Representativeness of the European social partner organisations: Furniture sector

  • Observatory: EurWORK
  • Topic:
  • Darbo santykiai,
  • Date of Publication: 26 Vasaris 2016



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This study aims to provide the necessary information to encourage sectoral social dialogue in the furniture sector in the EU28. The aim of Eurofound’s series of representativeness studies is to identify the relevant national and supranational social partner organisations in the field of industrial relations in selected sectors. Top-down and bottom-up analyses of the furniture sector in the EU28 show that EFBWW, UEA and EFIC are the most important European-level social partner organisations based on their membership.

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Introduction

The aim of this representativeness study is to identify the relevant national and supranational social partners – that is, the trade unions and employer organisations – in the field of industrial relations in the furniture sector, and to show how these actors relate to the sector’s European interest associations of labour and business. The impetus for this study, and for similar studies in other sectors, arises from the aim of the European Commission to identify the representative social partner associations to be consulted under the provisions of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). Hence, this study seeks to provide the basic information needed to set up sectoral social dialogue. The effectiveness of the European social dialogue depends on whether its participants are sufficiently representative in terms of the sector’s relevant national actors across the EU Member States. Only European associations that meet this precondition will be admitted to the European social dialogue.

Economic background

Employment characteristics

The furniture sector is a small sector in terms of employment. In 2014 in the EU28, it employed 1,176,200 workers, representing 3.5% of employment in the manufacturing sector. Men make up the majority of the workers, accounting for around 77% of the total employment, a figure that is higher than the average in the manufacturing sector (70%).

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) predominate in the sector. Thus, around 97% of the industrial structure is composed of companies employing fewer than 50 workers and around 85% are micro enterprises. Conversely, less than 1% of companies have more than 250 staff (according to 2012 data from Structural Business Statistics). However, big enterprises with more than more than 250 staff generate 26% of the total value of furniture produced in the EU.

Long-term trends

Furniture has traditionally been a labour-intensive industry, with both small local craft firms and large manufacturers co-existing in the sector. Nevertheless, approximately 20% of total world furniture production is provided by about 200 major furniture manufacturing companies. These leading manufacturers are spread all over the world, thus confirming the globalisation of the sector.

Another important structural change affecting the sector in the last decade is the visible opening up of the market. This change is explained by such factors as:

  • declining tariffs;
  • expansion of leading retail chains at the international level;
  • penetration of emerging markets;
  • partnerships between large-scale distributors and foreign suppliers;
  • improvements in infrastructure and logistics.

The openness of the market and the changing geography of production on a global scale has favoured global sourcing strategies pursued at both the retail and the manufacturing level (for instance, the IKEA strategy), and the international fragmentation of production.

According to the study on the EU furniture market situation, the analysis of EU market sources in the last decade confirms the growing impact of globalisation: the share of domestic production in each country’s consumption has decreased everywhere (with the exception of Austria and Belgium). This trend is also seen in the largest markets of Germany, Italy, the UK and France, with a contraction in the share of national production in the region of 10%. Moreover, import penetration from countries outside the EU has increased over the last decade for all the markets considered, with the highest percentage increases seen in the UK and the Netherlands.

As far as the impact of the crisis is concerned, the furniture market has traditionally been very cyclical and sensitive to the economic situation. This remained the case during the last economic crisis, the furniture industry being one of the most severely affected sectors. From 2008 to 2013, total employment decreased by 22%, according to the European Labour Force Survey.

Figure 1 shows the quarterly evolution of employment in the EU28 from 2008 to 2013 and its cyclical development in each year. Total employment peaked at around 1,554,000 in the fourth quarter of 2008. Then, employment started to decline until the second quarter of 2009, when employment increased slightly but without recovering to previous levels. From the last quarter of 2009 to the second quarter of 2011, employment continuously dropped, decreasing in all by 14%. Since the fourth quarter of 2011, employment has steadily grown, increasing by 5%. Accordingly, sectoral employment is showing a slow recovery from the crisis.

Figure 1: Evolution of employment 2008–2013 (thousands)

Source: Eurostat, Labour Force Survey

Recent developments

Tables 1 and 2 give a general overview of the development of the sector from 2008 to 2013, or the closest year with available data.

Table 1 presents figures on total employment (2013), differences in employment from 2008 to 2013, female employment as a percentage of total employment in the sector (2013) and the share of sectoral employment as a percentage of total employment in the economy (2013). Table 2 presents figures on companies and differences in companies from 2008 to 2013. Most of the data comes from national sources. These figures have been collected through Eurofound’s Network of European correspondents.

Table 1: Employment in the furniture sector, 2013

Country

Total employment

Differences in employment 2008–2013 (%)

Female employment as  % of total employment in sector

Share of employees in employment in sector (%)

Share of sectoral employment as % of total employment in economy

Source

AT

28,616

-9.9

22

93.3

0.7

ÖSTAT

BE

12,038

-19.2

24.9

n/a

0.3

Datawarehouse Labour Market and Social Protection

BG

19,234

-29.8

32.6

n/a

0.9

National Statistics Institute (NSI)

CY

953

-53.5

n/a

n/a

0.3

Business Register 2013, Statistical Service of Cyprus (CYSTAT)

CZ

30,500

-22.4

33.1

76.7

0.6

Czech Statistical Office

DE

133,000

-42.2

22.6

86.7

0.3

Micro census by the Federal Statistical Office (destatis)

DK

8,608

-36.5

28

98

0.3

Statistics Denmark, Statistikbanken RAS300

EE

7,520

n/a

n/a

97.8

1.7

Statistics Estonia, on the basis of the annual statistical questionnaire ‘EKOMAR‘

EL

12,249

-64.9

7.3

35.3

0

EL.STAT (2nd quarter Labour Force Survey)

ES

78,200

-55

17.5

69.3

0.5

Spanish Labour Force Survey

FI

7,258

-31.4

n/a

93.7

0.6

Statistics Finland: Structural business and financial statement statistics

FR

133,000

-14.7

n/a

40.1

0

Eurostat

HR

9,500

-22.1

30.5

87.6

1

Croatian Bureau of Statistic

HU

13,052

-27.9

n/a

89.9

0

Hungarian Central Statistical Office

IE

4,500

-46.4

n/a

n/a

0

CSO Quarterly National Household Survey – 2014 (Q2)

IT

147,163

-22.4

n/a

81.5

1

Istat, National Structural Business Statistics

LT

19.047

1.4

n/a

n/a

n/a

CEPS, Economisti Associati, CSIL 2014

LU

173

-15.2

20.2

96

0

STATEC, Structural Business Statistics and IGSS

LV

6,529

-20.5

36.8

99.7

1

CSP Yearly survey of enterprises and institutions

MT

1,536

-11.1

n/a

n/a

1

NSO Gainfully Occupied Population: September 2014

NL

19.786

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

CEPS, Economisti Associati, CSIL 2014

PL

151,700

-5.1

n/a

89.4

2

Eurostat database

PT

35,876

-40.6

23.1

81.3

1

Census 2011

RO

56,432

-29.4

36.2

n/a

1

INSSE TEMPO online database

SE

14.915

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

Swedish Statistics

CEPS, Economisti Associati, CSIL 2014

SI

5,483

-46.7

24.7

89

1

Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia

SK

22,700

-15

28.6

74

1

SU SR. LFS

UK

91,600

-18.3

23.6

88.2

0

ONS Labour Force Survey (4th quarter)

Note: n/a: not available

Source: National contributions from Eurofound’s Network of European correspondents (2014), national statistics.

