBU, CEPI, AER and FIAPF are listed in Table 8 and ACT members in Table 9. Table 7 is confined to the sector-related associations of the countries under consideration and therefore does not include members of European level organisations that do not have any members in the audiovisual sector.

EBU has members in all 27 countries under its umbrella through associational members or companies from these countries. Multiple memberships can be found in Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Germany, France, Luxembourg, Latvia, Poland, Romania and Sweden. EBU has 46 direct affiliations from the countries under consideration (less than a third of the organisations listed in Tables A3II, A3III, A3IV, A3V and A3VI) and 44 of them participate in collective bargaining.

CEPI records affiliations in Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Denmark, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Sweden, Slovenia and the UK. It has a total of 15 direct affiliations and 10 of them participate in collective bargaining. Ten per cent of the organisations listed in Tables A3II, A3III, A3IV, A3V, A3VI and A3VII are directly affiliated to CEPI.

AER has direct affiliations in nine countries (Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Denmark, Spain, Finland, France, the Netherlands and the UK) and three of them participate in collective bargaining.

FIAPF has direct affiliations in 11 countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Denmark, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, the Netherlands, Spain and Sweden) and five of them participate in collective bargaining.

A significant number of sector-related employer organisations across the EU not affiliated to any of the European interest organisations considered by this study (Tables A3V and A3VI).

Table 8: European level employers’ organisations and national members, 2011
 

EBU members

CEPI members

AER members

FIAPF members

AT

ORF+

FVFM#

VÖP

FVFM#

BE

VRT+, RTBF+

VOTP*

-

VFPB*

BG

BNR+, BNT+

ATP**

ABBRO*

CY

CYBC+

CZ

CT+, CRo+

APA

DE

ARD Consortium+ (NDR+, RBB+, WDR+, SR+, HR+, SWR+, BR+, DW+, MDR+, DR+), ZDF+

Produzentenallianz#

VPRT

VDF#

DK

DR+

PRO-F#

Radioerne

PRO-F#

EE

ERR+

ES

RTVE+

FAPAE#

AERC#

FAPAE#

FI

YLE+

SATU

RM

SEK

FR

FTV*, FR*

USPA#

SIRTI#

GR

ERT+

HU

MTVA**

MAPSZ**

IE

RTE+

SPI*

IT

RAI+

APT#

LT

LRT+,

LU

Etablissement de Radio*

LV

LTV+, LR+

LKA**

MT

PBS+

NL

NPO*

NVCR

FPN

PL

TVPa, PRa

PT

RTP+

APIT

RO

TVR*, SRR*

UPFAR-ARGOA#

SE

SVT*, SR*UR*

Swedish Film & TV Producers Association

Swedish Film & TV Producers Association

SI

RTV SI+

SNAVP

SK

RTVS+

UK

BBC+

PACT#

RadioCentre

Involved in collective bargaining in general

43 out of 43 with available information

10 out of 14 with available information

3 out of 9 with available information

5 out of 10 with available information

Type of collective bargaining

Company level agreement in place: 35

Sector level agreement applies: 0

Both forms of agreements: 9 organisations

SEB: 0

MEB: 8

Both forms: 2

SEB: 0

MEB: 2

Both forms: 1 organisation

SEB: 0

MEB: 4

Both forms: 1 organisations

Country coverage

27 out of 27

15 out of 27 b

9 out of 27

11 out of 27

Notes: *Involved in collective bargaining: in both single and multi-employer bargaining

+Involved in single employer bargaining

#Involved in multi-employer bargaining.

** No information available on collective bargaining involvement.

***Involved in collective bargaining according to EBU .

aInvolved in collective bargaining according to EBU; no current agreement in place according to information obtained by the national correspondent.

bCEPI mentioned that an organisation within Slovak Republic will join soon.

Eurofound representativeness studies do not normally cover individual companies since the concept of representation refers to social partners that represent the interests of their members – employees or companies – and take part in collective bargaining. But because single-employer bargaining is an important feature of the industrial landscape of the sector, an exception has been made to include public employers that are EBU members within the scope of the study. Unfortunately, this approach could only be partially applied because the names of the member companies and their contact details were not communicated to Eurofound. Thus the individual companies that are members of EBU and ACT are only listed in Table 9 and no information on their involvement in collective bargaining and the other topics requested is given. According to EBU, those members that are also members of ACT are included within the commercial sphere and are not included in the EBU delegation at SCDAS meetings.

Table 9: Other companies and their membership of EBU and ACT, 2011
 

EBU members

ACT members

AT

ProSiebenSat.1 Group (Sat.1, Prosieben, Puls4, Kabel eins), Sky Deutschland, Viacom (MTV Germany, VIVA, VIVA Plus, Nickelodeon Germany, VH1 Germany)

BE

RTL

ProSiebenSat.1 Group (VT4, Vijft TV), RTL Group (RTL-TVI, Club RTL, Plug RTL), Viacom (MTV Hits, MTV2, MTV Base, TMF Belgium, Nickelodeon Belgium, VH1 Europe), VMMa (vtm, 2BE, Jim, iWatch)

BG

Balkan News Corporation (bTV), CME (TV2, Ring TV), MTG (Diema, MM Television, Nova Television), ProSiebenSat.1 Group (The Voice), TV Europa, Viacom (MTV European, VH1 Europe).

CY

Antenna group (Ant 1 TV Cyprus), Viacom (MTV European, Nickelodeon Cyprus)

CZ

CME (TV Nova, Nova Sport, Nova Cinema), MTG (TV Prima, Viasat satellite platform), Viacom (MTV European, MTV Hits, MTV2, MTV Base, VH1 Europe, VH1 Classic)

DE

ProSiebenSat.1 Group (Sat.1, ProSieben, Kabel eins, N24, Kabel eins Classics, Sat.1 Comedy, ProSiebenSat.1 Welt), RTL Group (RTL Television, VOX, RTL II, Super RTL, n-TV, RTL Crime, RTL Living, RTL Passion), Sky Deutschland (Sky Deutschland satellite platform), Viacom (MTV Germany, MTV Hits, VIVA, VIVA Plus, VH1 Classic, Nickelodeon Germany, Comedy Central).

DK

TV2

MTG (TV3, 3+, Viasat satellite platform), ProSiebenSat.1 Group (Kanal5, Kanal4, The Voice, SBS Net), Viacom (MTV Denmark, MTV2, MTV Base, MTV Hits, VH1 Europe, VH1 Classic, Nickelodeon Denmark)

EE

MTG (TV3, 3+, TV6, Viasat satellite platform), Viacom (MTV Eesti, VH1 Europe)

EL

Antenna Group (ANT1 TV, ANT1 Europe, Blue Music Channel), Mega (Mega Channel), Viacom (MTV European, VH1 Europe)

ES

Radio Popular, Sociedad Españiola de Radiodifusion

Grupo Antena 3 (Antena 3, Antena Neox, Antena Nova), Mediaset España (Telecinco, Telecinco Estrellas, Telecinco Sport), PrisaTV (Cuatro, Digital+ satellite platform), Viacom (MTV Spain, MTV Base, MTV2, MTV Hits, VH1 Europe, VH1Classic, Nickelodeon Spain)

FI

MIV Oy

MTG (Viasat satellite platform), MTV Media (MTV3, Sub, MTV3 MAX, MTV3 Fakta, Sub Leffa, Sub Juniori, MTV3 AVA, MTV3 Sarja, MTV3 Scifi), ProSiebenSat.1 Group (The Voice), Sanoma Entertainment (Nelonen, JIM, Nelonen Sport, Liv, Nelonen SportPro, Klno.TV, Ruutu.fi), Viacom (MTV Finland, MTV2, MTV Hits, VH1 Europe, Nickelodeon Finland)

FR

Europe 1

Canal+ Group (Canal+, Télé, Canal+ Le Bouquet satellite platform)

Canal+ Group (Canal+, Télé, Canal+ Le Bouquet satellite platform), Groupe M6 (M6, Fun TV, Téva, Paris Prémiere, Série Club, TF6, M6 Music Hits, M6 Music Black, M6 Music Rock, W9), TF1 (TF1, LCI, Eurosport France, TF6, Série Club, TV Breizh, Odyssée, Histoire, Ushuaia TV, TMC), Viacom (MTV France, MTV2, MTV Base, MTV Hits, MTV base, VH1 Europe, VH1 Classics, Nickelodeon France, Game One)

HU

MTG (Viasat3, TV6), ProSiebenSat.1 Group (TV2), RTL Group (RTL Klub), Viacom (MTV European, MTV Hits, MTV2, MTV Base, VH1 Europe, VH1 Classic, Nickelodeon Hungary)

IE

Telifis na Gaelige

BSKYB (Sky satellite platform), TV3, Viacom (MTV UK, MTV Flux, MTV Dance, MTV2, MTV Hits, VH1 Europe, VH1 Classic, TMF UK, Nickelodeon UK, Nicktoon, Nick Jr. Nick Replay)

IT

Mediaset (Canale5, Italia1, Rete4, Boing, Iris, Mediaset Premium), Sky Italia (Sky Italia satellite platform), Viacom (MTV Italy, MTV Hits Italy, MTV Brand New, Nickelodeon Italy)

LT

MTG (TV3, TangoTV, Viasat satellite platform), Viacom (MTV Lietuva, VH1 Europe)

LU

RTL Group (RTL Télé Lëtzebuerg, Den 2. RTL)

RTL Group (RTL Télé Lëtzebuerg, Den 2. RTL), Viacom (MTV Europe, VH1 Europe)

LV

MTG (TV3, 3+, TV6, Viasat satellite platform), Viacom (MTV Latvia, MTV2, VH1 Europe)

MT

NL

ProSiebenSat.1 Group (SBS6, Net5, Veronica), RTL Group (RTL4, RTL5, RTL7, RTL8, RTL24) Viacom (MTV Netherlands, MTV Base, MTV2, MTV Hits, TMF Holland, VH1 Europe, VH1 Classic, Nickelodeon Netherlands)

PL

Canal+ Group (Canal+ Cyfrowy satellite platform), TVN (TVN, TVN24, TVN Meteo, TVN Turbo, TVN 7, TVN Style, iTVN; TVN CNCB Biznes, Telezakupy Mango, n Satellite Platform, NTL, TVN Warszawa), Viacom (MTV Classic, MTV Poland)

PT

TVI, Viacom (MTV Portugal, VH1 Europe, Nickelodeon Portugal)

RO

ANT1 (Antenna 1), CME (ProTV, Acasa TV, ProCinema, ProTV International, Sport.ro, MTV Romania), Kanal D (Kanal D Romania), National TV, ProSiebenSat.1 Group (Prima TV, Kiss TV), Viacom (MTV Romania, MTV Base, MTV2, MTV Hits, VH1 Europe, Nickelodeon UK)

SE

TV4 (TV4, TV4 Plus, TV4 Sport, TV400, TV4 Film, TV4 Fakta, TV4 Komedi, TV4 Guld, TV4 Science Fiction)

MTG (TV3, TV6, ZTV, TV8, Viasat satellite platform), ProSiebenSat.1 Group (Kanal5, Kanal9, The Voice) TV4 (TV4, TV4 Plus, TV4 Sport, TV400, TV4 Film, TV4 Fakta, TV4 Komedi, TV4 Guld, TV4 Science Fiction), Viacom (MTV Sweden, MTV2, VH1 Europe, VH1 Classic, Nickelodeon Sweden).

SI

CME (POP TV, Kanal A), MTG (TV3), Viacom (MTV Adria, VH1 Europe)

SK

CME (TV Markizia, Nova Sport), Viacom (MTV European, MTV Base, MTV2, MTV Hits, VH1 Europe, VH1 Classics)

UK

UK Independent Broadcasting

Channel 4

Sianel Pedwar Cymru (S4C)

BSKYB (Sky satellite platform), ITV (ITV1, ITV2, ITV3, ITV4, CITV), Viacom (MTV UK, MTV Flux, MTV Dance, MTV2, MTV Hits, VH1 Europe, VH1 Classic, TMF UK, Nickelodeon UK, Nicktoon, Nick Jr, Nick Replay).

Note: + Membership list is confined to the sector-related companies of the countries under consideration.

Source: EBU and ACT list of members

Capacity to negotiate

The third criterion of representativeness at European level refers to an organisation’s capacity to negotiate on behalf of its members.

EURO-MEI claims it has been given a permanent mandate by its members to negotiate on matters of European social dialogue.

EFJ represents its respective members in matters of the European sectoral social dialogue.

EuroFIA and FIM also have the capacity to negotiate on behalf of their members.

On the employer side, EBU and AER have an ongoing mandate concerning social dialogue at European level and the capacity to negotiate on behalf of their members.

