Hungary: Employment opportunities for people with chronic diseases

  • Observatory: EurWORK
  • Topic:
  • Labour market policies,
  • Work organisation,
  • Disability and chronic disease,
  • Viešosios paslaugos,
  • Working conditions,
  • Social policies,
  • Published on: 14 Lapkritis 2014



About
Country:
Hungary
Author:
Institution:

Disclaimer: This information is made available as a service to the public but has not been edited by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. The content is the responsibility of the authors.

Despite life expectancy has ameliorated during the last 20 years, Hungary is the 23rd among the EU countries in this regard. In 2011, 21.5%, 1,439 thousand people of the 15-64 years old generation reported about having chronic health problems, diseases for at least six months. The economic activity indicators of people with disabilities are very poor; they are significantly underrepresented on the labour market.  185,000 out of 767,000 people with disabilities are economically active, of which 139,000 are employed, 46,000 unemployed in 2011. The main obstacle in entering the labour market for the ones with chronic diseases appears to be the lack of information on the diseases. Employers tend to use preventive measurements (systematic health checks) to avoid the employment of people with any kinds of diseases. It is not common that employers adapt working conditions in favour to the employment of people with special needs.

Block 1: Concept, definitions, sources of information and methodological issues on chronic diseases and work from the national perspective

1.1. National definition of chronic disease

·      What definitions of “chronic diseases” in an employment context are used in your country?

Chronically ill: Not contagious, slowly developing, long lasting and requiring permanent assistance, significantly deteriorating the quality of life, generally goes together with other diseases ( National Institute for Health Developme, Országos Egészségfejlesztési Intézet, OEFI).

However, in the Hungarian practice another definition is in use. “People with disabilities” (“megváltozott munkaképességűek”) is used as a generic term that includes “people with chronic diseases” researched by this study.

The term “people with disabilities” is defined with people having chronic problems, illnesses or any other kinds of incapacitation (physical, mental, sensory, etc.) who suffer of disadvantageous situation on the labour market, and due to their congenital disease, accident or illness they are incapacitated to carry out a job entrusted in the same way or quality, as not disabled people of the same gender, age group, qualification can do in general.

·      What are the sources of these definitions (legislation, statistical sources, administrative documents, social security/health insurance systems)?

National Institution for Health Development and Hungarian Central Statistical Office use the definition of people with disabilities, which corresponds with the definition used by the European Network for Workplace Health Promotion, ENWHP.

·      What concrete chronic diseases are included in these national definitions?

The most significant chronic diseases according to this definition are: cardiovascular diseases, malignant tumours, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes, mental and musculoskeletal diseases.

1.2. Information on national sources of statistical information dealing with the issue of chronic diseases and their relation to employment and working conditions

1.    What is the official name of this statistical source (in national language and translation into English) and its responsible body?

KSH – Társadalmi helyzetkép: Egészségi állapot, Egészségügy

KSH - Social Situation: Health Status, Health care

http://www.ksh.hu/docs/hun/xftp/idoszaki/thk/thk10_egeszseg.pdf

·      What definition of chronic disease is used?

The research does not directly concentrate on chronic diseases. It uses the European Health Interview Survey as a basis that contains the international standards in its definitions.

·      What are the categories of chronic diseases surveyed/registered?

European Health Interview Survey is a general – not specified on chronic diseases – survey representative for the population over the age of 15 years.

However the survey asks:

      high blood pressure

      vertebral disease

      ischameniac hearth disease

      anomalies of lipoprotein metabolism

      diabetes

      cerebrovascular disease

      tumours

      liver problems

      mental and behavioural problems due to alcohol consumption

      liver problems due to alcohol consumption

·      What are the questions in relation to employment and working conditions?

      Do you have any kind of chronic diseases?

      Has any kind of health problem limited you to carry out your everyday tasks out during the last 6 months?

      Were you sick during the last 12 months, or have you had an illness that was caused by your job, or which was deteriorated due to your job?

      Has it occurred in the last 12 months that you could not work due to your health problem?

·      What is the methodology used to collect the data?

European Health Interview Survey researched the population over the age of 15 years in 2009 by survey and secondary data analysis. The results describe the health status and lifestyle of the population over the age of 15.

·      What information is provided?

      Illnesses resulting in death

      Illnesses, diseases

      Self assessment on health status, capabilities, life expectancy

      Health incapacities

·      Other info (time frequency, origin of the info, etc.)