Table 2: Total companies in furniture sector, 2013

Country

Number of companies

Differences in companies 2008–2013 (%)

Source

AT*

3,090

-8.4

ÖSTAT

BE

880

n/a

Fedustria

BG

1,994

-10

National Statistics Institute (NSI)

CY

358

-20.1

Business Register 2013, Statistical Service of Cyprus (CYSTAT)

CZ

18,733

171.3

Czech Statistical Office (ČSÚ)

DE*

11,281

-0.1

Company register (Unternehmensregister)

DK*

454

12.7

Statistics Denmark, Statistikbanken GF2

EE

610

18.2

Statistics Estonia, on the basis of the annual statistical questionnaire ‘EKOMAR‘

EL

5,488

-100

EL.STAT (2nd quarter Labour Force Survey)

ES

14,167

-27.6

DIRCE

FI

1,558

58.2

Statistics Finland: Structural business and financial statement statistics

FR

12,288

-8.8

DADS INSEE

HR

980

-18.3

Estimation Mr. Govedić and Mr. Darko Idzaković from the Trade Union of Timber and Wood and Paper Processing

HU

3,592

-15.1

Hungarian Central Statistical Office

IE*

599

n/a

CSO Census of Industrial

IT*

19,332

-18.6

Istat, National Structural Business Statistics

LT

1,328

1.4

Annual detailed enterprise statistics for industry

LU

30

-25

STATEC, Structural Business Statistics

LV

622

-3.9

CSP Yearly survey of enterprises and institutions

MT

687

-28.2

NSO Business Demographics: (NR083/2014)

NL

7065

25.5

CBS/Statline

PL

14295

32.5

Eurostat database

PT

5,043

-24.4

www.ine.pt

RO

4,243

-74.1

Interview with APMR (Romanian Furniture Manufacturers Association)

SE

2,200

0.8

Swedish Statistics

SI

1545

3.2

Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia

SK

1,561

-22.4

SU SR. Company registry

UK

6,075

-15.9

ONS

Note: * indicates figures from 2012; n/a: not available

Source: Eurofound Network of European correspondents national contributions (2014), national statistics.

Table 1 shows that almost all countries have been affected by the crisis, recording a drop in employment between 2008 and 2013. The exception to this is Lithuania, where sectoral employment rose by 1%. The countries most affected by the crisis, recording a drop in employment of more than than 30%, are Greece (- 65%), Spain (-55%), Cyprus (-53%), Slovenia (47%), Ireland (-46%), Germany (-42%), Denmark (-36%) and Finland (-31%).

Table 1 also demonstrates that male employment is higher than female employment in all countries with available data. It also shows that self-employment and other non-employee relationships such as family workers are very widespread in Greece, with more than 70% in 2013, and in France, with more than 60%. Information was not available for eight countries.

As far as the evolution in the number of companies is concerned, nine countries recorded an increase in the number of companies from 2008 to 2013: the Czech Republic (171%), Denmark (12%), Estonia (18%), Finland (58%), Lithuania (1%), the Netherlands (25%), Poland (32%), Sweden (0.8%) and Slovenia (3%). It is worth noting that in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Poland and Slovenia, the increase in the number of companies has been accompanied by a decrease in employment. This may reflect a process of fragmentation of the sector’s company structure. In the case of the Czech Republic, it should be noted that data on number of companies includes sole traders operating as craftspeople. According to the information provided by the national correspondent, the dramatic rise in the number of companies is caused by the transition of former employees from companies into their own business.

Figure 2 provides figures on employment trends from 2008 to 2013 extracted from the Eurostat European Labour Force Survey (LFS). Data from this source do not show great variation in the data coming from national sources, and they confirm that most countries have been affected by the crisis. According to this source, the countries most affected by the crisis, recording a drop in employment higher than 30%, are Greece (-68%), Spain (-55%), Ireland (-54%), Finland (-41%), Germany (-40%), Slovenia (-37%) and Cyprus (-33%). Austria, Estonia and Latvia were the only countries that showed a slight increase in employment over this period. In the case of Austria and Latvia, however, national sources recorded a drop in employment. Two other important variations in data from national sources are for Italy (-22% according to national sources, and -3% according to the LFS) and Lithuania (1 % according to national sources, -8% according to the LFS).

Figure 2: Differences in employment, Member States, 2008–2013 (%)

Source: Eurostat, Labour Force Survey

Finally, Figure 3 illustrates the share of employees in employment in the countries with available data for 2008 and 2013. The figures, taken from the LFS, show some variation in data from national sources. They show that that self-employment and other non-employee relationships were widespread in 2013 in Cyprus (33%), Spain (31%), Greece (57%), Ireland (35%), Malta (62%) and the Netherlands (32%).

The share of employees in employment has remained relatively stable in the majority of countries. The most significant changes are recorded in Greece, where the share of employees in employment decreased from 60% in 2008 to 43% in 2013.

Figure 3: Share of employees in employment, 2008–2013 (%)

Source: Eurostat, Labour Force Survey

 

National level of interest representation

The national level analysis of interest representation focuses on:

  • membership domain and the strength of organisations;
  • their role in collective bargaining;
  • their role in public policy-making.

Membership domain and strength

The present study will focus on the following quantitative data on membership and relative strength within the furniture sector, collected through Eurofound’s Network of European Correspondents.

Table 3: Definitions of membership

Type of organisation

Membership

Density

Trade union

Number of active members in employment

Number of active members in employment in the furniture sector

Sectoral density: Number of active members in employment in the sector divided by the total number of employees in the sector.

Employer organisation

Number of member companies

Number of employees working in member companies

Number of member companies in the furniture sector

Number of employees working in member companies in the furniture sector

Sectoral density (companies): Number of member companies in the furniture sector divided by the total number of companies in the sector.

Sectoral density (employees): Number of employees working in member companies in the sector divided by the total number of employees in the sector.

Trade unions or employee interest representation

Tables A1 and A2 in the annex present the trade unions’ data on their domains and membership strength. The tables list all sector-related organisations either involved in collective bargaining and/or affiliated to the European Federation of Building and Woodworkers (EFBWW).

In all the EU28 countries, at least one sector-related trade union has been identified. In total, 58 sector-related trade unions are identified that fulfil the criteria for inclusion in the representativeness study. Only one sector-related trade union is recorded in 11 countries, two in nine countries, three unions are observed in four countries, while four countries record four or more sector-related unions (and hence a fragmented landscape). Thus, the union landscape is non-fragmented compared to other sectors such as road transport and logistics, although a pluralistic or semi-pluralistic structure exists in more than one-half of the countries (17 out of 28).

Of the 53 unions for which information is available, 45 are involved in sector-related collective bargaining. Accordingly, 77% of the trade unions identified in the study are taking part in collective bargaining in the furniture sector. However, in Estonia, Luxembourg and Poland, no trade union is involved in collective bargaining. In Luxembourg, information from the national contribution confirmed that there are no collective agreements in force; in Poland and Estonia, information was not available.

Domain patterns

Only two trade unions (FNV Bouw and CNV Vakmensen in the Netherlands) demarcate their domain in a way that is congruent with the sectoral definition. This implies that statistical definitions of business activities of the sector differ from the criteria by which employees identify their interests.

Overlap is the dominant sector-related domain pattern in the furniture sector. It occurs in 60% of cases (35 trade unions). Generally, it is explained due to two main modes of demarcation. The first, which applies to only a few cases, is related to cases of general or cross-sectoral domain (OOIMSEK-SEK in Cyprus; SIPTU in Ireland; GWU in Malta; GMB and Unite the Union in the UK). The second and most widespread is related to domain demarcation that includes various forms of multi-sector domains beyond furniture, such as:

  • industry (Construction Workers Union-PEO in Cyprus and BATU in Ireland); construction (OGBL and LCGB Construction et artisanal in Luxembourg); forestry (FSLIL in Poland);
  • woodwork, construction and/or forestry (EMTAÜ in Estonia, MCA-UGT in Spain, Filca – Cisl and Feneal – Uil, UGL Costruzioni in Italy, LMPF in Lithuania);
  • construction and services (CCOO CONSTRUCCIÓN Y SERVICIOS);
  • boat-building industry and agricultural industries (Puuliitto in Finland);
  • woodworking, industry and/or manufacture of paper (FO Construction and FIBOPA CFE-CGC in France, SDIPI in Croatia, ÉFÉDOSZSZ – FBDSZ in Hungary, FLMCH in Romania).

Thus, construction and woodworking are the most common activities covered by the trade unions that have an overlapping domain.

Sectional overlap occurs in 31% of cases (18 trade unions). This is often a result of domain demarcations that focus on certain categories of employees which are then organised across several sectors, including activities outside the furniture sector. Employee categories are specified by various parameters mostly related to employment status in Nordic countries and some central and western European countries (Austria and Belgium). These parameters refer to:

  • white-collar workers (GPA-djp in Austria which mostly covers white collar workers but also covers a few blue-collar workers, for instance in the printing and paper industries; and Unionen in Sweden);
  • blue-collar workers (GBH in Austria; ACV-CSC Bie and AC ABVV – CG FGTB in Belgium; 3F in Denmark; GS in Sweden);
  • more specific groups as in some trade unions in Sweden that only cover managers (Unionen) or graduate engineers in all sectors (Sveriges Ingenjörer).