FIAPF confirmed its capacity to negotiate social dialogue committee tools such as joint opinions, frameworks of actions and on as far as possible in accordance with criteria set out in the 1998 Communication. Their capacity to negotiate is based on an ad hoc mandate, where authorised by their national members.

CEPI also has the capacity to negotiate on behalf of its members.

No information on ACT’s capacity to negotiate was obtained.

Other European-level organisations

As a final proof of the weight of EURO-MEI, EFJ, EuroFIA, FIM, EBU, AER, CEPI and FIAPF within the sector, it is useful to look at the other European organisations to which sector-related employee and employer organisations are affiliated.

European organisations other than EURO-MEI, EFJ, EuroFIA and FIM represent a very low proportion of both sector-related employee organisations and countries (Table A2III). Only one European organisation covering more than three countries fulfils the criteria set out in this study: that is, the European Federation of Public Service Unions (EPSU), which has seven sector-related affiliations that are involved in collective bargaining in four countries.

An analogous review of the membership of the national employer/business associations can be derived from Tables 9, A3IV and A3V. Most of them have few affiliations to European associations other than EBU, CEPI, AER and FIAPF. There are only two European level associations that fulfil the criteria set within this study which cover at least three countries.

The first association is the Paris-based International Federation of Film Distributors’ Associations (FIAD), for which five affiliations covering four countries were identified which are sector related in engaged in collective bargaining. It is important to note here that mapping stemming from the bottom–up approach is not necessarily exhaustive and that the bottom–up approach, conducted within the framework of a representativeness study, is prone to oversight as it does not usually start with a full list of organisations and their members to be checked.

The second association is the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI), which has four members in three countries that are sector-related and involved in collective bargaining.

In terms of both the number of affiliations as well as territorial coverage, however, FIAD and IFPI remain far behind EBU, CEPI, AER and FIAPF (Table 8). There are no affiliations recorded for ACT in Table 8 because its members are individual companies (Table 9), which are not covered by Eurofound representativeness studies.


Conclusions

Industrial relations in the audiovisual sector tend to be organised at a relatively low level and have a high degree of fragmentation in labour and employers’ representation. This is highlighted by the rather low density unionisation rates within the sector caused by the fragmentation of the representation and the high degree of self-employment in the sector. Sectoral densities in terms of employer representation tend to be higher than unionisation rates, but they are also low.

Moreover, collective bargaining coverage is highly polarised and weak in most of the countries analysed. In about a quarter of the countries for which related data are available, collective bargaining coverage is high (mainly in those with multi-employer bargaining practices) and at least half of the countries examined have very low coverage rates, but it is in those where single-employer bargaining practices predominate. In this respect, a pattern emerges. The EU15 countries, Scandinavian countries, Austria, Belgium and Italy show the highest rates, but in the NMS this is only the case in countries where public broadcasting services predominate (and collective bargaining is mainly single-employer bargaining).

In some countries, the audiovisual sector is mainly focused on public or semi-public broadcasting services, especially in the NMS, and the companies providing public broadcasting services are prominent actors of the industrial relations dynamics in the sector.

Under the 1998 Commission Communication, sectoral dialogue committees are established in those sectors where the social partners make a joint request to take part in a dialogue at European level and where the organisations representing both sides of industry fulfil three criteria. The second of these is that ‘they shall consist of organisations which are themselves an integral and recognised part of Member States’ social partner structures and have the capacity to negotiate agreements, and which are representative of several Member States’. In examining compliance with this criterion, it can seen that employers/business associations AER, CEPI and FIAPF have a limited coverage of Member States in terms of member organisations related to the audiovisual sector.

In addition, both sides of industry have a certain proportion of member organisations for which information is available which are not involved in collective bargaining. On the employees’ side this varies from a fifth (EURO-MEI) to a quarter (EuroFia and FIM), and up to a third in the case of EFJ. On the employers’ side, two-thirds of AER’s member organisations as well as half of FIAPF’s organisations are not involved in collective bargaining.

As seen from the bottom–up mapping of individual organisations, a significant number of sector-related employer organisations across the EU are not affiliated to any of the European organisations considered. However, the mapping also showed that they are not covered by any other European level organisation. On the employees’ side, cases of uncovered major employee organisations were found in only three Member States. No further European level actors with a comparable coverage could be found on either side of the industry.

Analysis of the audiovisual sector in EU27 countries using top–down and bottom–up approaches shows that EURO-MEI, EFJ, EuroFIA and FIM on the employees’ side, and EBU, CEPI, AER and FIAPF on the employers’ side, are the most important EU-wide representatives of the sector’s employers and employees. With regard to ACT, which represents private companies, no conclusions about their EU-wide representativeness could be drawn since the names of its member companies and their contact details were not given to Eurofound.

Martí López and Pablo Sanz, CIREM Foundation


Annex 1: More details on the methodological approach

The study follows the conceptual and methodological approach of the EIRO series of representativeness studies. It therefore includes only organisations whose membership domain is ‘sector-related’.

Demarcation of the sector

The domains of the trade unions and employer organisations and the scope of the relevant collective agreements in the audiovisual sector are likely to vary from the precise NACE definition used by the study. The study therefore includes all trade unions, employer organisations and multi-employer collective agreements which are ‘sector-related’ in terms of any of the following four patterns:

  • Congruence: the domain/purview is identical to the NACE classification;
  • Sectionalism: the domain/purview only covers a certain part of the sector as demarcated by NACE classification, while no group outside the sector is covered;
  • Overlap: the domain/purview covers the entire sector plus (parts of) one or more other sectors;
  • Sectional overlap: the domain/purview covers part of the sector plus (parts of) one or more other sector.

Figure A1: Sector-relatedness of social partner organisations: domain patterns

Figure A1: Sector-relatedness of social partner organisations: domain patterns

To ascertain whether the domain of an association relates to the sector, the questions set out in Table A1 had to be answered by the EIRO national correspondent based on interviews with the respective national organisations.

Table AI: Determining the audiovisual ‘sector-relatedness’ of an organisation

Scope

Question in the standardised questionnaire sent to all correspondents

Possible answers

Notes and explanations

Domain of the organisation within the sector

Does the association’s domain cover the ‘whole’ audiovisual services sector in terms of economic activities (that is, including all subsector activities)?

Yes/No

This question refers to the economic sub-activities of the NACE code chosen. Some organisations may limit their domain to some of the subsector activities.

… cover the audiovisual services sector in all the regions?

Yes/No

This question refers to geographical coverage. Some organisations may not be national in scope and limit their domain to some of the regions.

… cover employees in all types of companies (all types of ownership: private, public…) in the audiovisual services sector?

Yes/No

Some organisations may limit for instance their domain to public sector companies/employees only.

… cover employees in enterprises of all sizes in the audiovisual services sector?

Yes/No

Some organisations (notably employers’ organisations) may limit their domain to enterprises by size class (such as SMEs only).

...cover blue-collar and white-collar employees in the audiovisual services sector?

Yes/No

Some organisations (notably trade unions) delimit their domain to either blue-collar or white-collar employees

...cover all occupations in the audiovisual services sector?

Yes/No

Some organisations (notably trade unions) delimit their domain to certain occupations only.

... cover employees with other than standard employment contracts in the audiovisual services sector? (self-employed, temporary agency workers, fixed-term contracts…)

Yes/No

Some organisations (notably trade unions) cannot potentially cover certain types of workers, like self-employed, freelancers, temporary agency workers and so on.

Domain of the organisation outside the sector

…also cover employees outside the audiovisual services sector?

Yes/No

Some organisations may enlarge their domain to other activities not included in the audiovisual services sector.

Source: Standard questionnaire send to EIRO national correspondents

Data collection

Unless otherwise stated, this study draws on country studies provided by the EIRO network of national industrial relations experts, based on a standard questionnaire, which they complete through contacting the sector-related social partner organisations in their countries. Contact is generally made via telephone interviews in the first place, but might also be established via email. In case of non-availability of any representative, the national correspondents are asked to fill out the relevant questionnaires based on secondary sources, such as information given on the social partner’s website, or derived from previous research studies.

It is often difficult to find precise quantitative data, especially in a sector like the audiovisual one with a low presence in quantitative terms in many countries. In such cases, the EIRO national centres are requested to provide rough estimates rather than leaving a question blank. However, any doubt over the reliability of an estimate will be noted.

In principle, quantitative data may stem from three sources:

  • official statistics and representative survey studies;
  • administrative data, such as membership figures provided by the respective organisations, which are then used to calculate the density rate on the basis of available statistical figures on the potential membership of the organisation;
  • personal estimates made by representatives of the respective organisations.

Quality control

To ensure the quality of the information gathered, several verification procedures and feedback loops are used in EIRO representativeness studies.

  1. The study’s coordinators, in collaboration with Eurofound, check the consistency of the national contributions.
  2. Eurofound sends the national contributions to the national members of its governing board and to the European level sector-related social partner organisations. The peak level organisations then ask their affiliates to verify the information. Feedback received from the sector-related organisations is then taken into account provided it is in line with the study methodology.
  3. The complete study is evaluated by the European level sectoral social partners and Eurofound’s Advisory Committee on Industrial Relations. This consists of representatives from both sides of industry, governments and the European Commission.


Annex 2: Employee organisations

Table A2I: Abbreviations and employee organisation names
 

Abbreviation

Full association name

AT

GdG-KMSfB

Union of Municipal Employees – Culture (Arts, Media, Sports and Independent Professions)

GPA-djp

Union of Salaried Employees, Graphical Workers and Journalists

BE

AGJPB-AVBB

Professional Journalists Association

CNE-LBC

National Federation of White-Collar Workers

CGSLB-ACLVB

Federation of Liberal Trade Unions of Belgium

CGSP-ACOD

General Confederation of Public Services

CSC-ACV

Confederation of Christian Trade Unions Transcom-Cultural

SETCa-BBTK

Belgian Union of White-Collar Staff, Technicians and Managers

BG

Bulgarian Journalist Uniona

Federation Culture Podkrepa

Federation Culture at Podkrepa

NRTVTU

National Radio and Television Trade Union

PTT Podkrepa

Post, Telegraphs and Communications at Podkrepa

UBA

Union of Bulgarian Actors at Confederation of Independent Trade Unions in Bulgaria

UBMD

Union of Bulgarian Musicians and Dancers

Union of Journalists Podkrepa

Trade Union of Journalists Podkrepa

CY

EHK

Actors’ Union of Cyprus

ESK

Union of Cyprus Journalists

EYRIK

Employees’ Union of Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation–Federation of Semi-State Organisations

PASYNEK

Pancyprian Union of Professional Artists

SIDIKEK

Local Authority Workers’ and Employees’ Trade Union

SYTYRIK

Employees’ Union in Technical Services of Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation –Federation of Semi-State Organisations

CZ

Czech TV - ITU

Independent Organisation in Czech TV in Prague

HA

Actors’ Association

KUK

Confederation of Art and Culture

KINOS

International Union of Workers in Cinematography

OS MEDIA

Trade Union of Mass Media Workers of the Czech Republic

SNČR

Syndicate of Journalists of the Czech Republic

DE

BFFS

Federation of Film and Television Actors

DJV

German Federation of Journalists

DOV

German Orchestra Association

ver.di

United Services Union

VRFF

Association of Radio, Film and Television Professionals

DK

DAF

Danish Artists' Association

Dansk Metal

Danish Metalworkers’ Union

DJ

Danish Union of Journalists

DMF

Danish Musicians’ Union

DSF

Danish Actors’ Association

FAF

Film and TV Workers’ Union

TL

Danish Association of Professional Technicians

EE

EAL

Union of Estonian Journalists

EKTL

Estonian Professional Dancers’ Union

ENL

Estonian Actors Union

RTTTA

Professionals’ Union of Technical Workers of Radio and Television

TLL

Trade Union of Television Creative Workers

EL

ΕPIEA

Athens Daily Newspapers Staff Union

ESIEA

Journalists' Union of the Athens Daily Newspapers

ESIEMTH

Journalists' Union of Macedonia and Thrace Newspapers

ESPIT

Periodicals and Electronic Press Union

ΕΤΕΚΤ- ΟΤ

Greek Union of Film, Television and Audiovisual Technicians

ΕΤΕΡ

Hellenic Union of Radio Technicians

ΕΤΙΤΑ

Union of Greek Private Television Technicians of Attica

PMS

Pan-Hellenic Musicians’ Union

POESY

Pan-Hellenic Federation of Journalists’ Union

POSPERT

Pan-Hellenic Federation of Employees’ Associations of Radio & Television Broadcasting Corporations