Ad hoc research

2.    What is the official name of this statistical source (in national language and translation into English) and its responsible body?

KSH: Munkapiac, munkakörülmények és egészség

KSH: Labour market, working conditions and health

http://www.demografia.hu/letoltes/kiadvanyok/Kutjelek/Kutjel87_honlapra.pdf

·      What definition of chronic disease is used?

The research does not directly concentrate on chronic diseases; it does not contain a definition for chronic diseases but offer 21 kinds of complaints to choose from.

·      What are the categories of chronic diseases surveyed/registered?

This research is a also general survey representative for the Hungarian population between the ages of 18-54 years.

The following complaints were offered to choose from whether they are influencing the life of the answerers:

·      Deteoriation in hearing/ sight

·      Deteoriation in vision

·      Back/ neck/ foot/leg/arm pain

·      Musculo-skeletal/joints’ disorders

·      Stomach/ digestion pain

·      Blood pressure disorders

·      Hearth problems

·      Injury/ wounds/ accident

·      Skin diseases

·      Respiratory disease

·      Allergy

·      Headache/ general weariness/ sleeping disorders/ discomfort/ anxiety/ irritability/ nervousness/ stress

·      Other health problems

·      What are the questions in relation to employment and working conditions?

      Are you happy with your health status?

      What health problems do you have what you think is a result/consequence of your work?

      What chronic complaints do you have?

·      What is the methodology used to collect the data?

Targeted was the population between the ages of 18-54 years. In total there were 4,000 people surveyed.

·      What information is provided?

      Health status

      Labour market position and health

      Working conditions and health status

      Employees within the economic sectors and their health status

      Health damages and complaints correlating with the work carried out.

      Health damaging working conditions within each sectors

      Connections/ relations between working conditions and health statuses

      Health statuses within different positions.

·      Other info (time frequency, origin of the info, etc.)

Ad hoc research

3.    What is the official name of this statistical source (in national language and translation into English) and its responsible body?

KSH - Megváltozott munkaképességűek a munkaerőpiacon, 2011

KSH - Disabled persons on the labour market

http:-//www.ksh.hu/docs/hun/xftp/idoszaki/pdf/megvaltmunkakep.pdf

·      What definition of chronic disease is used?

According to the research people with disabilities were people of the age between 15-64 years who declared to suffer from chronic health problems, illness and feel themselves incapacitated to get a job, or to properly carry their tasks at work.

·      What are the categories of chronic diseases surveyed/registered?

It is a general survey representative for the Hungarian population between the ages of 15-64 years.

Problems assessed by the research:

      Circulatory disorder

      Back/ neck/ leg/ hand / arm problem

      Diabetes

      Chest and respiratory disease

      Digestive disorders

      Other disorder of the nervous system

      Mental and psychic problems

      Cancer, tumours

      Other progressive disease

      Chronic anxiety/ depression

      Migraine

      Skin disease /skin allergy

      Epilepsy

·      What are the questions in relation to employment and working conditions?

      Do you have some chronic health problem, disease?

      What hinders you to make have a job?

      When your working conditions were set, were your health problems, illness, incapacity taken into consideration?

      Due to your health problems, illness do you think your working conditions should be adjusted?

·      What is the methodology used to collect the data?

The research was connected to the labour force survey carried out in the second quarter of 2011.  The survey registered the chronic health problems, illnesses, diseases, physical, mental, sensory disabilities of the population aged between 15-64 years.

·      What information is provided?

      Characteristics of the people with disabilities,

      Labour market positions of the people with disabilities,

      Obstacles in the active participation on the labour market for people with disabilities,

      Situation, working conditions of employed people with disabilities.

Block 2: Prevalence, recent evolution and effects of the problem of chronic diseases among workers and companies

2.1. People affected by chronic diseases and employment

Life expectancy has ameliorated during the last 20 years in Hungary. In 2010 life expectancy was 2,6 years longer than 10 years before. Hungary is the 23rd among the EU countries in this regard.

In 2011 21.5% of the people aged between 15 and 64 years reported to have chronic health problems, diseases. This means in total 1,439,000 persons, 669,000 men and 770,000 women. Half of these people (733,000) suffer from at least two different kinds of chronic diseases in the same time.

The main problems are coming from circulatory systems’ problems (in 9.6% that means 642,000 people). The second largest disease type is neck’s, back’s rheumatic diseases, or joint diseases (in 4.8%, 321,000 people)

·      What is the employment situation of people with chronic diseases in your country (% of people in employment/unemployment/inactivity that are affected by chronic diseases)?