In other cases, unions cover only a subsector within the furniture sector, coupled with other activities outside. For instance, FTUOFWI in Bulgaria, FNS CGT Construction, Bois, Ameublement in France and the Federation of Construction Workers and Allied Trades of Greece cover the furniture sector (except the manufacture of mattresses, group 31.03), and other sectors such as forestry and manufacture of wood or construction. On the other hand, attention should be drawn to the case of ZZ Budowlani in Poland, which is only active in the IKEA company and in some regions.

Finally, sectionalism is recorded in only three trade unions.

  • NSZZ ‘Solidarność‘ in Poland does not cover the manufacture of mattresses (group 31.03).
  • ZZ Meblarzy RP also in Poland covers blue-collar workers in north-eastern Poland in the furniture sector in all kindss of companies except IKEA.
  • FSCR in Romania covers furniture workers employed in multinational companies.  

The domain description of all the unions is set out in Table A3 in the Annex.

Figure 4: Furniture-related trade unions and their domain patterns

Note: n=58

Source: Own calculations based on Eurofound Network of European correspondents’ national contributions (2014).

Membership of the sector-related trade union is voluntary in the 28 countries that record trade unions with the exception of the trade union FGS Familia in Romania. FGS Familia has a mixed form since affiliation is mandatory for some types of members: employees who belong to a trade union already affiliated to FGS Familia automatically become members of FGS Familia. For all others, membership is voluntary and may be applied for. 

The numbers of active trade union members differ widely, ranging from around 900 (ZZ Meblarzy RP in Poland) to 1,700,000 (ACV-CSC Bie in Belgium). This considerable variation may reflect differences in the size of the economy and the comprehensiveness of the membership domain rather than the ability to recruit members. Therefore, density is the measure of membership strength, which is more appropriate for comparative analysis. In this context it should be noted that density figures in this section refer to net ratios, which means that they are calculated on the basis of active members (employees) only, rather than taking into consideration all union members (those in a job and those who are not). This is mainly because research usually considers net union densities as more informative than gross densities, since the former measure tends to reflect unionisation trends among the employees more quickly and accurately (only employees are capable of taking industrial action). When looking at sector density (again referring only to active members), it is important to differentiate between the trade unions’ sectoral density and their domain density. The domain or overall density must be higher than the sectoral density if a trade union organises a particular part of the sector – that is, where the trade union’s membership domain is sectionalist – and equally if a trade union organises the whole sector as it is defined in the study - that is, where the trade union’s membership domain is congruent. This study only considers sectoral density.

Sectoral density rates are available for around half of the trade unions identified (31). Statistics show that:

  • sectoral density exceeds 75% in five of the trade unions (ACV-CSC Bie in Belgium, Puuliitto in Finland, FLMCH in Romania, GS in Sweden and 3F in Denmark);
  • three of the trade unions claim to represent between 20% and 30% of the sectoral employees (SDIPI in Croatia, Fillea – Cgil in Italy and LCGB Construction et artisanat in Luxembourg);
  • two of the trade unions claim to represent between 10% and 20% of the sector’s employees (CFDT Construction et Bois in France and FSLIL in Romania);
  • some 21 of the trade unions claim to organise less than 10%.

Bearing this in mind, it can be stated that low and very low sectoral densities prevail in the sector. However, it is also worth noting the existence of important cross-country variation. The most notable geographical pattern to have trade unions with comparatively higher sectoral densities is that of the Nordic countries (Finland, Sweden and Denmark). Besides, trade unions in central-eastern countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia Poland and Slovakia) and some western countries (UK and Malta) record the lowest sectoral density rates.

In passing, it should be noted that Finnish trade unions together account for a trade union density equal to 107%. This suggests that for some trade unions densities may be overestimated. The calculation of trade union density is based on membership figures provided by the trade unions to the Eurofound national correspondent. They are not available from other sources and so cannot be crosschecked.

Employer organisations

Tables AIV and AVI in the annex present membership data for the employers’ organisations in the furniture sector. Sectoral employers’ organisations are identified in all the European Member States but Luxembourg.

In total, 43 sector-related employers’ organisations are identified. The employers’ organisations landscape is non-fragmented in most of the countries. Thus, 18 countries present a monopoly representative structure, recording only one employer organisation, while six countries record two employer organisations.

In three countries (Germany, Latvia and Italy), a pluralistic employer organisation landscape exists. In Germany and Latvia, three employer organisations are recorded while in Italy, seven sector-related employer organisations have been identified, thus showing a very fragmented landscape.

In 18 countries, employer organisations are involved in collective bargaining. In six countries (Czech Republic, Ireland, Lithuania, Malta, Poland and Romania) no sectoral employer association included in the study is involved in collective bargaining (see Table A2IV). In Spain, Hungary, Latvia and Portugal, at least one of the employer associations included in the study is not involved in collective bargaining. Information was not available for the employer organisation from Estonia.

Generally, business organisations may also deal with interests other than those related to industrial relations. Organisations specialised in matters other than industrial relations are commonly defined as ‘trade associations‘ (Eurofound, 2004). Bearing this in mind, it could be assumed that all 10 organisations not involved in collective bargaining (see Table AIV in the annex) either primary or exclusively act as trade organisations in their country. All these organisations are members of the sectoral European level employer organisations. In this sense, it must be stressed that, according to our selection criteria described above, all national organisations affiliated to the European level employer association are included in the study irrespective of whether or not they are involved in collective bargaining.

Domain patterns

With regard to the domain patterns of the employer organisations, overlap is the most widespread domain pattern. It occurs in 59% of cases. It is caused by domain demarcations that have a cross-sectoral domain (ZDS in Slovenia), an industry cross-sectoral domain (DI in Denmark) or, more often, from organisations that cover different sectors and activities outside the furniture sector. In most cases, these sectors and activities covered are closely related to the furniture sector, thus including:

  • furniture wholesale and retail (AČN in Czech Republic);
  • woodworking (PASYXEV in Cyprus, HDH in Germany, CONFEMADERA in Spain, HUP in Croatia, Bútorszövetség in Hungary, Federlegno – Arredo in Italy, LKUEA in Latvia or TMF in Sweden);
  • retail companies and furniture training providers (EMTL in Estonia);
  • other parts of the joinery industry (Puusepänteollisuus in Finland, OAFSZ in Hungary).

Sectionalist overlap occurs in 26% of the cases. It is usually explained by domain demarcation which excludes some activities or subsectors within the furniture sector (in most cases the manufacture of mattresses), or only covers certain types of companies (such as SMEs or carpentry crafts) and covers other activities outside the sector. This includes activities such as:

  • woodworking (FH in Austria, POVSKX in Greece, Unital – Confapi in Italy);
  • construction of components (Federal guild of the carpenters craft in Germany);
  • construction (CIF in Ireland).

Sectionalism occurs only in one employer organisation (OIGPM in Poland). This organisation covers the entire furniture sector except the manufacture of mattresses.

Finally, 12% of the associations (five) show a membership domain that is more or less congruent with the sector definition. This means that the domain of these organisations largely focuses on the furniture sector as defined for the purpose of this study. Accordingly, more employer organisations than trade unions (3%) are developing their activities taking the sectoral definition used in this study.

Figure 5: Furniture-related organisations/business associations and their domain patterns

Note: n=42

Source: Own calculations based on Eurofound Network of European correspondents’ national contributions (2014).

As has been shown in other Eurofound representative studies, only in Austria do sector-related employer organisations rely on obligatory membership. Almost all Austrian employers are obliged to be members of encompassing chambers of commerce and industry, which also act as employers' associations on behalf of their members in collective bargaining.

As far as membership figures are concerned, sectoral density rates are available for 22 employer organisations in terms of companies (51%). Generally, densities in terms of companies are low:

  • only one employer organisation (AFWFI in Finland) records a density rate of 20%;
  • four employer organisations record a density rate of 10%–20%;
  • 17 organisations record a density lower than 10%.

Sectoral domain density rates for employees are available for 12 employer organisations in terms of employees (28%):

  • four employer organisations record a density rate of 40% –60%;
  • six employer organisations record a density rate of 20%–40%;
  • two employer organisations record a density rate below 10%.

These figures show that sectoral densities of companies are always lower than the densities in terms of employees. This could indicate a higher propensity of the larger companies to associate, as compared with their smaller counterparts, in a sector that is characterised in most countries by a high share of SMEs.