SEI

Hellenic Actors’ Union

ES

ELA STV

Basque Workers’ Solidarity

FAEE

Federation of Artists of the Spanish State

FAPE

Federation of Associations of Journalists of Spain

FeS-UGT

Services Federation of the General Workers Confederation

FSC-CCOO

Federation of Citizens Services of the Trade Union Confederation of Workers’ Commissions

OSAAEE

Organisation of Actors’ and Actresses’ Union of the Spanish State

Servizos CIG

Services Federation of Galician Interunion Confederation

TACE

Union of Audiovisual and Cinematographic Technicians of the Spanish State

UMC

Catalan Musicians’ Union

USO-AS

Workers Union Organisation - Services Area

FI

Ammattiliitto Pro

Salaried Employees' Trade Union Pro

ERTO

Federation of Special Service and Clerical Employees

SJL

Finnish Union of Journalists

SNL

Union of Finnish Actors

SML

Finnish Musicians Union

TEME

Theatre and Media Employees in Finland

FR

FASAP FO

Federation for Arts, Shows, Audiovisual, Press, Communications and Multimedia (Force Ouvrière)

FEC-FOa

Federation of Employees and Managers (Force Ouvrière)

Fedecom CFTC

Communications Federation of the French Confederation of Christian Workers (CFTC)

FORTAC-FO

National Union of Directors, Technicians from the Audiovisual and Film industries (Force Ouvrière)

INOVAa

National Union of Managerial Staff

Journalistes FO

General Union of Journalists (Force Ouvrière)

SFA

French Union of Artists and Interpreters

SFR-CGT

French Union of Directors

SIA UNSA

Independent Union of Artists and Performers (UNSA Confederation)

SNACOPVA

National Union of Artists and Conductors of Variety Shows and Arrangers

SNAM CGT

National Federation of Musician Artists’ Unions

SNCAMTC

National Union of Managers, Employees and Technicians in the Film Industry

SNFORT

National Union for Radio and Television (Force Ouvrière)

SNJ

National Union of Journalists

SNJ CGT

National Union of Journalist (General Confederation of Labour)

SNLA-FO

Free Union of Artists (Force Ouvrière)

SNM (F3C-CFDT)

National Union of Media (French Democratic Confederation of Labour)

SNM-FO

National Musicians Union (Force Ouvrière)

SNRT-CGT Audiovisuel

National Union of Radio and Television (CGT Confederation)

SNTPCT

National Union of Technicians and Workers in Film and Television Production

SNTR-CGT (SIMPAC)

National Union of Technical Directors / General Union of Workers in the Film Industry

SUD

United Union for Culture & Media Solidarity

SYNPTAC-CGTa

National Union of Professionals from the Theatre and Cultural Activities

UGICT-CGTa

General Union of Engineers, Managers and Technicians (CGT Confederation)

USJ-CFDT

Union of Journalists (CFDT Confederation)

HU

FFSz

Trade Union of Artists and Employees of Cinematography

MUOSZ

Association of Hungarian Journalists

PHDSZSZ

Federation of Trade Unions of Hungarian Posts and Communications Employees

VASAS

Metalworkers’ Union

IE

BATU

Building and Allied Trade Union

MUI

Musicians Union of Ireland

NUJ

National Union of Journalists

SIPTU

Services, Industrial, Professional and Technical Union

TEEU

Technical Engineering and Electrical Union

UCATT

Union of Construction Allied Trades and Technicians

IT

FENASALC-CISAL

National Federation of Autonomous Trade Unions for Workers in Commerce

FISTEL-CISL

Trade Union Federation CISL- Press, Telecommunications and Show Business

FNSI

National Federation of the Italian Media

LIBERSIND-CONFSAL

Autonomous Trade Union of Show business, Visual Arts, Information, Sport

SAI

Trade Union of Italian Actors

SLC-CGIL

Communication Workers’ Union

SNATER-CISAL

National Autonomous Trade Union of Telecommunications, Radio and Television, Associated Companies of Advertising and Show Business

UGL-Telecommunications

Telecommunications at UGL

UILCOM-UIL

Union of Italian Workers Communication

LT

LRTKDPS

Trade Union Unification for Creative Workers of Lithuanian Radio and Television

LŽS

Lithuanian Journalists’ Union

LŽD

Lithuanian Journalists’ Association

LU

ALJ

Association of Luxemburgish Journalists

OGBL, FLTL

Trade Union of Printing Houses, Media and Culture

LV

LAA

Latvian Actors’ Association

LKDAF

Latvian Trade Union Federation for People Engaged in Cultural Activities

LSAB

Latvian Post and Telecommunications Workers Trade Union

LZS

Latvian Union of Journalists

MT

GWU

General Workers’ Union

IGM

Institute of Maltese Journalists

NL

CNV Media Dienstenbond

Christian Services Trade Union – Media

De Unie/MHP

The Union/Federation for Professionals

FNV Kiem

Federation of Dutch Trade Unions, Arts, Entertainment and Media

NVJ

Federation of Dutch Trade Unions, Dutch Association of Journalists

PL

FZZPKiS

Federation of Trade Unions of Culture and Art Employees

KSPRiT NSZZ ‘Solidarność’

Domestic Section of Radio and Television Employees of the Self-Governing Trade Union ‘Solidarity’

SDP

Polish Journalists’ Association

SDRP

Association of Journalists of the Republic of Poland

ZASP

Association of Polish Stage Artists

ZZAP

Trade Union of Polish Actors

ZZST FORUM

Union of Associated Artists FORUM

PT

CENA

Union of Professionals in Live Performance and Audiovisual

SERS

Union of Engineers

SINTTAV

National Union of Telecommunication and Audiovisual Workers

Sindetelco

Democratic Union of Communication and Media Workers

SITESE

Union of Workers in Administrative, Commerce, Hotels and Services

SJ

Union of Journalists

SMAV

Union of Audiovisual Media

STE

Union of Live Performance Workers

STT

National Union of Telecommunication and Audiovisual Communication Workers

RO

FAIR

Federation of Performing Artists’ Union of Romania

MediaSind

Romanian Federation of Journalists

USIS

Association of Entertainment Institution Trade Unions

USRC

Association of Culture Industry Trade Unions

SE

DIK

Swedish Trade Union for University Graduates in the Fields of Documentation, Information And Culture

SJF

Swedish Union of Journalists

SMF

Swedish Union for Musicians

SYMF

Swedish Union for Professional Musicians

TF

Swedish Union for Theatre, Artists and Media

Unionen

Unionen

SI

DNS

Slovene Association of Journalists

GLOSA-SKG

Union Conference of Musicians at Union GLOSA

GLOSA Union

Union of Culture of the Republic of Slovenia

SDRS

Union of Workers in Broadcasting of Slovenia

SNS

Union of Slovenian Journalists

SKUU RTV Slovenia

Union of Cultural and Artistic Creators of RTV Slovenia

SUKI-GLOSA

Union Conference of Freelance Workers in Culture and Media at GLOSA

SVIZ

Education, Science and Culture Trade Union of Slovenia

ZDUS

Slovenian Association of Dramatic Artists

SK

HOS

Actors’ Commune of Slovakia

SSN

Slovak Syndicate of Journalists

Únia – OZ PHS

Union – Trade Union Association of Professional Musicians of Slovakia

UK

BECTU

Broadcasting, Entertainment, Cinematograph and Theatre Union

EQUITY

Equity

MU

Musicians’ Union

NUJ

National union of Journalists

WGGB

The Writers’ Guild of Great Britain

Note: a Not included in national reports.

A2II: Domain coverage and membership, 2011
 

Employee organisation

Domain coverage

Type of membership

Active members total

Active members in sector

AT

GdG-KMSfB*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

156,000

1,700

GPA-djp*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

180,000

na

BE

SETCa- BBTK*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

400,000

na

CGSP-ACOD*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

254,000

1,300

CGSLB-ACLVB*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

275,000

60

CSC-ACV*

Sectionalism

Voluntary

na

na

CNE-LBC *

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

482,000

na

AGJPB-AVBB

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

5,723

na

BG

UBMD*

Overlap

Voluntary

2,082

2,082

UBA*

Overlap

Voluntary

na

na

NRTVTU*

Overlap

Voluntary

215

215

PTT Podkrepa*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

3,000

100

Federation Culture Podkrepa*

Overlap

Voluntary

726

726

Podkrepa*

Overlap

Voluntary

9

na

BJUa

na

na

na

na

CY

EHK*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

280

280

PASYNEK*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

650

na

ESK*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

530

na

EYRIK*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

10,023

245

SYTYRIK*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

10,023

62

SIDIKEK*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

4,000

112

CZ

OS MEDIA*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

~2,000

~2,000

KUK*

Overlap

Voluntary

37,675

na

KINOS*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

4,125

na

HA*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

913

na

SNČR*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

3,000

na

Czech TV-ITU*

Sectionalism

Voluntary

na

na

DE

ver.di*

Overlap

Voluntary

2,094,455

18,000

DJV*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

38,000

7,500

VRFF*

Sectionalism

Voluntary

2,500

2,500

BFFS*

Sectionalism

Voluntary

1,500

1,500

DOV*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

10,500

1,500

DK

FAF*

Overlap

Voluntary

869

831

DJ*

Sectionalism

Voluntary

15,500

5,000

Dansk Metal*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

122,000

na

DSF

na

Voluntary

2,000

na

DMF

na

Voluntary

380

na

DAF

na

Voluntary

1,500

na

EE

EAL*

Overlap

Voluntary

61

61

TLL*

Sectionalism

Voluntary

75

75

RTTTA*

Sectionalism

Voluntary

111

111

EKTL*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

79

na

ENL*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

510

na

EL

POSPERT

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

4,000

2,500

ETITA

Sectionalism

Voluntary

700

700

ΕPIΕΑ

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

3,000

na

ΕΤΕΚΤ- ΟΤ

Sectionalism

Voluntary

610

610

ΕΤΕΡ

Sectionalism

Voluntary

300

300

SEI

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

2,620

na

PMS

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

1,000

na

ESIEMTH

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

689

250

PFJU

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

6,252

na

PEPU

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

440

na

ESIEA

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

4,030

1,579

ES

FeS-UGT*

Overlap

Voluntary

135,378

5,823

FSC-CCOO*

Overlap

Voluntary

na

7,550

USO-AS*

Overlap

Voluntary

na

na

Servizos CIG*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

na

na

ELA-STV*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

24,909

na

TACE*

Sectionalism

Voluntary

1,400

1,400

UMC*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

1,000

na

FAEE*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

na

na

OSAAEE*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

na

na

FAPE*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

na

na

FI

TEME*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

4,300

800

SJL*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

11,000

2,500

Ammattiliitto Pro*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

110,000

100

ERTO*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

15,000

200

SNL

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

1,800

na

SML

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

3,300

na

FR

SFA

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

2,000

na

SNAM CGT*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

na

na

SNTPCT*

Sectionalism

Voluntary

1,000

1,000

SFR-CGT*

Sectionalism

Voluntary

na

na

SNTR-CGT* (SPIAC)

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

na

na

SNRT-CGT Audiovisuel*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

na

na

SNJ CGT*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

na

na

FORTAC-FO*

Sectionalism

Voluntary

na

na

SNM-FO*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

1,000

na

FASAP FO*

Overlap

Voluntary

1,500

700

Journalistes FO*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

na

na

USJ-CFDT*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

na

na

SNLA-FO*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

na

na

SNFORT*

Sectionalism

Voluntary

na

na

SNJ*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

3,000

na

Fedecom CFTC*

Overlap

Voluntary

na

na

SNM (F3C-CFDT)*

Overlap

Voluntary

2,000

2,000

SNCAMTC*

Sectionalism

Voluntary

na

na

SNACOPVA*

Sectionalism

Voluntary

na

na

SIA UNSA*

Overlap

Voluntary

na

na

SUD*

Overlap

Voluntary

na

na

UGCIT-CGTa

na

na

na

na

HU

PHDSZSZ*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

9,800

1,373

VASAS*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

30,000

na

MUOSZ

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

4,500

na

FFSz

Sectionalism

Voluntary

300

300

IE

SIPTU

Sectional overlap

Mixed

199,881

3,000

NUJ

Sectionalism

Voluntary

3,083

na

TEEU

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

3,900

200

UCATT*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

8,750

20

BATU*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

4,000

70

MUI

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

na

na

IT

SLC-CGIL*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

97,178

na

SAI*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

1,900

1,900

FISTEL-CISL*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

50,803

na

UILCOM-UIL*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

40,544

5,000

FNSI

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

25,034

1,424

FENASALC-CISAL*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

98,000

na

UGL-Telecommunications*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

na

na

SNATER-CISAL*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

na

na

LIBERSIND-CONFSAL*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

4,000

na

LT

LRTKDPS

Sectionalism

Voluntary

500

500

LŽS*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

1,100

na

LŽD*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

180

8

LU

OGBL, FLTL

Overlap

Voluntary

200

100

ALJ

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

na

na

LV

LKDAF*

Overlap

Voluntary

2,154

220

LSAB*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

3,887

170

LZS

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

200

100

LAA

na

na

na

na

MT

GWU

Overlap

Voluntary

43,002

140

IGM

Sectionalism

Voluntary

75

75

NL

FNV Kiem*

Overlap

Voluntary

7,000

na

NVJ*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

8,000

1,000

CNV Media Dienstenbond*

Overlap

Voluntary

na

520

De Unie/MHP*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

na

na

PL

FZZPKiS

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

3,000

100

KSPRiT NSZZ ‘Solidarność’