In 2011 52.1% (767,000 in total; 354,000 men and 431,000 women) of the 15-64 years old generation with chronic health problems, diseases, incapacity (in total 685,000 men and 787,000 women) reported that their health status hinders them in carrying out their work. These 767,000 can be considered as people with disabilities/ changed working capacities due to some chronic diseases. The presence of people with disabilities is very low on the labour market. Only 185,000 out of the 767,000 were economically active in the second quarter of 2011, 139,000 were employees, and 46,000 unemployed out of them.

·      Are certain chronic diseases associated to or more prevalent in certain economic sectors/occupations?

In Hungary people see the work as a source of most of their health problems. The most mentioned problem is the back pain; 34% of the 18-54 years old respondents suffer from. This is a general problem, independent from sector, or occupation. However people in construction and health-social care seem to have more complaint on it.

Stress is more likely a source for complaint in the banking and economic sectors, or in the public defences (38-39%), and less likely in the agriculture (below average, but still 27%). The fourth most popular problem is headache, 23.3% of the whole sample mentioned it. Workers in the public sector and construction sector suffer from it less likely (18 and 19%), but in education, culture, financial and economic services 30% complained about it.

·      What are the typical employment trajectories of workers affected by chronic diseases? (entry/exit patterns)

According to the result of “Mindenkire hangolva” programme the career of ill people looks as follows: acute course – changed work capacity – disability pension – rehabilitation – changes in the level of disability pension.

The programme suggests changing this path to: chronic diseases – acute course – changes in capacity – rehabilitation – return to work.  They also suggest three means to develop this: coaching of people with disabilities, coaching of working conditions, coaching/motivation of the management.

·      What are the main difficulties/problems for people with chronic diseases to access or stay in the labour market?

12.3% of all people with chronic health problems, diseases, of incapacity reported one of the three following factors that hinder them to get employed:

      35.1% of them mention work load (they can only work shorter hours a day, and with lower intensity)

      62.4% of them mention that the type of work is undeliverable in their conditions (some kinds of physical or intellectual jobs are not appropriate)

      2.5% said the problem were mobility gaps (reaching the work place)

Some examples: Sclerosis Multiplex

According to the hand-out of the Association of Sclerosis Multiplex, 2013, http://www.smtarsasag.hu/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/SM_barat_munkahely.pdf) for employers:

Many of the employees after having the diagnosis of SM continue working, and keep the job until they get into retirement. Some of them change position or even profession when becoming aware of their incapacities. Many quit working, even if they think with some changes at work they could have kept them working longer. However, most of the people with SM consider the lack of understanding from the colleagues, supervisors the main problem, and the wrong judgement of their condition and working capacity.

The lack of information makes the job for the employees’ and employers’ more difficult.

The main doubts of employers facing employees with SM is whether they would be also intellectually disabled, and the greatest misbelieve is that people with SM cannot do any kinds of job. Due to the lack of information, employers do not dare to pose the questions. They refer to the completion of their position and make them terminate the contract or will not employ somebody with SM– as to refer to their illness would be discriminative, thus impossible.

Rheumatic diseases

According to the Association of People with Rheumatic Diseases (http://izuletibetegsegek.hu/):

Dependently from the status and severity of the illness, some physical symptoms are not to hide. 

In this case the employer shall be notified, and discuss what and how is possible to carry out by the employee. In case the symptoms are not visible, the employee shall decide whether to tell or not. In optimal cases the employee better notifies the employer about the condition and the need of medical checks required and so on. But many people with rheumatic diseases prefer not to talk about the illness to avoid negative discrimination.

In Hungary there is no legal provision what would prescribe the obligation to notify employers on such conditions except the cases, when

      the work contract requires that, or

      the disease poses risks to the others’ health and safety at work.

·      What are the main difficulties/problems for enterprises with workers affected by chronic diseases? What solutions do enterprises adopt to deal with these workers affected by chronic diseases?

The Hungarian employers are not prepared to manage employment of people with chronic diseases. In practice they introduce preventive measures (e.g. health checks, arrange ergonomic working conditions, employ safety and security staff to take care), but rarely employing people with disabilities.

The main problem concerning to the employment of people with chronic diseases is that the symptoms and cures of the diseases are not known, there is no information widely spread on those diseases in general and their impact on working capacities. Neither good practices are known on the cooperation with people which chronic diseases.