Collective bargaining and its actors

Table A2II and A2V list all social partners engaged in sector-related collective bargaining. Figure 6 shows the involvement of the organisations in collective bargaining.

Of the sector-related trade unions with available information the following figures are noted:

  • 85% record participation in collective bargaining;
  • 4% show participation in single-employer bargaining;
  • 47% record participation both in single and multi-employer bargaining;
  • 34% record participation in multi-employer bargaining only.

Among the employer organisations, 75% of all those with available information record participation in collective bargaining. Some 70% record participation in multi-employer bargaining and 5% record participation both in single and multi-employer bargaining. No employer organisation records participation only in single-employer bargaining.

Figure 6: Involvement in different forms of collective bargaining; % of all trade unions and employers’ organisations within the study

Source: Own elaboration according to national contributions from Eurofound’s Network of European Correspondents (2014).

The data presented in Table 4 provide an overview of the system of sector-related collective bargaining in the 28 countries under consideration. The importance of collective bargaining as a means of employment regulation is measured by calculating the total number of employees covered by collective bargaining as a proportion of the total number of employees within a certain segment of the economy (Traxler et al., 2001). Accordingly, the sector’s rate of collective bargaining coverage is defined as the ratio of the number of employees covered by any kind of collective agreement to the total number of employees in the sector.

Table 4: The system of sectoral collective bargaining (2013)

Country

CBC (%)

(estimates)

Share of MEB  (estimates) (%)

Extension practices

AT

100

100

1 (to all employers, due to compulsory membership)

BE

100

100

2

BG

100

MEB prevailing

1

CY

n/a

n/a

0

CZ

4.8

0%

0

DE

n/a

MEB prevailing

0

DK

n/a

MEB prevailing

0

EE

n/a

n/a

0

EL

n/a

n/a

0 c

ES

100

MEB prevailing

2

FI

100

100

2

FR

100

100

2

HR

40–50

0

 

2

HU

4

0

0

IE

n/a (low)

0

0

IT

n/a

n/a

2 de facto (but not de jure)

LT

n/a

n/a

0

LU

0

0

2

LV

37

0

2

MT

5

0

Not applicable

NL

100

MEB prevailing

2

PL

n/a

0

Not applicable

PT

n/a

100

2 since there are several extension decrees on a regular basis

RO

n/a

0

0 c

SE

95

95

2 for blue-collar workers, 1 for white-collar workers and managers

SI

100

100

1 through Minister declaration of general applicability

SK

15

1

0

UK

25

MEB prevailing

0

Note: CBC = collective bargaining coverage: employees covered by a collective agreement as a percentage of the total number of employees in the sector; MEB = multi-employer bargaining relative to single-employer bargaining; 1 = limited/exceptional, 2= pervasive. Cases of functional equivalence are put in parenthesis; c = extension practices abolished or limited in 2011, 2012 or 2013; n/a = not available

Source: Own elaboration according to national contributions from Eurofound Network of European correspondents (2014).

Collective bargaining coverage

All countries except Luxembourg record some form of collective bargaining in the furniture sector. In Poland and Estonia, no information was available. Moreover, in 18 countries at least one multi-employer collective agreement has been concluded. Bearing this in mind, the study first analysed to what extent multi-employer collective agreements are more or less congruent with the sectoral definition used in this study – in other words, to what extent the sector, as it is defined in this study, covers the same reality in the different Member States when social partners negotiate collective agreements at sectoral level. This aspect is important due to its implications for the vertical articulation between the European sectoral social dialogue (ESSD) committee and the national level.

Of the 16 countries that provide information about this, only in two (Lithuania and the UK) are multi-employer collective agreements more or less congruent with the sectoral definition used in this study. With the exception of Finland (where collective agreements are concluded for specific sub-sectors within furniture), in all other countries collective agreements cover other activities outside the sector. In most cases, multi-employer collective agreements also cover the woodworking sector (NACE rev. 2 code 16). This happens in 12 countries (Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Germany, Denmark, Spain, France, Italy, Portugal, Sweden, Slovenia and Slovakia). Thus, although there are two different ESSDs for furniture and woodworking and, therefore, these two sectors are distinguished at European level, a high proportion of countries tend to conclude collective agreements that encompass both sectors.

With regard to the sector’s rate of collective bargaining coverage, attention should be drawn to the high degree of divergence among countries. Nine countries (mostly Nordic, central and western European countries) record collective bargaining coverage rates exceeding 90%. These countries are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Spain, Finland, France, the Netherlands, Sweden and Slovenia. All except Bulgaria tend to record high rates of collective bargaining coverage. All have extension mechanisms making collective bargaining agreements generally binding.

A second group of three countries (United Kingdom, Croatia and Latvia) records low-to-medium rates of collective bargaining coverage of between 25% and 50%. Of these countries, only Latvia has extension mechanisms.

Finally, four countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Malta and Slovakia) record low and very low rates of collective bargaining coverage. None of these countries has extension mechanisms.

Table 5: Collective bargaining coverage and collective bargaining level (2013)

 

CB coverage >90%

CB coverage 25%–50%

CB coverage below <15%

CB coverage 0%

Not available

Multi-employer CB sole level or prevailing level

AT, BE, BG, ES, FI, FR, NL, SE, SI

UK

 

 

 

Both single and multi-employer CB

 

 

 

 

 

Single employer CB

 

HR, LV

CZ, HU, MT, SK

 

 

No collective bargaining

 

 

 

LU

 

Not available

 

 

 

 

CY, DE, DK, EE, EL, IE, IT, LT, PL, PT, RO

Note: CB =Collective bargaining

Source: Own elaboration according to national contributions from Eurofound’s Network of European correspondents (2014).

Generally, several factors (which sometimes interact with each other) explain differences in collective bargaining coverage rates. In all the countries that record high collective bargaining coverage rates, the multi-employer level is either the only bargaining level or the most important one. Extension practices, whether pervasive or limited, exist in all these countries. This finding is in line with the thesis of Traxler et al. (2001), which stresses the importance of extension practices and provisions in high collective agreement coverage among countries. The Bulgarian case illustrates this. Here the rate of collective bargaining coverage in the furniture sector rose from 19% in 2008 to 100% in 2012 due to an extension provision introduced by the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy (Order N. RD01-815/15.11.2010), to extend the collective agreement ‘Wood Processing and Furniture Industry‘ to employers not affiliated to the signatory employer organisations.

The remaining countries are characterised by the predominance of single-employer bargaining (with the exception of the UK) and/or the lack of extension practices.

Participation in public policy

Interest associations may influence public policy in two ways:

  • they may be consulted by the authorities on matters affecting their members;
  • they may be represented on ‘corporatist’ – in other words tripartite – committees and policy consultation boards.

This study considers only cases of consultation and corporatist participation that explicitly relate to sector-specific matters. Consultation processes can be wide-ranging and, therefore, the organisations consulted by the authorities may vary depending on the issues and also on changes in government. Consultation may also be occasional rather than regular.

Trade unions or interest representations

Of the 45 sector-related trade unions with available data, 36 (or 80%) are consulted. Authorities consult unions in 25 of the EU Member States in which there are sector-related unions except for the Czech Republic, Greece and Hungary. However, only nine trade unions in four countries (Belgium, Malta, Romania and Slovakia) are consulted on a regular basis.

Since a multi-union system has been established in 17 of the 28 countries, the authorities’ favouring certain trade unions over others cannot be ruled out, nor can unions’ competing for participation rights. In 14 countries with a multi-union system where a noticeable practice of consultation is observed, any existing trade union may take part in the consultation process. By contrast, in France, Poland and Sweden, only some of the sector-related trade unions are consulted.

Employer organisations or business associations

Authorities consult 29 of the 33 employer organisations (or 88%). Employer organisations are consulted by the government in 25 of the EU Member States with sector-related organisations, with the exceptions of Bulgaria and Greece. Thirteen organisations are regularly consulted in the following countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Croatia, Italy, Latvia, Malta, Romania, Slovenia and Slovakia.

Of the countries with a multi-organisation system where a practice of consultation is recorded, all existing employer organisations may take part in the consultation process with the exception of Hungary. In the case of the UK, there is no information available for the organisation included in the study; likewise, there is no information for the five organisations considered in Italy or the one organisation in Spain.

Tripartite participation

The findings reveal that genuine sector-specific bodies have been established in only seven of the 28 countries under consideration (Table 5). This figure is low compared to other sectors examined by the Eurofound representative studies.