Sectionalism

Voluntary

800,000

1,900

ZZAP

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

700

na

ZZST FORUM

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

450

150

SDP

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

2,700

na

SDRP

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

1,293

na

ZASP

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

2,200

na

PT

STT*

Sectionalism

Voluntary

na

na

SMAV*

Overlap

Voluntary

600

100

SJ*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

na

na

SINTTAV*

Overlap

Voluntary

6,206

na

Sindetelco*

Overlap

Voluntary

8,000

100

STE*

Overlap

Voluntary

1,200

240

CENA*

Overlap

Voluntary

450

50

SERS*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

na

na

SITESE*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

10,000

na

RO

MediaSind

Overlap

Voluntary

9,000

na

USRR*

Overlap

Voluntary

7,000

na

FAIR*

Overlap

Voluntary

na

na

USIS*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

na

na

SE

TF

Overlap

Voluntary

7,000

1,000

SYMF*

Sectionalism

Voluntary

1,575

1,575

SMF*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

3,000

2,500

DIK*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

22,000

500

Unionen*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

500,000

3,500

SJF*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

17,000

4,500

SI

ZDUS*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

344

303

SUKI-GLOSA*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

80

80

GLOSA Union*

Overlap

Voluntary

na

na

GLOSA-SKG*

Overlap

Voluntary

na

na

SVIZ*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

40,000

14

SKUU RTV Slovenia*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

na

na

DNS*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

1,070

na

SDRS*

Sectionalism

Voluntary

na

na

SNS*

Sectionalism

Voluntary

700

350

SK

HOS*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

65

na

Únia - OZ PHS*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

600

na

SSN*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

1,800

200

UK

BECTU*

Overlap

Voluntary

23,273

21,349

EQUITY*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

36,500

na

MU*

Overlap

Voluntary

25,500

2,500

NUJ*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

29,930

6,000

WGGB*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

1,500

1,000

Notes:

* Domain overlap with other sector-related employee organisation.

aNot included in national report.

na = not available

Table A2III: Density, collective bargaining, consultation and affiliations, 2011
 

Employee organisation

Sectorial density (%)

Collective bargaining

Consultation

National, European and international affiliations

AT

GdG-KMSfB

14.8

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On an ad-hoc basis

ÖGB

EPSU

Eurofedop, ETF, EFJ, UNI-EuroMEI, FIM, EuroFIA

PSI, ITF, IFJ, EURO-MEI, FIM, FIA, FIFpro

GPA-djp

na

Yes, single-employer

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis

ÖGB

ETUC, EPSU, EMCEF, EFFAT, EFJ,

ITUC-CSI-IGB, UNI, WOW

BE

SETCa-BBTK

na

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

FGTB/ABVV

UNI Europa, EPSU

UNI

CGSP-ACOD

13.3

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

FGTB/ABVV

UNI-Europa, EuroFIA

UNI, FIM, MEI

CGSLB-ACLVB

0.6

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

ETUC

ITUC

CSC Transcom-culture – ACV Transcom-cultuur

na

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

 CSC/ACV

EuroFIA

CNE-LBC

na

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

CSC/ACV

UNI, EPSU, ETUC

AGJPB-AVBB

na

No

No

na

EFJ

BG

UBMD

na

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

CITUB

FIM

UBA

na

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

CITUB

EuroFIA

NRTVTU

na

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

CITUB

MEI

PTT Podkrepa

na

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

CL Podkrepa

EURO-MEI

Federation Culture Podkrepa

na

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

Podkrepa

Union of Journalists Podkrepa

na

Yes, both

Yes

na

Podkrepa

EFJ

BJUa

na

na

na

na

EFJ

CY

EHK

12.7

Yes, single-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

SEK

EuroFIA

FIA

PASYNEK

na

No

No

Euro-FIM

FIM 

ESK

na

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

No

EFJ

IFJ

EYRIK

11.1

Yes, single-employer

No

SEK

EPSU

SYTYRIK

2.8

Yes, single-employer

No

SEK

EPSU

SIDIKEK

5.1

Yes, single-employer

No

PEO

CZ

OS MEDIA

17.2

No

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

EURO-MEI

KUK

na

No

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

KINOS

na

No

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

EURO-MEI 

HA

na

No

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

CMKOS, SVU

EuroFIA

SNČR

na

No

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

EFJ

Czech TV-ITU

na

Yes, single-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

EURO-MEI

DE

ver.di

13.8

Yes, both

Yes, both

On a regular basis

DGB

EJF, EuroFIA, FIM, UNI

EURO-MEI, FIA, FIM, IJF

DJV

5.8

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

EJF

IJF

VRFF

2.6

Yes, single-employer

na

na

DBB

BFFS

1.5

Yes, single-employer

na

na

DOV

1.1

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On a regular basis

ver.di

EAEA, FIM

DK

FAF

6.4

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

FTF

EURO-MEI

EURO-MEI

DJ

38.3

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

NJF, EFJ, EIS, AVTE, FREG, AREG

Dansk Metal

na

Yes, single-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

LO

EMF

IMF

DSF

na

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

FTF

EuroFIA

DMF

na

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

FTF

FIM

DAF

na

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

LO

EuroFIA

EE

EAL

0.5

Yes, single-employer

Yes, both

On an ad-hoc basis

TALO, ASN, EMSL, EJL

EFJ

IFJ 

TLL

0.7

Yes, single-employer

Yes, both

On an ad-hoc basis

 TALO

RTTTA

1.0

Yes, single-employer

Yes, both

On an ad-hoc basis

 TALO

EKTL

na

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

ETU, EEUC

EuroFIA

ENL

na

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

EuroFIA

EL

POSPERT

14.7

Yes, single-employer

No

 

GSEE

UNI-EUROMEI 

ETITA

4.1

Yes, multi-employer

No

 

POSPERT

ΕPIΕΑ

na

Yes, multi-employer

 

 

POEPTYM

ΕΤΕΚΤ- ΟΤ

3.6

 Yes, multi-employer

Yes, within tripartite structures

On an ad-hoc basis

POTHA

ΕΤΕΡ

1.8

Yes, multi-employer

No

 

POSPERT

SEI

na

No

No

-

EuroFIA

PMS

na

No

No

-

FIM

ESIEMTH

1.5

Yes, single-employer

No

-

EFJ

PFJU

na

No

No

-

EFJ

PEPU

na

No

No

-

EFJ

ESIEA

8.5

Yes, both

No

-

EFJ

ES

FeS-UGT

7.9

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

UGT

UNI Europa Media

UNI Media

FSC-CCOO

10.2

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

CCOO

UNI Europa Media, EuroFIA, FIM, EFJ

UNI Media, FIM, IFJ 

USO-AS

na

Yes, single-employer

No

 

USO

Servizos CIG

na

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

ELA-STV

na

Yes, single-employer

na

na

EURO-MEI, EFJ

TACE

2.2

Yes, single-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

EURO-MEI

UMC

na

No

Yes, unilaterally

On a regular basis

FIM

FAEE

na

Yes, multi-employer

na

na

EuroFIA

OSAAEE

na

Yes, multi-employer

na

na

EuroFIA

FAPE

na

No

No

 

EFJ 

FI

TEME

8.1

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On a regular basis

SAK, EURO-MEI, EuroFIA, UNI

SJL

25.4

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, both

On a regular basis

EFJ

IFJ

Ammattiliitto Pro

1.0

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On a regular basis

STTK

EURO-MEI

UNI

ERTO

2.0

No

No

 

STTK

EURO-MEI

SNL

na

No

No

 

EuroFIA

FIA

SML

na

No

No

 

SAK

FIM

FR

SFA

na

Yes, both

Yes, both

On a regular basis

FNSAC-CGT

EuroFIA

FIA

SNAM CGT

na

Yes, both

Yes, both

On a regular basis

FNSAC CGT

ETUC

FIM-CSI 

SNTPCT

0.6

Yes, both

Yes, both

On a regular basis

EURO-MEI

SFR-CGT

na

Yes, both

Yes, both

On a regular basis

FNSAC CGT

EURO-MEI

UNI

SNTR-CGTF (SPIAC)

na

Yes, both

Yes, both

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis

FNSAC CGT

EURO-MEI

UNI

SNRT-CGT Audiovisuel

na

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

CGT

EURO-MEI

UNI

SNJ CGT

na

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

CGT

EFJ

IFJ

FORTAC-FO

na

Yes, both

Yes, both

On a regular basis

FASAP-FO

EURO-MEI

UNI

SNM-FO

na

Yes, both

Yes, both

On a regular basis

FASAP-FO

FASAP FO

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, both

On a regular basis

FASAP-FO

EURO-MEI

UNI

Journalistes FO

na

Yes, both

Yes, both

On a regular basis

 FASAP-FO

USJ-CFDT

na

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

CFDT

EFJ

IFJ

SNLA-FO

na

Yes, both

Yes, both

On a regular basis

FASAP-FO

EURO-MEI

UNI

SNFORT

na

Yes, both

Yes, both

On a regular basis

FASAP-FO

EURO-MEI

UNI

SNJ

na

Yes, both

Yes, both

On a regular basis

EFJ

IFJ

Fedecom CFTC

na

 

na

na

CFTC

SNM (F3C-CFDT)

na

Yes, both

Yes, both

On a regular basis

CFDT

EURO-MEI

UNI

SNCAMTC

na

Yes, both

Yes, both

On a regular basis

CFE-CGC

SNACOPVA

na

Yes, both

na

na

CFE-CGC

SIA UNSA

na

Yes, both

No

 

UNSA

SUD

na

Yes, both

na

na

SUD

UGCIT-CGTa

na

na

na

na

EURO-MEI

HU

PHDSZSZ

18.2

Yes, single-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

SZEF

EFJ

VASAS

na

Yes, single-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On a regular basis

MSZOSZ

MUOSZ

na

No

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

EFJ

FFSz

3.9

Yes, single-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

EURO-MEI

IE

SIPTU

55.1

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

ICTU

EURO-MEI, EuroFIA, FIM

UNI GLOBAL

NUJ

na

Yes, single-employer

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

ICTU

EURO-MEI

UNI GLOBAL

TEEU

3.7

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

ICTU

EURO-MEI

UNI GLOBAL

UCATT

0.4

Yes, both

No

 

ICTU

BATU

1.3

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

ICTU

MUI

na

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

SIPTU

FIM

IT

SLC-CGIL

na

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis

CGIL

EUROMEI

FIM

SAI

3.0

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, both

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis

CGIL

EuroFIA

FIA

FISTEL-CISL

na

Yes, both

Yes, both

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis

CSIL

EURO-MEI, UNI Media, UNI Graphical, UNI Telecom

UNI Global

UILCOM-UIL

7.9

Yes, both

Yes, both

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis

UIL

UNI Europe

UNI Global

FNSI

2.2

Yes, both

Yes, both

On a regular basis

EFJ

IFJ

FENASALC-CISAL

na

Yes, multi-employer

na

na

CISAL

CESI

UGL-Telecommunications

na

Yes, single-employer

na

na

UGL

SNATER-CISAL

na

Yes, single-employer

na

na

CISAL

 

LIBERSIND-CONFSAL

na

Yes, single-employer

na

na

CONFSAL

LT

LRTKDPS

na

Yes, single-employer

No

LPSK

EUROMEI

EURO-MEI 

LŽS

na

No

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

EFJ

IFJ

LŽD

na

No

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

LDF

LU

OGBL, FLTL

6.7

Yes, single-employer

Yes, both

On a regular basis

CGT

EURO-MEI

ALJ

na

na

na

na

EFJ

LV

LKDAF

8.5

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

LBAS

EURO-MEI

EURO-MEI

LSAB

6.6

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

LBAS

EURO-MEI

EURO-MEI

LZS

4.4

Yes, both

No

-

EFJ

LAA

na

na

na

na

EuroFIA

MT

GWU

9.7

Yes, single-employer

No

 -

EPSU, ETUC, UNI Europa, EURO WEA, FERPA, Eurocadres, ETF, EFBWW, EMF, EFFAT

IMF, ICEM, ITGLWF, UNI, IFM, IFWEA

IGM

5,1

na

Yes, unilaterally

On a regular basis

TFFEJ

EFJ, AIPCE

NL

FNV Kiem

na

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

FNV

EURO-MEI, EuroFIA, FIM

FIA, FIM, EURO-MEI

NVJ

na

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

FNV

EFJ

IFJ 

CNV Media Dienstenbond

na

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

CNV

ETUC

WOW

De Unie/MHP

na

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

na

PL

FZZPKiS

0.3

Yes, single-employer

Yes, both

On an ad-hoc basis

OPZZ

EURO-MEI

KSPRiT NSZZ ‘Solidarność’