·      Are there differences in the previously mentioned patterns by types of chronic diseases or groups of pathologies? Are there differences according to age or gender

Women are more likely to complain about their chronic diseases, health problems, incapacity than men (65% of the women, 56% of the men), and women are more likely to negatively consider their health status than men, independent from having chronic disease or not.

There is great gender related segregation in the diseases: 73.8% of the ones with chronic discomfort, distress, depression are women, 72.8% of all having chronic head ache/ migraine are also women and also women are more likely (60.3%) to suffer from cancers, tumours or other progressive diseases.

Chance of appearing health problems, chronic diseases goes along with ageing. Around 75% of the ones reporting any kinds of health problems, and 80% of the ones reporting about physical or intellectual incapacities are over 45 years old or older.

In the central (most prospering) regions of the country people are healthier and less incapacitated than the national average. At the same time in regions with disadvantageous labour market opportunities report about worsening health indicators. In the central region 17.3% of the 15-64 years-old population considers themselves dealing with some kinds of chronic diseases, what indicator was 29.9% in the South-Transdanubian region.

·      Is it possible to identify some changes in the previously mentioned patterns in recent years? reasons for this and possible specific effects of the economic crisis

The consequences of the economic crises also affect the population’s health status on long term; however there are no researches, figures available. Apparently, employers are less likely to emphasise factors, processes, measurements what are not connected to the production, to the operation. The preventive health programmes both at national and company levels seem to have become sacrifices of the crisis according to the few assessments available.

2.2. Working conditions of employed people affected by chronic diseases

245 occupational diseases (mainly poisoning, toxics, than respiratory, followed by skin and hearing diseases) were registered in 2011, 11% less than in the previous year. Among all economic sectors, the most diseases happened in the health and social services. Over the average, contagious diseases were reported in the health and social care institutions (39% of all registers occupational diseases appeared there, affecting 95 people). There were 62 cases (25%) in the mining, 60 cases (24%) in the processing industries. Two fatal events were registered in 2011, in both cases the employees worked for decades in deep extracting mines.

In 2011 in 14 cases were registered tumour diseases related to the occupation (6% of all occupational diseases). These cases happened among men older than 50 years old, who worked in uranium mines without exceptions.

(Source: National Labour Service: Professional Assessment of the work related diseases and the cases of exposition in year 2011 A 2011. évi foglalkozási megbetegedések és

fokozott expozíciós esetek szakmai értékelése, Bp., 2011)

There are no information available no researches on the correlation between occupational and chronic diseases.

·      Reconciliation of working and non-working life: are people with chronic diseases allowed special conditions in terms of work-life balance, flexibility at work to cope with the diseases/attend treatment, ability to set their own working time arrangements, etc.?

One-third (43,000) of the 139,000 employees with disabilities reported to be in need of some kind of help to carry out their jobs, and also receiving those help. Most of them received help (discounts) in working conditions (work schedule, working time, and work load). 90.1% of them reported that the employer considered their conditions, and adjusted the working conditions to their needs, and they were happy about that; only 9.9% of them required further assistance. There were 19,000 employees with disabilities whom conditions were not considered at all when having set working conditions. All of these arrangements are individual/single agreements. But the majority of disabled workers (including workers with chronic diseases) is not working at all.

·      Career and employment security: to which extent and how is the employment status of people with chronic diseases affected by their health situation?; is there an impact in their remuneration levels/conditions?; in what measure is there a repercussion on their employment security and working career?; are they allowed/forced to changes in their jobs?

On 5 October 2012, there was a round table discussion held with the title “In case I can bend down, I pick up the job” (“Ha le tudok hajolni felveszem a munkát”) in Budapest, organised by the Association of Hungarian Rheumatologists.

According to their recent researches, people with physical disabilities are committed to keep their jobs, they do not consider themselves as fully incapacitated, despite the fact that they often suffer from great pains. The current medical practice allows those people to keep their diseases asymptomatic and the worsening of their conditions can be slowed down. Thus the main aim of the round table discourse was to make the government to widen the scope of the so called Job saving action plan to cover those, who chose work instead of disability pension. The proposal is planned to suggest tax allowances to employer who employ people with disabilities. This could compensate/cover the adaptation costs at such workplaces, and would decrease the state budget’s social expenses.