Sector-specific bodies, whether bipartite or tripartite, have been established in Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Hungary, Italy, Latvia and the UK. There are several bodies dealing with different issues in all these countries except Hungary. In the Netherlands, there are no tripartite bodies at sector level dealing with sector-specific issues (comparable with normal practices in the Netherlands), but social partners govern the pension fund and the training fund as is common in this country. Some ad hoc tripartite social dialogue has taken place over issues such as the 2014 initiative of the Minister of Social Affairs to stimulate the social partners at sector level to create sector-specific employment plans.

When information on the scope of activity is available, it becomes apparent that there are bodies dealing with training (Belgium, Denmark and Italy), health and safety (Denmark and the UK), general social dialogue issues (Hungary and the UK) and a complementary pension scheme (Italy).

Table 6: Tripartite and bipartite sector-specific boards of public policy (2014)

Country

Name of the body and scope of activity

Bipartite or tripartite

Origin

Trade unions participating

Employer organisations participating

BE

Opleidingscentrum Hout – Centre de formation bois – (Training Center Wood)

Tripartite

Agreement

ACV-CSC BIE

AC ABVV – CG FGTB

ACLVB-CGSLB

Fedustria

WOOD-life126

Additional Sectoral Retirement Assurance

Tripartite

Agreement

ACV-CSC BIE, AC ABVV – CG FGTB, ACLVB- CGSLB

Fedustria

BG

Sectoral council for tripartite cooperation ‘Pulp and paper, woodworking and furniture industry‘ at the Ministry of Economy, Energy and Tourism

Tripartite

Agreement and statutory

Federation of Trade Unions Organization in Forestry and Woodworking Industry (FTUOFWI)

FLI

Bulgarian Branch Chamber of Woodworking and Furniture Industries (BBCWFI);

Branch chamber of pulp and paper industry (BCPPI);

Association of Bulgarian wood users (ABWU);

Association of business clusters (ABC)

Sectoral council on working conditions ‘Pulp and paper, woodworking and furniture industry‘ at the Ministry of Economy, Energy and Tourism

Tripartite

Agreement and statutory

 

FTUOFWI

FLI

BBCWFI

BCPPI

ABWU

ABC

DK

Træindustriens uddannelsesudvalg (Vocational training committee of woodworking and furniture industry)

Tripartite

Statutory

3F

TMI/DI

Træets Uddannelses- og udviklingsfond, TUUF (The development fund in woodworking and furniture industry)

Bipartite

Agreement

3F

TMI/DI

Industriens Branchemiljøråd (Health and safety council in manufacturing industry)

Tripatite

Statutory

3F

Dansk Metal

HK

DEF

DI

Dansk Mode og Tekstil

Lederne

TræetsArbejdsmiljøudvalg (The Danish Wood Initiative)

Tripartite

Statutory

3F

TMI/DI

 

HU

Faipari, Bútoripari és Erdészeti Ágazati Párbeszéd Bizottság (Wood, Furniture and Forestry Sectoral Dialogue Committee)  (FBE ÁPB)

The sectoral dialogue committee is based on social partnership, aimed at promoting social dialogue at sectoral and company level; managing the issues of the world of work at meso level.

Partners aim at improving employment, quality and safety of jobs and the position of the sector.

Social partners in the committee consider OSH a priority issue.

 

Bipartite

Bilateral agreement in 2006, then reestablished in 2010 within the newly introduced legal framework according to Act LXXIV of 2009

Federation of Building, Wood and Material Workers’ Unions (ÉFÉDOSZSZ)

Munkástanácsok Faipari Szakmai Ágazatának Országos Szövetsége (National Federation of Workers Councils - Wood Industry Professional Association) - no members in furniture industry

Erdészeti Munkavállalói Koalíció (Forestry Workers Coalition) – no members in furniture industry

 

 

OAFSZ

 

FABUER Faipari, Bútoripari és Erdészeti Koalíció (Coalition of Wood Industry, Furniture Industry and Forestry) – a coalition for achieving representativeness at sectoral level. It comprises two bodies:

 

Fagazdasági Országos Szakmai Szövetség (National Professional Association of Wood industry) – no members in furniture industry

 

 

Magyar Bútor és Faipari Szövetség (Association of Hungarian Furniture and Woodworking Industries)

IT

Comitato Paritetico Nazionale Legno e Arredo

Bipartite

NCBA 21 July 2004

FILLEA – CGIL

FILCA – CISL

FENEAL – UIL

Federlegno – Arredo

Comitato Paritetico Nazionale

Bipartite

Agreement

FILLEA – CGIL

FILCA – CISL

FENEAL – UIL

UNITAL - CONFAPI

Comitato Paritetico Nazionale

Bipartite

Agreement

FILLEA – CGIL

FILCA – CISL

FENEAL – UIL

CONFIMI

Comitato Paritetico Nazionale Legno Arredamento Mobili Escavazione Lavorazione Materiali Lapidei

Bipartite

NCBA 25 March 2014

FILLEA – CGIL

FILCA – CISL

FENEAL – UIL

Confartigianato

CNA

CASArtigiani

CLAAI

EBNA

Bipartite

Agreement 3 August 1992 Agreement 3 December 1992

CGIL

CISL

UIL

Confartigianato

CNA

CASArtigiani

CLAAI

Fon.Te

(complementary pension scheme)

Bipartite

Agreement 29 November 1996

Agreement 22 January 1999

Agreement 27 January 2011

FILCAMS– CGIL

FISASCAT – CISL

UILTUCS – UIL

Confcommercio

Federalberghi

FIPE

FAITA

FIAVET

San.Arti

(supplementary health care)

Bipartite

Agreement 21 September 2010

CGIL

CISL

UIL

Confartigianato

CNA

CASArtigiani

CLAAI

FSBA

(income support)

Bipartite

Law no. 92/12

 

Agreement 31 October 2013

CGIL

CISL

UIL

Confartigianato

CNA

CASArtigiani

CLAAI

Fondartigianato

(vocational training)

Bipartite

Law no. 388/00

 

Decree 31 October 2001

CGIL

CISL

UIL

Confartigianato

CNA

CASArtigiani

CLAAI

LV

National Tripartite Cooperation Council (Nacionālās trīspusējās sadarbības padome, NTSP)

Tripartite

Statutory

LMNA through the Free Trade Union Confederation of Latvia

LKF through the Latvian Employers’ Confederation

Consultative Council of Forest industry

Tripartite

Statutory

LMNA

LKF

UK

Health and Safety Executive (HSE) Wood Safety Group – advises HSE on health and safety in wood-related industries

Tripartite

Statutory

GMB

BFM

Joint Industrial Council (JIC) for the furniture industry – forum for negotiating multi-employer collective agreement, resolving disputes, jointly lobbying government on issues affecting the industry, and promoting education

Bipartite

Agreement

GMB

BFM

European level of interest representation

At European level, eligibility for consultation and participation in social dialogue is linked to three criteria defined by the European Commission. A social partner organisation must have the following attributes:

(a) … relate to specific sectors or categories and be organised at European level;

(b) … consist of organisations which are themselves an integral and recognised part of Member States' social partner structures and have the capacity to negotiate agreements, and which are representative of several Member States;

(c) … have adequate structures to ensure their effective participation in the work of the Committees.

Regarding social dialogue, the constituent feature is the ability of such organisations to negotiate on behalf of their members and to conclude binding agreements. Accordingly, this section on European associations of the furniture sector will analyse these organisations’ membership domain, the composition of their membership and their capacity to negotiate.

As outlined in greater detail below, one sector-related European association on the employee side (EFBWW) and two on the employers side (the European Furniture Manufacturers Federation (UEA) and the European Furniture Industries Confederation (EFIC)) are members of the European Social Dialogue Committee of the furniture sector. They are listed by the European Commission as social partner organisations consulted under Article 154 of the TFEU. Hence, the following analysis will concentrate on these organisations.

Membership domain

The European Federation of Building and Woodworkers (EFBWW) is the European industry federation for the construction industry, the building materials industry, the wood and furniture industry and the forestry industry. It has 76 affiliated unions in 34 countries and represents a total of 2,000,000 members. The EFBWW is a member organisation of the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) and has its headquarters in Brussels, the capital of Europe.

The European Furniture Manufacturers Federation (UEA) represents the general interests of European furniture manufacturers. It represents organisations from 22 countries, of which 16 are EU Member States.