6.4

Yes, single-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

na

ZZAP

na

No

No

 

EuroFIA

ZZST FORUM

0.5

No

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

EuroFIA, FIM

SDP

na

No

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

EFJ

IFJ 

SDRP

na

No

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

EFJ

IFJ , ACIT

ZASP

na

No

Yes, both

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis

EuroFIA

PT

STT

na

Yes, both

na

na

CGTP

EURO-MEI

UNI

SMAV

1.1

Yes, both

na

na

UGT

SJ

na

Yes, single-employer

na

na

EFJ

IFJ

SINTTAV

na

Yes, both

na

na

CPQ, CGTP

EURO-MEI

UNI

Sindetelco

1.1

Yes, single-employer

na

na

UGT

UNI-EUROPE

UNI GLOBAL

STE

2.5

No

No

 

CGTP

EuroFIA

FIA 

CENA

0.5

No

na

na

CGTP

SERS

na

Yes, multi-employer

na

na

EURO-MEI

SITESE

na

Yes, multi-employer

na

na

UGT

EURO-MEI

RO

MediaSind

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, within tripartite structures

On an ad-hoc basis

EFJ

IFJ

USRC

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, within tripartite structures

On an ad-hoc basis

EuroFIA, FIM

FIA, FIM 

FAIR

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, within tripartite structures

On an ad-hoc basis

BNS

EuroFIA

FIM

USIS

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, within tripartite structures

On an ad-hoc basis

BNS

EuroFIA

SE

TF

na

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

TCO, ITI

EURO-MEI

EURO-MEI, EuroFIA, FERA 

SYMF

na

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

MS, KLYS, SAMI, CS,

FSM, MA, EXMS, KK, TCO

FIM, NMU

SMF

na

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

MS, KLYS, SAMI, CS, FSM, LO, MA, EXMS, ITI

NMU, FIM

DIK

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

SACO, PTK

ENCATC

Unionen

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

TCO, CS, PTK

EURO-MEI

EURO-MEI

SJF

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

TCO, PTK, KLYS, ALYS

EFJ, NFJ

IFJ, INSI

SI

ZDUS

8.4

No

No

 

CCS

EuroFIA

SUKI-GLOSA

2.2

No

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

GLOSA

EURO-MEI

EURO-MEI

GLOSA Union

na

Yes, single-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

ZSSS

ETUC

EURO-MEI

GLOSA-SKG

na

No

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

ZSSS

FIM

SVIZ

0.4

Yes, single-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

KSJSC

ETUCE

FIM, EI

SKUU RTV Slovenia

na

Yes, single-employer

No

 

na

DNS

na

No

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

EFJ

IFJ

SDRS

17.4

Yes, single-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

na

SNS

9.7

Yes, single-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

EFJ, IFJ

SK

HOS

na

No

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

EuroFIA

FIA 

Únia - OZ PHS

na

Yes, single-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

KUK

FIM

SSN

3.4

No

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

EFJ

UK

BECTU

14.8

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On an ad-hoc basis

GFTU, SECTU

EURO-MEI

EQUITY

na

Yes, both

Yes, both

On an ad-hoc basis

TUC

EuroFIA

FIA

MU

1.7

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On an ad-hoc basis

TUC, PA, NCA, AA, MP

FIM 

NUJ

4.2

na

na

na

TUC, FEU

EFJ

IFJ

WGGB

0.7

Yes, both

Yes, both

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis

TUC, FEU, PA

FSC, EURO-MEI, EWC

IAWG, UNI

Notes: National affiliations are in italics.

na = not available

aNot included in national report.

Table A2IV: Domain coverage and description, 2011
 

Employee organisation

Domain coverage

Domain description

AT

GdG-KMSfB

Sectional overlap

Workers of arts, media, sports and liberal professions

GPA-djp

Sectional overlap

Graphical workers and Journalists

BE

SETCa-BBTK

Sectional overlap

White-collar workers, technicians and managers

CGSP-ACOD

Sectional overlap

Employees in public companies

CGSLB-ACLVB

Sectional overlap

Employees in public companies

CSC-ACV

Sectionalism

White-collar workers in the audiovisual sector

CNE-LBC

Sectional overlap

White-collar workers

AGJPV-AVBB

Sectional overlap

Journalists

BG

UBMD

Overlap

All employees in the audiovisual sector

UBA

Overlap

All employees in the audiovisual sector

NRTVTU

Overlap

All employees in the audiovisual sector

PTT Podkrepa

Sectional overlap

Employees in post, telegraphs and communications

FC Podkrepa

Overlap

All employees in the audiovisual sector

Union of Journalists Podkrepa

Overlap

All employees in the audiovisual sector

Bulgarian Journalist Uniona

na

na

CY

EHK

Sectional overlap

Actors and directors of all sectors

PASYNEK

Sectional overlap

Employees in programming and broadcasting activities

ESK

Sectional overlap

Journalists

EYRIK

Sectional overlap

White-collar workers in public broadcasting services

SYTYRIK

Sectional overlap

Technical and blue-collar workers in public broadcasting services

SIDIKEK

Sectional overlap

Employees in public companies

CZ

OS MEDIA

Sectional overlap

Employees in public companies

KUK

Overlap

All employees in the audiovisual sector

KINOS

Sectional overlap

na

HA

na

Actors, dancers, singers, stage managers, répétiteurs, prompters, broadcasters, presenters, stunt men and dubbing artists of all sectors

SNČR

Sectional overlap

Statutory journalists of all sectors

Czech TV-ITU

Sectionalism

Employees of Czech Television

DE

ver.di

Overlap

All employees in the audiovisual sector

DJV

Sectional overlap

Journalists

VRFF

Sectionalism

na

BFFS

Sectionalism

Actors in the audiovisual sector

DOV

Sectional overlap

Orchestras and choirs of broadcasting companies

DK

FAF

Overlap

All employees in the audiovisual sector

DJ

Sectionalism

Journalists in the audiovisual sector

Dansk Metal

Sectional overlap

Technicians in film, video and television programme production, sound recording and music publishing activities

DSF

Sectional overlap

Actors

DMF

Sectional overlap

Musicians

DAF

Sectional overlap

Artists

EE

EAL

Overlap

All employees in the audiovisual sector

TLL

Sectionalism

Employees of the audiovisual sector in public broadcasting services

RTTTA

Sectionalism

Employees of the audiovisual sector in public broadcasting services

EKTL

Sectional overlap

Professional dancers, choreographers, ballet masters and ballet and dance teachers

ENL

Sectional overlap

Actors

EL

POSPERT

Sectional overlap

Employees in radio and television

ETITA

Sectionalism

Private television technicians

ΕPIΕΑ

Sectional overlap

Employees of the national private television stations, radio stations and newspapers in Athens

ΕΤΕΚΤ- ΟΤ

Sectionalism

Film and television technicians in the audiovisual sector

ΕΤΕΡ

Sectionalism

Radio-technicians in the audiovisual sector

SEI

Sectional overlap

Professional actors

PMS

Sectional overlap

Professional musicians and singers

ESIEMTH

Sectional overlap

Journalists employed in Macedonia and Thrace newspapers and in radio and TV stations

PFJU

Sectional overlap

Journalists employed in newspapers and in radio and TV stations

PEPU

Sectional overlap

Journalists employed in magazines, periodical press, electronic media and in radio and TV stations

ESIEA

Sectional overlap

Journalists employed in the Athens newspapers and in radio-television stations

ES

FeS-UGT

Overlap

All employees in the audiovisual sector

FSC-CCOO

Overlap

All employees in the audiovisual sector

USO-AS

Overlap

All employees in the audiovisual sector

Servizos CIG

Sectional overlap

All employees in the audiovisual sector in Galicia region

ELA-STV

Sectional overlap

All employees in the audiovisual sector in Basque region

TACE

Sectionalism

Audiovisual and cinematographic technicians

UMC

Sectional overlap

Musicians in Catalonia region

FAEE

Sectional overlap

Actors and directors

OSAAEE

Sectional overlap

Actors and directors

FAPE

Sectional overlap

Journalists

FI

TEME

Sectional overlap

Employees in theatre and media

SJL

Sectional overlap

Journalists

Ammattiliitto Pro

Sectional overlap

White-collar workers

ERTO

Sectional overlap

Service and clerical employees

SNL

Sectional overlap

Actors and directors

SML

Sectional overlap

Musicians and dancers

FR

SFA

Sectional overlap

Artists and interpreters

SNAM CGT

Sectional overlap

Musicians and dancers

SNTPCT

Sectionalism

Technicians in film and television production

SFR-CGT

Sectionalism

Directors in film, video and television programme productions, sound recording and music publishing activities

SNTR-CGT

Sectional overlap

Technicians and administrative staff in the film industry

SNRT-CGT Audiovisuel

Sectional overlap

Employees (except journalists and actors) in audiovisual, advertising, cable operator and transmission.

SNJ CGT

Sectional overlap

Journalists

FORTAC-FO

Sectionalism

Directors in the audiovisual sector

SNM-FO

Sectional overlap

Musicians and dancers

FASAP FO

Overlap

All employees in the audiovisual sector

Journalistes FO

Sectional overlap

Journalists

USJ-CFDT

Sectional overlap

Journalists

SNLA-FO

Sectional overlap

Artists

SNFORT

Sectionalism

Employees and technicians (except artists and journalists) in radio and television

SNJ

Sectional overlap

Journalists

Fedecom CFTC

Overlap

All employees in the audiovisual sector

SNM (F3C-CFDT)

Overlap

All employees in the audiovisual sector

SNCAMTC

Sectionalism

White-collar workers in the film industry

SNACOPVA

Sectionalism

White-collar workers in variety shows

SIA UNSA

Overlap

All employees in the audiovisual sector

SUD

Overlap

All employees in the audiovisual sector

UGCIT-CGTa

na

na

HU

PHDSZSZ

Sectional overlap

Employees in public companies

VASAS

Sectional overlap

Technical staff in electronics

MUOSZ

Sectional overlap

Journalists

FFsZ

Sectionalism

Workers of the motion, picture production and dissemination

IE

SIPTU

Sectional overlap

Film and television shooting crew, actors and workers in the private audiovisual sector and in public service broadcasting

NUJ

Sectionalism

Journalists in the audiovisual sector

TEEU

Sectional overlap

na

UCATT

Sectional overlap

na

BATU

Sectional overlap

Workers in building sector and carpenters

MUI

Sectional overlap

Musicians

IT

SLC-CGIL

Sectional overlap

Employees (except journalists) in the information and communication sector

SAI

Sectional overlap

Actors and directors

FISTEL-CISL

Sectional overlap

Employees (except journalists) in press, telecommunications, and show business

UILCOM-UIL

Sectional overlap

Workers (except journalists) in the information and communication sector, printing and publishing activities, live performance, sports and recreation activities

FNSI

Sectional overlap

Journalists

FENASALC-CISAL

Sectional overlap

Workers (except journalists) in the commerce, services and tertiary sector

UGL-Telecommunications

Sectional overlap

Workers (except journalists) in the telecommunications sector

SNATER-CISAL

Sectional overlap

Workers (except journalists) in the telecommunications and live performance sector

LIBERSIND-CONFSAL

Sectional overlap

Workers (except journalists) in the telecommunications, live performance sector, sports, commerce and publishing activities

LT

LRTKDPS

Sectionalism

Employees of the audiovisual sector in public broadcasting services

LŽS

Sectional overlap

Journalists

LŽD

Sectional overlap

Journalists

LU

OGBL, FLTL

Overlap

All employees in the audiovisual sector

ALJ

Sectional overlap

Journalists

LV

LKDAF

Overlap

All employees in the audiovisual sector

LSAB

Sectional overlap

Workers in post and telecommunications sector

LZS

Sectional overlap

Authors

LAA

na

na

MT

GWU

Overlap

All employees in the audiovisual sector

IGM

Sectionalism

Journalists

NL

FNV Kiem

Overlap

All employees in the audiovisual sector

NVJ

Sectional overlap

Journalists

CNV Media Dienstenbond

Overlap

All employees in the audiovisual sector

De Unie/MHP

Sectional overlap

White-collar professions

PL

FZZPKiS

Sectional overlap

Employees culture and art activities

KSPRiT NSZZ ‘Solidarność’