One might take into consideration that disadvantageous working conditions have a negative kiadvanyok impact on the workers’ health – that is a fact, however, it is difficult to verify, to confirm this with statistics, as these conditions are rolling up during our careers (for example previous working conditions, social background, etc.). The study on labour market, working condition and health, we mentioned before http://www.demografia.hu/letoltes/kiadvanyok/Kutjelek/Kutjel87_honlapra.pdf

could not identify any or only a low significance between working conditions and health status of the workers. For men the physical conditions and employment security has shown some correlation with health. Among women the monotony and long working hours affected the health status.

Block 3: Policies and measures adopted by public and private agents to favour the employment situation and working conditions of people with chronic diseases

3.1. Description of main policy measures/initiatives developed by public authorities or social partners

Munka: Lélekre Hangolva – Work in tune with life. Move Europe

·      Objectives pursued (staying-in-work/return-to-work), support offered, activities carried out

The „Munka: Lélekre Hangolva – Move Europe” campaign aims

      to collect as many good practices of mental health promoting programmes as possible; then to disseminate their results.

      to promote mental health among employees and thus increase economic competitiveness.

      to mobilise companies to participate in such programmes and make them aware of their benefits in having healthy employees

      to develop the existing good practices and promote the exchange of experiences concerning mental health at work.

·      Specific target groups

Employers

·      Financing of the measures

The „Munka: Lélekre Hangolva – Move Europe” campaign is financed from the Public Health Programme (2003-2008) of the European Commission.

·      Outcomes: major results/consequences of the measure on the improvement of working conditions of people with chronic diseases.

      Best practice Award of the Mental Health Development at Work

      Stress management trainings for leaders

      Guides, hand-outs for mental health development

      Assessment (lessons learnt, future prospects)

Through the programme employers could learn about the importance of the health development at work

The programme was extended in the next programme named "Munka. Mindenkire Hangolva".

·      Link to the identified measure/initiative

http://www.oefi.hu/lelekrehangolva/index.html

Munka: Mindenkire Hangolva, Work. Adapted for all. Move Europe

·      Objectives pursued (staying-in-work/return-to-work), support offered, activities carried out

In case of existing chronic diseases the programme aims to support the people dealing with the disease, live with it. And it supports employers to make allowances for the employees with chronic diseases.

The project aims to develop guides, collect best practices to keep employees with chronic diseases at work, promote their health status, or even help them to return to work. An awareness camping is run in the participating countries to attract employers’ attention too.

The project aims to stimulate employers to prevent chronic diseases, to maintain, develop their employees’ health status, and to facilitate working life of those who suffer from any kind of chronic diseases.

·      Specific target groups

Employers

·      Financing of the measures

The programme is co-financed by the EU – and it is carried out by the National Health Development Institute (Országos Egészségfejlesztési Intézet, OEFI).

·      Outcomes: major results/consequences of the measure on the improvement of working conditions of people with chronic diseases.

      Description of best practices,

      Guide based on best practises

The “Guide to the best practices” (“Útmutató a jó gyakorlatokhoz") hand-out deals with the following topics:

      Chronic diseases at work

      Meaning/understanding of health development at work, of return to work and sustainable employment of people with chronic diseases

      Information for employers, how to establish healthy working environment

      Six-step work programme

      Recommendations how to implement

      Next steps

·      Assessment (lessons learnt, future prospects)

Through the programme employers could learn about the labour market situation and difficulties of people with chronic diseases, and get ideas how to keep them at work.

·      Link to the identified measure/initiative

http://www.oefi.hu/mindenkirehangolva/01_szakm_anyagok.html

3.2. Examples of enterprises and/or collective agreements implementing initiatives or establishing clauses to support people with chronic diseases

There are only few smaller initiatives to support employees being affected by chronic diseases. According to the law, it is tax reduction for companies to have disabled employees, but regularly there are no measures taken to take the special need of this group into consideration.  However, most of those people are employed at special foundations, social companies and not in the private sector. Most of them are not documented. So we decided to describe initiatives which are dealing with health protection in general.

VELUX Magyarország Ltd. – construction with around 1000 employees

·      Objectives pursued and addressed target groups

The company started a three-year-long preventive health programme for its more than 1000 employees (2012-2014). It is not for (but neither against) people with chronic diseases. Therefore we added it here.

·      Main activities conducted and/or measures devised (i.e. physical adjustments of workstations, planned support actions by colleagues, personalised working-time arrangements, internal mobility, commuting support, mid-career review, etc.)