The European Furniture Industries Confederation (EFIC) represents the furniture industries in 11 countries, of which 8 are EU Member States. EFIC claims to represent about 70% of the total turnover of the furniture industry.

Membership composition

Table 7 documents a list of membership-related trade unions for EFBWW, drawn from the country reports. This membership list is confined to the sector-related associations of the countries under consideration: hence, it does not include trade unions affiliated to those European-level organisations that do not have any members in the furniture sector. The information comes from the membership list provided by EFBWW and a further check of the membership lists published on its webpage.

Table 7: Furniture trade unions affiliated to EFBWW

Country

Trade union

Collective bargaining

Geographical coverage

AT

GBH

Multi-employer bargaining

Whole country

BE

AC ABVV – CG FGTB

Both, multi and single-employer bargaining

Whole country

BE

ACV-CSC Bie

Both, multi and single-employer bargaining

Whole country

BE

ACLVB/CGSLB

Both, multi and single-employer bargaining

Whole country

BG

FTUOFWI

Both, multi and single-employer bargaining

Whole country

HR

SDIPI

 

Both, multi and single-employer bargaining

Whole country

CY

OOIMSEK-SEK

Both, multi and single-employer bargaining

Whole country

CZ

OS DLV ČR

Both, multi and single-employer bargaining

Whole country

DE

IG METALL

Both, multi and single-employer bargaining

Whole country

DK

3F

 

Both, multi and single-employer bargaining

Whole country

EE

EMTAÜ

No bargaining

Whole country

FI

Puu- ja erityisalojen liitto

Multi-employer bargaining

Whole country

FI

 

Proliitto

Multi-employer bargaining

Whole country

FR

FO Construction

Both, multi and single-employer bargaining

Whole country

FR

CFDT Construction et Bois

Both, multi and single-employer bargaining

Whole country

FR

FNS CGT Construction, Bois, Ameublement

Both, multi and single-employer bargaining

Whole country

HU

EFEDOSZSZ

Both, multi and single-employer bargaining

Whole country

IE

SIPTU

Single-employer bargaining

Whole country

IT

Feneal – Uil

 

Both, multi and single-employer bargaining

Whole country

IT

Filca – Cisl

Both, multi and single-employer bargaining

Whole country

IT

Fillea – Cgil

Both, multi and single-employer bargaining

Whole country

LT

LMPF

Both, multi and single-employer bargaining

Whole country

LU

OGB-L

No bargaining

Whole country

LU

LCGB Construction et artisanat

No bargaining

Whole country

LV

LMNA

Multi-employer bargaining

Whole country

MT

GWU

Single-employer bargaining

Whole country

NL

FNV Bouw

Multi-employer bargaining

Whole country

NL

CNV Vakmensen

Multi-employer bargaining

Whole country

PL

ZZ Budowlani

No bargaining

Only active in Zachodniopomorskie, Lódzkie, Sląskie and Wielkopolskie regions

PL

SKPM in NSZZ ‘Solidarność‘

Single-employer bargaining

Whole country

PT

SETACCOP

Multi-employer bargaining

Whole country

RO

FSLIL

Both, multi and single-employer bargaining

Whole country

RO

FSCR

 

Both, multi and single-employer bargaining

Whole country

ES

CCOO Construcción Y Servicios

Both, multi and single-employer bargaining

Whole country

ES

MCA-UGT

Both, multi and single-employer bargaining

Whole country

ES

ELA

Info not available

Only active in Basque Country region

SE

GS

Multi-employer bargaining

Whole country

UK

GMB

Multi-employer bargaining

Whole country

UK

UNITE

Info not available

Whole country

Source: Own elaboration according to national contributions from Eurofound’s Network of European correspondents’  (2014)

EFBWW has at least one sectoral affiliation in 25 countries. In Greece, Slovenia and Slovakia, EFBWW has trade unions affiliated but they are not sector-related. EFBWW has 39 affiliations from the 25 countries under consideration. Accordingly, 67% of the trade unions listed in Tables A2I and A2II are directly affiliated to EFBWW. This coverage of organisation is relatively high compared with that recorded by European trade unions present in other Sectoral Social Dialogue Committees such as graphical industries (51%), electricity (39%), chemical (57%), textile and clothing (62%) or road transport and logistics (59%).

Of the 39 trade unions affiliated to EFBWW, 33 are involved in sector related bargaining. In the cases of ELA in Spain and UNITE in the United Kingdom, information was not available. All the trade unions affiliated cover the whole country, except ELA in Spain and ZZ Budowlani in Poland, which are active only in some regions.

Having described the features of the trade unions affiliated to EFBWW, it is important to analyse the organisations that are not affiliated in order to check if major trade unions are uncovered. This analysis reveals that there are 19 trade unions not covered in 14 countries. All these organisations are involved in sector-related collective bargaining except for one (ZZ Meblarzy RP in Poland) and six are consulted by public authorities. Sectoral density rates are only available for six of these trade unions. These organisations record trade union densities lower than 10%. Trade unions involved in collective bargaining and consulted by the authorities could be considered relevant trade unions. (This finding has been questioned by EFBWW. This trade union points out that in order to check the relevance of these organisations, a more detailed analysis is needed.)

Table 8 lists the employer organisations that are members of UEA. Again, this membership list is confined to the sector-related associations of the countries under consideration; hence it does not include employer organisations affiliated to the European-level organisations that do not have any members in the furniture sector.

Table 8: Employer organisations affiliated to UEA (2014)

Country

Trade union

Collective bargaining

Geographical coverage

BG

BCWFI

Multi-employer bargaining

Whole country

HR

HUP

Both, multi and single-employer bargaining

Whole country

CY

PASYXEV

Multi-employer bargaining

Whole country

CZ

ACN

No bargaining

Whole country

EE

EMTL (EESTI)

Information not available

Whole country

ES

 ANIEME

No bargaining

Whole country

FI

Puusepänteollisuus

Multi-employer bargaining

Whole country

LT

LM

Multi-employer bargaining

Whole country

LV

LKF (ALM)

No bargaining

Whole country

MT

MFMO

No bargaining

Whole country

PL

OIGPM

No bargaining

Whole country

PT

APIMA

No bargaining

Whole country

RO

APMR

No bargaining

Whole country

Source: Own elaboration according to national contributions from Eurofound’s Network of European correspondents (2014).

UEA has 13 sectoral affiliations in 13 countries. Therefore, 30% of the employer organisations listed in Tables A2IV and A2V are directly affiliated to UEA. In Austria, Belgium, Germany, Denmark, France, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, Slovenia, Slovakia and the United Kingdom, UEA has no affiliations (there are no sector-related employer associations in Luxembourg). With regard to the United Kingdom, the employer association BFM was formerly a member of UEA in the past but is not a member at present. In the UK national contribution, BFM reports that it is currently considering re-joining UEA or joining EFIC.

Six of the 13 employer organisations affiliated to UEA are involved in sectoral collective bargaining. On the other hand, all the employer organisations affiliated to UEA cover the sector in all the regions of their countries.

Although coverage of organisations recorded by UEA (30%) may seem relatively low at first glance, comparison with other European employer organisations present in other Sectoral Social Dialogue Committees reveals that it is close to the average (see representativeness studies on: the chemical sector, 30%; textile and clothing, 48%; or food and drink, 21%). Nevertheless, attention should be drawn to the fact that UEA does not record any affiliations in 14 countries (no employer organisation was found in Luxembourg). Moreover, in nine of these countries there is only one employer organisation. Accordingly, major national associations are revealed.

Table 9 lists the employer organisations’ members of EFIC that are sector-related, as in previous tables.

Table 9: Employer organisations affiliated to EFIC (2014)

Country

Trade union

Collective bargaining

Geographical coverage

AT

FH

Multi-employer bargaining

Whole country

BE

FEDUSTRIA

Both, multi and single-employer bargaining

Whole country

DE

VDM

Multi-employer bargaining (indirectly)

Whole country

DK

DI

Both, multi and single-employer bargaining

Whole country

FR

UNIFA

Multi-employer bargaining

Whole country

HU

Bútorszövetség (BFS)

No bargaining

Whole country

IT

FEDERLEGNO

Multi-employer bargaining

Whole country

NL

CBM

Multi-employer bargaining

Whole country

PT

AIMMP

Multi-employer bargaining

Whole country

SE

TMF

Multi-employer bargaining

Whole country

Source: Own elaboration according to national contributions from Eurofound’s Network of European correspondents (2014).