Sectionalism

Employees of the audiovisual sector in public broadcasting services

ZZAP

Sectional overlap

Actors and directors

ZZST FORUM

Sectional overlap

White-collar artists

SDP

Sectional overlap

Journalists

SDRP

Sectional overlap

Journalists

ZASP

Sectional overlap

Artists and creative workers

PT

STT

Sectionalism

Telecommunication and audiovisual workers

SMAV

Overlap

All employees in the audiovisual sector

SJ

Sectional overlap

Journalists

SINTTAV

Overlap

All employees in the audiovisual sector

Sindetelco

Overlap

All employees in the audiovisual sector

STE

Overlap

All employees in the audiovisual sector

CENA

Overlap

All employees in the audiovisual sector

SERS

Sectional overlap

Engineers in the whole economy

SITESE

Sectional overlap

Workers in administrative, commerce, hotels and services

RO

MediaSind

Overlap

All employees in the audiovisual sector

USRC

Overlap

All employees in the audiovisual sector

FAIR

Overlap

All employees in the audiovisual sector

USIS

Sectional overlap

Technical staff in entertainment institutions

SE

TF

Overlap

All employees in the audiovisual sector

SYMF

Sectionalism

Musicians in the audiovisual sector

SMF

Sectional overlap

Musicians

DIK

Sectional overlap

White-collar workers with a university degree in documentation, communication and culture activities

Unionen

Sectional overlap

White-collar workers in the private sector

SJF

Sectional overlap

Journalists

SI

ZDUS

Sectional overlap

Actors and directors

SUKI-GLOSA

Sectional overlap

Self-employed in culture and media

GLOSA Union

Overlap

All employees in the audiovisual sector

GLOSA-SKG

Overlap

All employees in the audiovisual sector

SVIZ

Sectional overlap

Employees in public companies

SKUU RTV

Sectional overlap

Employees in public companies

DNS

Sectional overlap

Journalists

SDRS

Sectionalism

Employees of the audiovisual sector in public broadcasting services

SNS

Sectionalism

Journalists in the audiovisual sector

SK

HOS

Sectional overlap

Actors and directors

Únia - OZ PHS

Sectional overlap

White-collar workers (musicians, singers, dancers and so on) in performance

SSN

Sectional overlap

Journalists

UK

BECTU

Overlap

All employees in the audiovisual sector

EQUITY

Sectional overlap

Performers

MU

Overlap

All employees in the audiovisual sector

NUJ

Sectional overlap

Journalists

WGGB

Sectional overlap

Writers

Note: na= not available


Annex 3: Employers’ organisations and companies providing public broadcasting services

Table A3I: Abbreviations and organisation names
 

Abbreviation

Full association name

AT

FVFM

Austrian Association of Film and Music Industry

FVKKV

Association of Cinemas, Cultural and Entertainment Companies

ORF

Austrian Broadcasting Corporation

VÖP

Association of Private Broadcasters in Austria

BE

ABDF-VFDB

Belgian Association of Films’ Distributors

ARPF-Doc

Documentaries, Filmmakers and Directors Association

FCB

Belgian Federation of Cinemas

FEBELAV

Belgian audiovisual companies federation

RTBF

French Belgian Radio Television

UPFF

Union of French-speaking Filmmakers

VFPB

Flemish Filmmakers Association

VOTF

Flemish Independent Televisual Services

VOTP

Flemish Independent Broadcasters’ Production

VRT

Flemish Radio and Television Organisation

BG

ATP

Association of Television producers

ABBRO

Association of Bulgarian Broadcasters

BAEC (BAROK)

Bulgarian Association of Employers in Culture

BNR

Bulgarian National Radio

BNT

Bulgarian National Television

CY

CYBC

Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation

CZ

APA

Audiovisual Producers’ Association

CRO

Czech Radio

CT

Czech Television

DE

BR

Bavarian Broadcast

DR

German Radio

DW

Radio Bremen

GPA

German Producers’ Alliance

HDF

Association of German Cinemas

HR

Hessian Broadcasting

MDR

Middle German Broadcasting

NDR

North German Radio

RBB

Broadcasting Berlin-Brandenburg

SR

Saarland Broadcasting

SWR

Southwest Broadcasting

TPR

Collective Bargaining Association for Private Radio Stations

VDF

Association of German Film Producers

VPRT

Association of Private Broadcasters and Telecommunication

VTFF

Association of Technical Operators for Film and TV

WDR

Western German Broadcasting Cologne

ZDF

ZDF German Television

DK

DR

Danish Broadcasting Corporation

PRO-F

Danish Producers’ Association

Radioerne

The Radio

EE

ERR

Estonian Public Broadcasting

EL

ΕΙΙRΑ

Union of Private Radio Network Owners of Athens

EITISEE

Union of National Private Television Stations

EPEK

Greek Union of Regional Channels

ERT

Greek Radio Television S.A.

SAPOE

Association of Greek Independent Audiovisual Producers

TEP

Greek Regional Television Networks

ES

AERC

Spanish Association of Commercial Broadcasting

FAPAE

Federation of Associations of Audiovisual Production Companies

FEDICINE

Federation of Cinematographic Distribution Companies

RTVE

Spanish Public Broadcasting Service

FI

PALTA

Service Sector Employers

RM

RadioMedia, Association of Finnish Radio

SATU

Association of Independence Producers in Finland

SEK

Central Organisation of Finnish Film Producers

VKL

Federation of the Finnish Media Industry

YLE

Finnish Broadcasting Company

FR

ACCES

Association of Cable and Satellite TV Companies

AFPF

French Association of Film Producers

APC

Association of Film Producers

APFO

Association of Advertisement Film Producers

API

Association of Independent Producers

CNRA

National Council of Associatives’ Radio

FICAM

Federation of the Cinema, Audiovisual and Multimedia Industries

FR

French Radio

FTV

French Television

SEPP

Public Programmes’ Publishers Organisation

SIRTI

Interprofessional Organisation of Independent Radio and Television

SNEP

National Federation of Music Publishing

SNRL

National Organisation of Free Radio

SNTP

National Organisation of Proximity TV

SPECT

Union of Producers and Creators of TV

SPFA

Animation Films Producers’ Union

SPI

Union of Independent Producers

SPI

Union of Independent Producers

SPPAM

National Union of Audiovisual and Musical Programmes

SRGP

General Private Radio Union

SRN

Union of National Radio Networks

STP

Union of Private Televisions

TLSP

Union of Local Public Service TV

UPF

Union of Film Producers

UPFI

Union of French Independent Music Producers

USPA

Union of Audiovisual Production

HU

IVSZ

Hungarian Association of IT Companies

MAPSZ *

Hungarian Audiovisual Producers Association

MTVA

Media Service Support and Asset Management Fund

IE

IBEC

Irish Business and Employers’ Confederation

RTE

Radio Television Ireland

SPI

Screen Producers Ireland

IT

Aeranti-Corallo

Aeranti-Corallo Local Internet, Satellite Radio and TV Enterprises

AFI

Italian Association of Phonographic Producers

ANEC

National Association of Cinema Companies

ANEM

National Association of Multiplex Companies

ANICA

National Association of the Cinema, Audiovisual and Multimedia Industry

APT

Association of Television Producers

Assolombarda

Association of the Tertiary Sector Enterprises in the Area of Milan

EA

National Association of Dubbing Enterprises

FIMI

Federation of the Italian Music Industry

PMI

Independent Music Producers

FRT

Federation of Radio and Television

RAI

Italian Radiotelevision

RNA

Associated National Radio

Unindustria

Union of Industrialists of Rome, Frosinone, Rieti and Viterbo

Univideo

Union of Audiovisual Publishers

LT

LRT

Lithuanian National Radio and Television

LU

Etablissement de Radio*

Radio Establishment

RTL Group

Radio and Television of Luxembourg

LV

LIKTA

Latvian Information and Communications Technology Association

LKA

Latvian Film Producers Association

LR

‘Radio Latvia’ (state limited liability company)

LTV

Latvian Television Public Companies

MT

PBS

Public Broadcasting Service

NL

FPN

Movie Producers Netherlands

NPO

Dutch Public Broadcasting

NVCR

Dutch Association for Commercial Radio

PL

PR

Polish Radio Company

TVP

Polish Television Company

ZPMP

Public Media Employers’ Association

ZPPM

Employer’s Organisation of Private Media

PT

APEC

Portuguese Association of Cinematographic Companies

APIT

Association of Private TV Producers

APR

Portuguese Association of Broadcasting

RTP

Radio and Television of Portugal

RO

MCPN

Ministry of Culture and National Heritage

ROMEDIA

Press Employers’ Association of Romania

SRR

Romanian Radio Broadcasting Company

TVR

Romanian Television Company

UPFAR-ARGOA

Association of Romanian Film and Audiovisual Producers –Romanian Association for the Management of Audiovisual Creation

UNPR

National Union of Romanian Employers

SE

IFPI Svenska Gruppen

IFPI Svenska Gruppen

MF

Media Industries Employers Association

SR

Swedish Radio

SVT

Swedish Television

Swedish Film & TV Producers Association

Swedish Film and Television Producers Association

UR

The Swedish Educational Broadcasting Company

SL

RTV SIa

Radio and Television Slovenia

SNAVP

Slovenian Independent Audiovisual Producers

SK

RTVS

Radio and Television of Slovakia

UK

BBC

British Broadcasting Corporation

BPI

British Recorded Music Industry

PACT

PACT

RadioCentre

Radio Centre Ltd

Note: * Not included in national report.

Table A3II: Domain coverage and membership of employer organisations, 2011
 

Employer organisation

Domain coverage

Type of membership

Companies

Employees

Total

In the sector

Total

In the sector

AT

FVFM

Sectionalism

Compulsory

4,000

2,000

4,000

na

FVKKV

Sectional overlap

Compulsory

1,262

157

na

1,750

VÖP

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

40

38

na

na

BE

ABDF-VFDB

Sectionalism

Voluntary

8

8

na

na

FCB

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

na

90

na

na

ARPF-Doc

Sectionalism

Voluntary

17

17

na

na

UPFF

Sectionalism

Voluntary

39

39

na

na

VFPB

Sectionalism

Voluntary

12

12

na

na

VOTP

Congruence

Voluntary

24

24

na

na

VOTF

Sectionalism

Voluntary

95

95

na

na

FEBELAV

Congruence

Voluntary

13

13

na

na

BG

BAEC (BAROK)

Overlap

Voluntary

81

na

na

na

ABBRO

Congruence

Voluntary

64

64

6,959

6,959

ATP

Overlap

Voluntary

na

na

na

na

CZ

APA

Sectionalism

Voluntary

na

9

na

na

DE

GPA

Sectionalism

Voluntary

220

220

na

na

VPRT

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

140

130

na

18,000

TPR

Sectionalism

Voluntary

6

6

na

na

VDF

Sectionalism

Voluntary

na

na

na

na

VTFF

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

na

na

na

na

HDF

Sectionalism

Voluntary

650

650

na

na

DK

PROF

Overlap

Voluntary

110

96

1,105

na

Radioerne

Congruence

Voluntary

35

35

150

150

EL

SΑPΟΕ

Sectionalism

Voluntary

80

80

na

na

 

EIIRA.