The aim of the programme (value of HUF 12 million, EUR 40,000) is to preserve, promote and build awareness of the 1000 employees’ physical and mental health, healthy lifestyle and to provide a stress-free working environment. To start the company prepared a stress-map of the entire company covering each and all employees, positions.

Each of the programmes years has a thematic focus: 2012 – quitting smoking; 2013 – healthy nutrition; 2014 – stress-management. The programme includes professional, scientific education, trainings, sport programmes, and other relevant events. At the events the discussion is about: hearing, sight, spine and joint diseases, addict logy, cardiovascular diseases, nutrition. In addition medical checks, screening is also foreseen for the employees.

 

·      Main results obtained and assessment of these results

Zoltán Vincze, the managing director of VELUX Hungary emphasised: ”We believe that high quality on long terms can only be delivered by physically- mentally healthy employees: therefore we arrange the best working conditions possible.”

·      Link to the identified case study

http://socialbranding.hu/2012/04/10/egeszsegedre_2012_2014/

University of Miskolc: health development project - education

·      Objectives pursued and addressed target groups

All employee were involved at the university, with special regard to the elderly generations (over 45 years)

·      Main activities conducted and/or measures devised (i.e. physical adjustments of workstations, planned support actions by colleagues, personalised working-time arrangements, internal mobility, commuting support, mid-career review, etc.)

The aim of the health development project is to maintain the employees’ health status, develop it, and to ameliorate morbidity indicators, increase active age, and to decrease risks (smoking, consumption of alcohol, stress)

According to the survey among the university employees there were many suffering from chronic diseases, mainly from diseases due to the seating positions, or psychosomatic diseases due to overload, stress. The management decided to carry out a complex health development project based on the following three pillars:

      Establishment of necessary infrastructure to carry out health checks, screenings, care and rehabilitation

      Establishment of such conditions which allows the employees to participate on the project – according to the employees’ health status, and the current risks at work.

      Planning, realisation and assessment of the health development programmes.

·      Main results obtained and assessment of these results

The programme is regularly revised, its results are annually assessed, and the necessary corrections, adjustments are made on due time. Effectiveness of the programmes and the morbidity indicators are in every 3 to 5 years examined. In the end of 2012 the assessment of the previous 5 years has shown promising results, ameliorating health indicators.

·      Link to the identified case study

http://www.oefi.hu/mindenkirehangolva/eloadas/miskolci.pdf

MOL, “STEP - make a step for your health”, presenting a good practice („STEP – Tégy egy lépést az egészségedért”)

Oil and gas sector, approx. 7000 employees in Hungary

·      Objectives pursued and addressed target groups

There are different target groups of both the health checks (e.g. for the shift workers) and of the initiatives to propose some exercises (e.g. office work programme for administrative workers). One of the target groups was the group of employees with chronic diseases.

·      Main activities conducted and/or measures devised (i.e. physical adjustments of workstations, planned support actions by colleagues, personalised working-time arrangements, internal mobility, commuting support, mid-career review, etc.)

The programme’s aim is to survey chronic diseases and prevent risk – or if it is too late, then to make a quick diagnosis and support employees with advice, help.

STEP programme’s main parts:

      Physical exercise

      Medical checks (e.g. spine check, complex cardiovascular checks)

      Support to quit smoking

      Support healthy nourishment

      Decreasing stress at work

      Statistical register of the employees’ chronic diseases.

·      Main results obtained and assessment of these results

Results of the STEP programme are assessed once a year. Budget is maintained on a monthly base. Further on the occupational health service prepares detailed statistics, based on the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. These results are compared to the previous years’ results, and are used to prepare the next year’s health development plan.

Absenteeism has annually decreased and reached 1.8% till the end of 2010.

·      Link to the identified case study

http://www.oefi.hu/mindenkirehangolva/index.html

Commentary

In Hungary the definitions of chronic diseases and disabilities are used parallel. The latter one is a greater concept that also includes people with physical obstacles (blind, or people who need wheelchair, etc.). Both the government’s and the civil organisations’ initiatives are mainly targeting the people with physical disabilities. Therefore in Hungary the priority should be set on the spread, dissemination of information. Employees shall be aware what possibilities they have at work, in their lives if they have chronic diseases. And employers shall be taught how do come over the problems of their employees and arrange a performance developing work environment for all.

Useful? Interesting? Tell us what you think. Hide comments

Komentuoti