EFIC has 10 sectoral affiliations in 10 countries. Thus, 23% of the employer organisations listed in Tables A2IV and A2V are directly affiliated to EFIC. All these organisations except Bútorszövetség (BFS) in Hungary are involved in collective bargaining. All the organisations cover all the regions of their countries.

Coverage of organisations recorded by EIFC appears to be low compared with that recorded in European employer organisations present in other Sectoral Social Dialogue Committees. Moreover, EFIC only has affiliations in Austria, Belgium, Germany, Denmark, France, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal and Sweden. Accordingly, major employer organisations in the rest of the countries are revealed. The 10 countries in which EFIC has affiliates account for 66% of the turnover of furniture production in (millions of euro). These 10 countries also account for 50% of the employees in the furniture sector in the EU28. However, according to the European Labour Force Survey, these 10 countries account for 44% of employees.

Together, UEA and EFIC organise 24 (respectively, 14 and 10) of the 43 furniture sector-related employers organisations; this is 56% in 23 Member States.

Bearing in mind that, on their own, UEA and EFIC are present in only 14 and 10 countries, respectively, it is important to check in which countries both organisations do not have any affiliation. In Ireland, Slovenia, Slovakia and the United Kingdom, employer organisations included in the study are affiliated to neither UEA nor EFIC. In Luxembourg, no employer association that meet the criteria for inclusion was found.

Capacity to negotiate

The European sectoral social partners should be able to prove their capacity to negotiate on behalf of their members and to enter into ‘contractual relations, including agreements‘ (Article 155 TFEU); this means having the capacity to commit themselves and their national affiliates. This criterion does refer to the capacity to negotiate agreements as provided for in Article 155; negotiating other types of joint texts such as joint opinions, frameworks of action and guidelines is not considered to be sufficient in this context.

A European organisation has the capacity to negotiate such an agreement if it has received a mandate to do so from its affiliates, or if it can receive such a mandate in accordance with a given mandating procedure.

The mandate/mandating procedure can be either: statutory, meaning laid down in the statutes (constitution) of the organisation or annexed to them; or non-statutory, meaning laid down in secondary (formal) documents, such as rules for procedures, memoranda of understanding or decisions by the governing bodies of the organisation. The conditions and procedure for the European social partner organisation to be given the authorisation to enter into a specific negotiation, as well as for the ratification of a possible agreement, must be set out in one of these ways. If no such formal mandating procedure can be identified, it should be considered that the condition concerned is not fulfilled.

To check this criterion, European social partners from the furniture sector – EFBWW, UEA and EFIC – were asked to provide proof of their statutes or any other written documentation, describing their mandate, capacity to negotiate and their ratification procedures.

According to EFBWW’s legal statutes (article 11), ‘with respect to the mandates and procedures for European negotiations, the Executive Committee, acting on a proposal of the EFBH-FETBB Management Committee, shall adopt internal regulations by a simple majority‘. The Executive Committee is made up of:

  • one delegate for each country in which the organisations affiliated represent up to 99,999 members;
  • two delegates for each country in which the organisations affiliated represent between 100,000 and 399,999 members;
  • three delegates for each country in which the organisations affiliated represent 400,000 and more members.

All delegates in the Executive Committee have the right to vote.

Bearing this in mind, it is possible to state that EFBWW has a statutory mandate/mandating procedure – that is, laid down in its statutes – that can be used to adopt an agreement.

UEA’s statutes do not specifically set out a mandate or mandating procedure of the General Council to permit it to negotiate, conclude and ratify agreements. UEA confirmed that it has neither a statutory mandate to negotiate on behalf of their members nor rules or procedures regulating such mandating. Accordingly, members individually authorise UEA to negotiate.

EFIC’s legal statutes state that ‘the General Assembly may adopt an internal agreement, which is in line with the objective of the Confederation and has to be observed by all Members‘ (Article 20). Accordingly, the General Assembly, which is made up of two delegates from each country representing the national organisations of their country, and two delegates from each European sectoral federation, has a mandate to adopt agreements. To adopt the agreement, decisions must be taken by a majority of votes present or represented, provided that at least half of the members are present or represented. Each country and each European federation has a vote. Thus, EFIC has a statutory mandating procedure.

Since its establishment in 2001, the Furniture SSDC has produced nine texts, of which eight are process-oriented texts and one is a procedural text.

Up to 2008, its most important activity organising conferences focused on restructuring (2005) and health and safety activities (2007, 2008). Since 2008, the most important achievements of the Sectoral Social Dialogue Committee have been a joint declaration calling on the European and national authorities to help the industry confront the economic crisis (2009), and a Joint Position on the New Community Strategy on Occupational Safety and Health (2012).

Attention should also be drawn to the Memorandum of Understanding for Cabinet Making and Upholstery (Bolster Up Project). This European project aimed to improve the exchange of information, communication and collaboration regarding the various national systems of vocational education in the furniture industry. It also aimed to improve the quality of vocational education structures and practices within the European furniture industry and promote the mutual recognition of certain levels of qualifications and the homogeneity of assessment systems.

Other European organisations

As final proof of the weight of EFBWW, UEA and EFIC, it is useful to look at the other European organisations to which the sector-related trade unions and employer organisations are affiliated.

The affiliations of the trade unions are listed in Table A2II; several European organisations other than EFBWW are mentioned. According to the bottom-up approach, there are five European organisations mentioned here that cover at least three countries: the European Federation of Public Service Union (EPSU); IndustriAll Europe; the European Federation of Food, Agriculture and Tourism Trade Unions (EFFAT); UNI Europa; and the European Transport Workers Federation (ETF). EPSU is present in seven countries, EFFAT and UNI Europa in five countries, ETF in four and IndusriAll Europe in three. It is worth noting that the bottom-up approach may have underestimated the number of organisations affiliated to those European trade unions. According to the information provided on the websites of the organisations, they are present in more countries than the bottom-up approach may suggest. Nevertheless, the presence of these organisations reflects the overlapping domains of many trade unions, because these organisations do not claim to attract unions belonging to the furniture sector. Thus, no relevant competitor is identified on the employee side.

In Greece and Slovenia, where no affiliation to EFBWW was recorded, no other European affiliation is recorded. In Slovakia, the trade union OZ DLV only reported affiliation to EPSU.

A similar review of the membership of the national employer/business associations can be derived from Table A2V. According to the bottom-up approach, no employer organisation is present in more than two countries. Since the study has found that Ireland, Slovenia, Slovakia and the United Kingdom do not record affiliations to UEA and EFIC, the affiliation of European employer organisations to the employer associations from these countries has been checked.

The sectoral organisations found are the European Construction Industry Federation (FIEC), which records one affiliation in Ireland, and the European Federation of Woodworking Machinery Manufacturers (EUMABOIS), which records one affiliation in Slovakia. No relevant competitor been identified in those countries whose sector-related employer associations are not affiliated to UEA and EFIC.

Conclusion

In this final section the six most important findings of the study are summarised.

First, a monopolistic or semi-pluralistic national associational system prevails in most of the countries. Thus, 11 countries record only one sector-related trade union and 9 countries record two sector-related trade unions. On the employer side, 18 countries record only one employer organisation, while 6 countries record two employer organisations. Accordingly, the degree of fragmentation in both sides of the industry appears to be low in this sector.

Second, the domain demarcation of both trade unions and employer organisations show that the sector, as it is defined in this study, does not cover the same reality of the social partners in most of the states. For both trade unions and employer associations, overlap and sectional overlap are the most widespread domain demarcations. For the trade unions, construction and woodworking are the most common activities covered outside the furniture sector. In terms of the employer organisations, most cover sectors and activities that are closely related to the furniture sector, such as furniture wholesale and retail, but also sectors such as woodworking and construction.

Third, statistics show that densities are generally low for both trade unions and employer organisations. However, some differences must be taken into consideration. As far as trade union densities are concerned, important cross-country variations are found. The most notable geographical pattern to have trade unions with comparatively higher sectoral densities is that of the Nordic countries (Finland, Sweden and Denmark). Among employer organisations, the most noticeable feature is that sectoral densities of companies are always lower than the densities in terms of employees. It has been pointed out that this fact could indicate a higher propensity of the larger companies to associate compared to their smaller counterparts, in a sector characterised in most countries by a high share of SMEs.