Sectionalism

Voluntary

35

35

na

na

 

EITISEE

Sectionalism

Voluntary

na

na

na

na

 

EPEK

Sectionalism

Voluntary

na

na

na

na

 

TEP

Sectionalism

Voluntary

na

na

na

na

ES

FAPAE

Sectionalism

Voluntary

334

334

na

na

AERC

Sectionalism

Voluntary

1,150

1,150

na

na

FEDICINE

Sectionalism

Voluntary

9

9

253

253

FI

PALTA

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

1,700

50

140,000

2,000

VKL

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

330

2

24,000

530

RM

Sectionalism

Voluntary

31

31

500

500

SEK

Sectionalism

Voluntary

47

47

300

300

SATU

Sectionalism

Voluntary

100

100

1,500

1,500

FR

USPA

Sectionalism

Voluntary

140

140

80

80

SPECT

Sectionalism

Voluntary

40

40

na

na

AFPF

Sectionalism

na

na

na

na

na

SPI

Sectionalism

Voluntary

360

360

na

na

ACCES

Sectionalism

Voluntary

33

33

na

na

APC

Sectionalism

Voluntary

134

134

na

na

API

Sectionalism

Voluntary

4

4

na

na

CNRA

Sectionalism

Voluntary

260

260

1,200

1,200

FICAM

Sectionalism

Voluntary

170

170

10,000

10,000

SEPP

Sectionalism

Voluntary

3

3

na

na

SIRTI

Sectionalism

Voluntary

150

150

na

na

SNEP

Sectionalism

Voluntary

44

44

na

na

SNRL

Sectionalism

Voluntary

300

300

na

na

SNTP

Sectionalism

Voluntary

na

na

na

na

SPFA

Sectionalism

Voluntary

60

60

na

na

SPPAM

Sectionalism

Voluntary

na

na

na

na

SRGP

Sectionalism

Voluntary

3

3

na

na

SRN

Sectionalism

Voluntary

na

na

na

na

TLSP

Sectionalism

Voluntary

56

56

450

450

UPF

Sectionalism

Voluntary

74

74

na

na

APFP

Sectionalism

Voluntary

na

na

na

na

STP

Sectionalism

Voluntary

3

3

10,132

10,132

UPFI

Sectionalism

Voluntary

na

na

na

na

SPI

Sectionalism

Voluntary

360

360

na

na

HU

IVSZ

Overlap

Voluntary

13,000

na

55,700

na

MAPSZa

na

na

na

na

na

na

IE

SPI

Sectionalism

Voluntary

140

140

na

na

IBEC

Overlap

Voluntary

7,500

na

na

na

IT

ANICA

Sectionalism

Voluntary

141

141

3,200

3,200

APT

Sectionalism

Voluntary

44

44

na

na

UNI Video

Sectionalism

Voluntary

59

59

na

na

EA

Sectionalism

Voluntary

na

na

na

na

ANEC

Sectionalism

Voluntary

1,013

1,013

na

na

ANEM

Sectionalism

Voluntary

55

55

na

na

AFI

Sectionalism

Voluntary

200

200

na

na

FIMI

Sectionalism

Voluntary

25

25

na

na

PMI

Sectionalism

Voluntary

100

100

300

300

FRT

Sectionalism

Voluntary

200

200

6,500

6,500

RNA

Sectionalism

Voluntary

na

na

na

na

Aeranti-Corallo

Sectionalism

Voluntary

963

963

6,000

6,000

Unindustria

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

3,500

43

245,000

7,241

Assolombarda

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

5,533

39

306,621

4,849

LT

na

na

na

na

na

na

na

LU

na

na

na

na

na

na

na

LV

LIKTA

Overlap

Voluntary

200

na

na

na

LKA

na

na

na

na

na

na

MT

na

na

na

na

na

na

na

NL

NVCR

Sectionalism

Voluntary

12

12

600

600

FPN

Sectionalism

na

na

na

na

na

PL

ZPMP

Sectionalism

Voluntary

19

19

7,000

7,000

ZPPM

Overlap

Voluntary

33

33

na

na

PT

APEC

Sectionalism

Voluntary

56

56

900

900

APR

Sectionalism

Voluntary

189

189

na

na

APIT

Sectionalism

Voluntary

19

19

na

na

RO

UNPR

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

na

na

na

na

ROMEDIA

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

140

100

na

na

MCPN

Sectional overlap

na

na

na

na

na

UPFAR- ARGOA

Sectionalism

Voluntary

81

81

na

na

SE

MF

Overlap

Voluntary

650

86

45,000

7,276

Film & TV Producenterna

na

Voluntary

na

110

na

na

SI

SNAVP

Sectionalism

Voluntary

7

7

na

na

SK

na

na

na

na

na

na

na

Table A3II: Domain coverage and membership of employer organisations, 2011
UK

PACT

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

450

450

na

na

RadioCentre

Sectionalism

Voluntary

301

na

na

na

BPI

Sectionalism

Voluntary

na

na

na

na

Note: a= Not included in national report

na = not available

Table A3III: Domain and membership of companies providing public broadcasting services, 2011
 

Name

Domain

Total employees

AT

ORF

Sectionalism

3,300

BE

RTBF

Sectionalism

2,100

VRT

Sectionalism

2,330

BG

BNR

Sectional overlap

1,483

BNT

Sectional overlap

1,600

CY

CYBC

Sectionalism

575

CZ

CT

Sectional overlap

2,800

CRO

Sectional overlap

1,500

DE

NDR

Sectionalism

3,500

RBB

Sectionalism

1,600

WDR

Sectionalism

4,200

SR

Sectionalism

600

HR

Sectionalism

2,000

SWR

Sectionalism

3,600

BR

Sectionalism

3,200

RB

Sectionalism

264

DW

Sectionalism

1,400

MDR

Sectionalism

2,000

ZDF

Sectionalism

3,600

DR

na

714

DK

DR

Sectionalism

2,846

EE

ERR

Sectionalism

691

EL

ERT

Sectional overlap

3,387

ES

RTVE

Sectional overlap

6,540

FI

YLE

Sectionalism

3,500

FR

FTV

Sectional overlap

9,689

FR

na

4,200

HU

MTVA

Sectional overlap

3,200

IE

RTE

Sectionalism

2,000

IT

RAI

Sectionalism

10,035

LT

LRT

Sectionalism

600

LU

RTL Group

na

na

Etablissement de Radioa

na

na

LV

LTV

Sectionalism

447

LR

Sectionalism

230

MT

PBS

Sectionalism

na

NL

NPO

Sectionalism

6,450

PL

TVP

Sectionalism

3,602

PR

Sectionalism

1,322

PT

RTP

Sectional overlap

2,049

RO

TVR

Sectionalism

3,372

SRR

Sectionalism

2,391

SE

SVT

Sectional overlap

2,530

SR

Sectional overlap

2,125

UR

Sectional overlap

275

SI

RTV SI

Sectional overlap

1,922

SK

RTVS

Sectionalism

1,400

UK

BBC

Sectionalism

23,000

Notes: a Not included in national report.

na = not available

n/a= not applicable

Table A3IV: Density, collective bargaining and consultation of employer organisations, 2011
 

Name

Sectorial density (%)

Collective bargaining

Consultation

Companies

Employees

AT

FVFM

93.1

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, both

On an ad-hoc basis

FVKKV

7.3

20.5

Yes, multi-employer

na

na

VÖP

1.8

na

No

na

na

BE

ABDF-VFDB

2.3

na

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

FCB

25.7

na

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

ARPF-Doc

4.9

na

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

UPFF

11.1

na

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

VFPB

3.4

na

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

VOTP

6.9

na

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

VOTF

27.1

na

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

Febelav

3.7

na

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

BG

BAEC (BAROK)

na

na

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

ABBRO

na

na

Yes

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

ATP

na

na

No

na

na

CZ

APA

na

na

No

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

DE

Produzenten Allianz

1.8

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On a regular basis

VPRT

1.0

18.8

No

Yes, within tripartite structures

na

TPR

0.0

na

Yes, multi-employer

No

VDF

na

na

Yes, multi-employer

na

na

VTFF

na

na

Yes, multi-employer

na

na

HDF

5.2

na

Yes, multi-employer

na

na

DK

PRO-F

4.9

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

Radioerne

1.8

1.3

No

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

EL

SΑPΟΕ

19.3

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, both

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis

EIIRA

8.5

na

Yes, multi-employer

na

na

EITISEE

na

na

Yes, multi-employer

na

na

EPEK

na

na

Yes, multi-employer

na

na

TEP

na

na

Yes, multi-employer

na

na

ES

FAPAE

2.8

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

AERC

9.7

na

Yes, multi-employer

na

na

FEDICINE

0.1

0.4

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On a regular basis

FI

PALTA

3.2

21.7

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, both

On an ad-hoc basis

VKL

0.1

5.8

Yes, single-employer

No

RM

2.0

5.4

No

No

SEK

3.0

3.3

No

Yes, both

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis

SATU

6.4

16.3

No

Yes, unilaterally

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis

FR

USPA

1.6

0.0

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, both

On an ad-hoc basis

SPECT

0.4

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, both

On an ad-hoc basis

AFPF

na

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, both

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis

SPI

4.0

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, both

On an ad-hoc basis

ACCES

0.4

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

APC

1.5

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

API

0.0

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis

CNRA

2.9

0.7

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, unilaterally

na

FICAM

1.9

5.6

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, both

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis

SEPP

0.0

na

Yes, multi-employer

 na

na

SIRTI

1.7

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, both

On a regular basis

SNEP

0.5

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, both

On a regular basis

SNRL

3.3

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, both

On a regular basis

SNTP

na

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, both

na

SPFA

0.7

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, both

On an ad-hoc basis

SPPAM

na

na

Yes, multi-employer

na

na

SRGP

0.0

na

Yes, multi-employer

na

na

SRN

na

na

Yes, multi-employer

na

na

TLSP

0.6

0.3

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, both

On an ad-hoc basis

UPF

1.6

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, both

On an ad-hoc basis

APFO

na

na

Yes, multi-employer

na

na

STP

0.0

5.7

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, both

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis

UPFI

na

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, both

na

SPI

4.0

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, both

On an ad-hoc basis

HU

IVSZ

na

na

No

Yes, unilaterally

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis

MAPSZa

na

na

na

na

na

IE

SPI

24.7

na

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

na

IBEC

na

na

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

na

IT

ANICA

1.6

6.0

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, both

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis

APT

0.5

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, both

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis

UNIVIDEO

0.7

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On a regular basis

Editori Associati

na

na

Yes, multi-employer

na

na

ANEC

11.7

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

ANEM

0.6

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On a regular basis

AFI

2.3

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, both

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis

FIMI

0.3

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, unilaterally

na

PMI

1.2

0.6

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis

FRT

2.3

12.2

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

RNA

na

na

Yes, multi-employer

na

na

Aeranti-Corallo

11.2

11.2

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, both

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis

Unindustria

0.5

13.5

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

Assolombarda

0.5

9.1

Yes, multi-employer

No

LT

na

na

na

na

na

na

LU

na

na

na

na

na

na

LV

LIKTA

na

na

No

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

LKA

na

na

na

na

na

MT

na

na

na

na

na

na

NL

NVCR

0.6

na

No

Yes, unilaterally

On a regular basis

FPN

na

na

No

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

PL

ZPMP

0.2

na

No

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

ZPPM

0.3

na

No

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

PT

APEC

6.4

10.1

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

APR

21.7

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

APIT

2.2

na

No

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

RO

UNPR

na

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, within tripartite structures

On an ad-hoc basis

ROMEDIA

4.4

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, within tripartite structures

On an ad-hoc basis

MCPN

na

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, within tripartite structures

On an ad-hoc basis

UPFAR-ARGOA

3.6

na

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, within tripartite structures

On an ad-hoc basis

SE

MF

5.0

46.5

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

Film & TV Producenterna

na

na

No

na

na

IFPI Svenska Gruppen

na

na

Yes, multi-employer

na

na

SI

SNAVP

1.0

na

No

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

SK

na

na

na

na

na

na

UK

PACT

2.6

na

Yes, multi-employer

na

na

RadioCentre

1.7

na

No

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

BPI

na

na

Yes, multi-employer

na

na

Notes: a Not included in national report.

na= not available

Table A3V: Affiliations of employer organisations, 2011
 

Name

National, European and international affiliations

 
AT

FVFM

WKO

CEPI, FIAD

FIAPF

FVKKV

WKO

VÖP

ÖWR

AER

BE

ABDF-VFDB

Arthena

FIAD

FCB

Mediasal

UNIC

ARPF-Doc

UPFF

na

VFPB

FIAPF

VOTP

VABP, VFPB

CEPI

VOTF

UNIZO

Febelav

FEB/VBO

FIAD

BG

BAEC (BAROK)

BIA

PEARLE*

ABBRO

AER

ATP

CEPI

CZ

APA

FIAPF

DE

Produzenten Allianz

BDA, SPIO, ZAW

CEPI

FRAPA

VPRT

ZAW

AER

TPR

VDF

SPIO

FIAPF

VTFF

SPIO, BDA

HDF

SPIO

UNIC

DK

PRO-F

CFPE, CEPI

FIAPF

Radioerne

RD, DAB, DMF

AER

EL

SΑPΟΕ

EPAA

AGICOA

EIIRA

na

EITISEE

na

EPEK

na

TEP

na

ES

FAPAE

CEOE

CEPI, EPAA, FIAPF

AERC

AER

FEDICINE

FIAD

FI

PALTA

EK

CoESS

VKL

EK

RM

VKL

AER

SEK

PALTA

FIAPF

SATU

CFP-E

CEPI

FR

USPA

FESAC, CPA

CEPI

SPECT

FESAC, CPA

AFPF

FESAC, CPA

SPI

FESAC

ACCES

FESAC

APC

FESAC

API

FESAC

CNRA

FESAC

FICAM

FESAC, CGMPE

SEPP

FESAC

SIRTI

FESAC

AER

SNEP

MEDEF, FESAC

SNRL

FESAC

SNTP

FESAC

SPFA

FESAC

SPPAM

FESAC

SRGP

FESAC

SRN

FESAC

TLSP

FESAC

UPF

FESAC

APFO

na

STP

na

UPFI

na

SPI

FESAC

EuroCinema

HU

IVSZ

MGYOSZ

EICTA

MAPSZa

FIAPF

IE

SPI

CEPI

IBEC

BUSINESS EUROPE, Eurocommerce

IT

ANICA

Confindustria

FIAD

APT

Confindustria

CEPI

UNIVIDEO

Confindustria

IVF

Editori Associati

na

ANEC

AGIS

UNIC

ANEM

AGIS

UNIC

AFI

Confindustria

CAFI

FIMI

Confindustria

IFPI

PMI

Confindustria

IMPALA

FRT

na

RNA

Confindustria

AER

Aeranti-Corallo

Confocommercio

Unindustria

Confindustria

OPCE

Assolombarda

Confindustria

LT

na

na

LU

na

na

LV

LIKTA

LDDK

LKA

FIAPF

MT

na

na

NL

NVCR

AER

FPN

FIAPF

PL

ZPMP

PRP

ZPPM

PKPP Lewiatan

PT

APEC

UAED

APR

CPMCS, APDC

APIT

GEDIPE, APDC

CEPI

RO

UNPR

UNPR

ROMEDIA

UGIR 1903

MCPN

na

UPFAR-ARGOA

UGIR

CEPI

SE

MF

SN, MF

Film & TV Producenterna

CEPI, FIAPF

IFPI Svenska Gruppen

IFPI

SI

SNAVP

CEPI

SK

na

na

UK

PACT

 CEPI

RadioCentre

JICRIT, Digital Radio UK, Radioplayer, Radio Academy, RAJAR, AER

BPI

IFPI, Entertainment Retailers’ Association, UK Music

Notes: National affiliations are in italics.

Table A3VI: Density, collective bargaining, consultation and affiliations of companies providing public service broadcasting, 2011
 

Employer organisation

Sectorial density (%) employees

Collective bargaining

Consultation

National, European and international affiliations

AT

ORF

na

Yes, single-employer

na

na

EBU

 
BE

RTBF

33.6

Yes, single-employer

Yes, within tripartite structures

On an ad-hoc basis

EBU

VRT

37.3

Yes, single-employer

Yes, within tripartite structures

On an ad-hoc basis

EBU

BG

BNR

na

Yes, single-employer

No

NO

EBU

UTRI, IASA

BNT

18.7

Yes, single-employer (according to EBU)

Yes, unilaterally

na

EBU

CY

CYBC

26.1

Yes, single-employer

No

EBU 

CZ

CT

na

Yes, single-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

ATO, RPR

EBU, PBI, CIRCOM, EGTA

IFTA, BFA, IMZ, ABX

CRo

na

Yes, single-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

ARO

EBU

DE

NDR

3.6

Yes, single-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

ARD

EBU

RBB

1.7

Yes, single-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

ARD

EBU

WDR

4.4

Yes, single-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

ARD

EBU

SR

0.6

Yes, single-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

ARD

EBU

HR

2.1

Yes, single-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

ARD

EBU

SWR

3.7

Yes, single-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

ARD

EBU

BR

3.3

Yes, single-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

ARD

EBU

DWW

0.3

Yes, single-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

ARD

EBU

MDR

1.4

Yes, single-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

ARD

EBU

ZDF

2.1

Yes, single-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

ARD

EBU

DR

na

Yes, single-employer

na

na

EBU

DK

DR

na

Yes, single-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

EBU

EE

ERR

5.6

Yes, single-employer

na

On an ad-hoc basis

EBU, EPRA, BAAC

IMZ, IFTA, IASA 

EL

ERT

14.9

Yes, single-employer

na

na

EBU

ES

RTVE

na

Yes, single-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

EBU, EART, PCMAO

FI

YLE

38

Yes, single-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

PALTA

EBU

FR

FTV

5.4

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

SEPP

EBU

FR

2.3

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

SEPP

EBU

HU

MTVA

na

na

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

EBU

IE

RTE

na

Yes, single-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On a regular basis

EBU

IT

RAI

18.8

Yes, single-employer

Yes, both

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis

EBU

LT

LRT

26.5

Yes, single-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

EBU

LU

EtablisseLewment de Radiob

na

na

na

na

EBU

LV

LTV

19.7

Yes, single-employer

No

ECL

EBU

LR

10.1

Yes, single-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

EBU

MT

PBS

na

Yes, single-employer

na

na

EBU

NL

NPO

3.6

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

EBU

PL

TVP

na

Yes, single-employer (according to EBU)

No current agreement in place, according to national correspondent.

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

ZPMP, KIPA

EBU

URTI

PR

na

Yes, single-employer (according to EBU)

No current agreement in place (according to interview for studya)

na

na

ZPMP

Euranet, EBU

URTI

PT

RTP

na

Yes, single-employer

Yes, both

On an ad-hoc basis

APR

EBU

PBI

RO

TVR

19.9

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On an ad-hoc basis

EBU

SRR

13.5

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On an ad-hoc basis

EBU

SE

SVT

na

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

Nordvision, MF

EBU

SR

na

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

Nordvision, SVS, MF

EBU

UR

na

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

Nordvision, MF

EBU

SI

RTV SI

17.4

Yes, single-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

EBU

SK

RTVS

31.8

Yes, single-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

EBU

UK

BBC

23.5

Yes, single-employer

No

EBU

Notes: a A collective agreement in TVP was in force a few years ago according to the interview by the national correspondent.

bNot included in national report.

na = not available

n/a= not applicable

Table A3VII: Domain coverage and description of employer organisations, 2011
 

Employer organisation

Domain coverage

Domain description

AT

FVFM

Sectionalism

Film and music private companies

FVKKV

Sectional overlap

Private companies in film projection and cultural entertainment

VÖP

Sectional overlap

Private broadcasting companies

BE

ABDF-VFDB

Sectionalism

Film distributors companies

FCB

Sectional overlap

Film projection companies

ARPF-Doc

Sectionalism

Filmmaker companies and film directors

UPFF

Sectionalism

French-speaking filmmakers companies

VFPB

Sectionalism

Flemish-speaking filmmakers companies

VOTP

Congruence

Flemish private broadcasting production companies

VOTF

Sectionalism

Flemish private television services companies

FEBELAV

Congruence

Audiovisual companies

BG

BAEC (BAROK)

Overlap

Companies in cultural activities (music and dance; museums, galleries and fine arts; cultural animation; audiovisual; design; and so on)

ABBRO

Congruence

Broadcasting companies

ATP

Overlap

Production companies in television business

CZ

APA

Sectionalism

Production managers and production companies

DE

GPA

Sectionalism

Private television and film production companies

VPRT

Sectional overlap

Medium and large-sized private broadcasters and telecommunication companies

TPR

Sectionalism

Private radio companies

VDF

Sectionalism

Film and television film private companies

VTFF

Sectional overlap

Technical service provider companies for film and TV productions

HDF

Sectionalism

Film projection companies

DK

PRO-F

Overlap

na

Radioerne

Congruence

Local radio and TV stations

EL

SΑPΟΕ

Sectionalism

Cinematography and television private production companies

EIIRA

Sectionalism

Private radio stations of the Attica region

EITISEE

Sectionalism

Private television stations

EPEK

Sectionalism

Regional and local private television stations

TEP

Sectionalism

Regional private televisions

ES

FAPAE

Sectionalism

Private audiovisual producers

AERC

Sectionalism

Private radios stations

FEDICINE

Sectionalism

Private cinematographic distribution companies

FI

PALTA

Sectional overlap

Private companies in the service sector

VKL

Sectional overlap

Private companies in audiovisual and communication sectors

RM

Sectionalism

Private radio stations

SEK

Sectionalism

Private film producers companies

SATU

Sectionalism

Private producers companies

FR

USPA

Sectionalism

Private companies in film, video and television programme production, sound recording and publishing activities

SPECT

Sectionalism

Private companies in entertainment programme production

AFPF

Sectionalism

Private companies in film production

SPI

Sectionalism

Private producers (mainly SMEs)

ACCES

Sectionalism

Private cable and satellite TV

APC

Sectionalism

Private companies in film production

API

Sectionalism

Private producers (mainly large companies)

CNRA

Sectionalism

Non-profitmaking private radio stations

FICAM

Sectionalism

Film projection, audiovisual and multimedia companies

SEPP

Sectionalism

Private publishers companies

SIRTI

Sectionalism

Private radio stations

SNEP

Sectionalism

Private companies in music publishing

SNRL

Sectionalism

Private radio stations

SNTP

Sectionalism

Private local TV stations

SPFA

Sectionalism

Private animation film companies

SPPAM

Sectionalism

Private audiovisual and musical programmes companies

SRGP

Sectionalism

Private radio stations

SRN

Sectionalism

Private radio networks

TLSP

Sectionalism

Local public service TV

UPF

Sectionalism

Private film producers

APFO

Sectionalism

Private advertisement film producers

STP

Sectionalism

Private TV stations

UPFI

Sectionalism

Private music producers

SPI

Sectionalism

Private independent producers

HU

IVSZ

Overlap

Companies in ICT sector

MAPSZa

na

na

IE

SPI

Sectionalism

Private film, television and animation production companies

IBEC

Overlap

All companies in the sector

IT

ANICA

Sectionalism

Film projection, audiovisual and multimedia companies

APT

Sectionalism

TV producers

UNIVIDEO

Sectionalism

Audio and video publishing companies

EA

Sectionalism

Dubbing companies

ANEC

Sectionalism

Film projection companies

ANEM

Sectionalism

Film projection (mainly multiplex) companies

AFI

Sectionalism

Sound recording and music publishing activities (mainly SMEs)

FIMI

Sectionalism

Sound recording and music publishing activities (mainly multinational corporations)

PMI

Sectionalism

Sound recording and music publishing activities (mainly independent producers)

FRT

Sectionalism

Private radio and TV stations

RNA

Sectionalism

Private radio broadcasting companies (mainly at national level)

Aeranti-Corallo

Sectionalism

Private radio and TV broadcasting companies at national level (mainly at regional level)

Unindustria

Sectional overlap

Companies in the Lazio region

Assolombarda

Sectional overlap

Companies in the Milan region

LT

na

na

na

LU

na

na

na

LV

LIKTA

Overlap

Companies in ICT sector

LKA

na

na

MT

na

na

na

NVCR

Sectionalism

Commercial radio companies

PL

ZPMP

Sectionalism

State-owned media companies

ZPPM

Overlap

Private companies in print media and audiovisual sector (mainly private)

APEC

Sectionalism

Film projection companies

PT

APR

Sectionalism

Broadcasting and programming companies

APIT

Sectionalism

Private TV producers

RO

UNPR

Sectional overlap

All private companies in sector

ROMEDIA

Sectional overlap

Private companies in the mass media

MCPN

Sectional overlap

Activities performed in the cultural and national heritage public institutions and companies

UPFAR-ARGOA

Sectionalism

Private independent producers

SE

MF

Overlap

Companies in media industries

Swedish Film & TV producers Associationa

na

Independent production companies in film, documentaries, television programmes and commercial films

SI

SNAVP

Sectionalism

Private audiovisual producers

SK

na

na

na

UK

PACT

Sectional overlap

Professional companies providing services within audiovisual under ‘facilitator’ membership

RadioCentre

Sectionalism

Commercial radio

Notes: Companies providing public broadcasting services are excluded as that is their domain.

aNot included in national report.

na = not available


Annex 4: Country groups and codes

Country groups

EU15 15 EU Member States prior to enlargement in 2004

EU27 Current 27 EU Member States

NMS 12 New Member States that joined the EU in May 2004 (Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia) and in January 2007 (Bulgaria and Romania)

Country codes

The order of the countries follows the EU protocol based on the alphabetical order of the geographical names of countries in the original language.

BE

Belgium

BG

Bulgaria

CZ

Czech Republic

DK

Denmark

DE

Germany

EE

Estonia

IE

Ireland

EL

Greece

ES

Spain

FR

France

IT

Italy

CY

Cyprus

LV

Latvia

LT

Lithuania

LU

Luxembourg

HU

Hungary

MT

Malta

NL

Netherlands

AT

Austria

PL

Poland

PT

Portugal

RO

Romania

SI

Slovenia

SK

Slovakia

FI

Finland

SE

Sweden

UK

United Kingdom

EF/13/22

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