Fourth, all countries except Luxembourg record some form of collective bargaining in the furniture sector. (Information was not available for Poland and Estonia.) Moreover, in 18 countries at least one multi-employer collective agreement has been concluded. However, the study has found that the sector as defined in this study does not cover the same reality in 12 Member States when social partners negotiate collective agreements at sectoral level. In most cases, multi-employer collective agreements also cover the woodworking sector. There is also a wide variation in the sector’s collective bargaining coverage (taking extension into account) between countries. A group of nine countries, mostly Nordic and central and western European countries, record collective bargaining coverage rates exceeding 90%; a second small group of three countries (United Kingdom, Croatia and Latvia) record low-to-medium rates of collective bargaining coverage that oscillate between 25 and 50%; and a third group of four countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Malta and Slovakia) record low and very low rates of collective bargaining coverage. Generally, predominance of multi-employer bargaining and extension practices and provisions explain high collective agreement coverage.

Fifth, a high proportion of trade unions (80%) and employer organisations (90%) are consulted by the national governments. However, the study shows that genuine sector-specific bodies have been established in only seven of the 28 countries under consideration.

Sixth, top-down and bottom-up analyses reveal a number of issues with regard to the three sectoral European-level social partner organisations scrutinised in this study.

EFBWW has 39 sectoral affiliations in 25 countries. In Greece, Slovenia and Slovakia, EFBWW has affiliated trade unions but they are not sector-related. Of the 39 trade unions affiliated to EFBWW, 33 are involved in sector-related bargaining. There are 19 trade unions not covered in 14 countries; of these, one in Romania could be considered a major trade union, bearing in mind that it is involved in collective bargaining, it is consulted by public authorities and it records a sectoral density rate close to 100%. In addition, five trade unions that are involved in collective bargaining and consulted by the authorities could be considered relevant trade unions.

UEA has 13 sectoral affiliations in 13 countries. Therefore, 30% of the employer organisations included in the study are directly affiliated to UEA. Six of the 14 employer organisations affiliated to UEA are involved in sectoral collective bargaining. On the other hand, all the employer organisations affiliated to UEA cover the sector in all regions of their countries. Thus, UEA does not record any affiliations in 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, Germany, Denmark, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, Slovenia, Slovakia and United Kingdom. Accordingly, major employer associations are uncovered, bearing in mind that in seven of these countries there is only one employer association.

EFIC has 10 sectoral affiliations in 10 countries. Thus, 23% of the employer organisations found in the study are directly affiliated to EFIC. Nine of these organisations are involved in collective bargaining. All the organisations cover all the regions of their countries. EFIC has affiliations in 10 EU Member States; Austria, Belgium, Germany, Denmark, France, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal and Sweden. Therefore, major employer organisations in the rest of the countries are uncovered. The 10 countries where EFIC has affiliates account for 66% of  furniture production.

Accordingly, in Ireland, Slovenia, Slovakia and United Kingdom, employer organisations included in the study are neither affiliated to UEA nor affiliated to EFIC.

On the other hand, the analysis of the national affiliations of these European social partners reveals that the European social partners of the ESSD in the furniture sector do not have any affiliation in Slovenia and Slovakia. Absence of national social partners in these countries affiliated to the relevant European social partners could challenge their ability to have influence there through their actions or activities.

As far as the capacity to negotiate is concerned, the analysis of the legal statutes of the European social partners reveal that EFBWW and EFIC have a mandate/mandating procedure but UEA lacks one.

Finally, the study has found that no relevant European social partner competitor is identified on the employee side or the employer side.

Top-down and bottom-up approach analyses of the furniture sector in EU28 countries shows that EFBWW, UEA and EFIC are the most important European-level social partner organisations, based on their membership. However, it is worth noting that neither UEA nor EFIC alone have a significant presence in a large number of countries, although together they cover almost all EU Member States.

Bibliography

European Commission (2014), Industrial Relations in Europe 2014, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.

Traxler, F., Blaschke, S. and Kittel, B. (2001), National labour relations in internationalised markets, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

 

Pablo Sanz de Miguel, Notus

Annex 1: Data tables 

Trade unions

Table A1: Domain coverage and membership of trade unions in the furniture sector (2014)

Country

Trade union

Domain coverage

Type of membership

Active members total

Active members in the sector

AT

GPA-djp

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

na

na

AT

GBH

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

na

na

BE

ACV-CSC Bie

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

1,700,000

9,300

BE

AC ABVV – CG FGTB

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

1,536,306

na

BE

ACLVB-CGSLB

Overlap

Voluntary

289,672

800

BG

 FTUOFWI

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

5864

685

BG

FLI

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

250

180

CY

OOIMSEK-SEK

Overlap

Voluntary

5,000

na

CY

Construction Workers Union-PEO

Overlap

Voluntary

na

na

CZ

OS DLV ČR

Overlap

Voluntary

12,700

1,123

DE

IG Metall

Overlap

Voluntary

na

na

DK

3F

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

253,430

12,500

EE

EMTAÜ

Overlap

Voluntary

400

100

ES

MCA-UGT

Overlap

Voluntary

na

na

ES

CCOO CONSTRUCCIÓN Y SERVICIOS

Overlap

Voluntary

122,164

6,361

ES

ELA-HAINBAT

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

na

na

FI

 Puuliitto

Overlap

Voluntary

37,000

7,500

FI

Proliitto

Overlap

Voluntary

100,000

300

FR

FO Construction

Overlap

Voluntary

na

na

FR

CFDT Construction et Bois

Overlap

Voluntary

25,000

1,300

FR

FNS CGT Construction, Bois, Ameublement

Overlap

Voluntary

20,300

400

FR

Fédération BATI-MAT-TP CFTC

Overlap

Voluntary

na

na

FR

FIBOPA CFE-CGC

Overlap

Voluntary

680

na

EL

Federation of Construction Workers and Allied Trades of Greece

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

14,208

na

HR

SDIPI

Overlap

Voluntary

4,200

2,000

HU

ÉFÉDOSZSZ – FBDSZ

Overlap

Voluntary

na

na

IE

SIPTU

Overlap

Voluntary

165,000

na

IE

BATU

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

1,600

na

IE

UCATT

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

8,750

na

IT

Fillea – Cgil

Overlap

Voluntary

319,084

33,898

IT

Filca – Cisl

Overlap

Voluntary

290,000

na

IT

Feneal – Uil

Overlap

Voluntary

150,000

na

IT

UGL Costruzioni

Overlap

Voluntary

na

na

LT

LMPF

Overlap

Voluntary

1,700

na

LU

OGBL

Overlap

Voluntary

9,000

na

LU

LCGB Construction et artisanat

Overlap

Voluntary

9,000

50

LV

LMNA

Overlap

Voluntary

2,053

300

MT

GWU

Overlap

Voluntary

46,831

1,00

NL

FNV Bouw

Congruence

Voluntary

110,000

1,500

NL

CNV Vakmensen

Congruence

Voluntary

135,000

837

PL

SKPM in NSZZ ‘Solidarność’

Sectionalism

Voluntary

2,150

2,150

PL

ZZ Budowlani

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

12,000

1,000

PL

ZZ Meblarzy RP

Sectionalism

Voluntary

900

900

PT

SETACCOP

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

na

na

PT

FEVICCOM

Overlap

Voluntary

na

na

RO

FSLIL

Overlap

Voluntary

95,000

8,729

RO

FSCR

Sectionalism

Voluntary

2,500

2,500

RO

FLMCH

Overlap

Voluntary

168,768

56,000

RO

FGS Familia

Sectional overlap

Mixed

3,000

na

SE

GS

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

55,000

15,230

SE

Unionen

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

472,000

1,217

SE

Ledarna

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

91,000

900

SE

Sveriges Ingenjörer

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

114,000

na

SI

SINLES

Overlap

Voluntary

na

na

SI

KNSS

Overlap

Voluntary

na

na

SK

OZ DLV

Overlap

Voluntary

12,153

837

UK

GMB

Overlap

Voluntary

617,064

5,550

UK

Unite

Overlap

Voluntary

1,240,000

100

Notes: Please find a more detailed description of the trade unions’ membership domain with regard to the sector in Table A3; na = not available

Table A2: Density, collective bargaining, consultation and affiliations of trade unions in the furniture sector (2014)

Country

Trade union

Sectoral density (%)

Collective bargaining

Consultation

National

European

International affiliations

AT

GPA-djp

n/a

Yes, MEB only

na

na

ÖGB EPSU, EFFAT, EFJ, EMCEF, UNI Europa UNI Global Union, WOW

AT

GBH

n/a

Yes, MEB only

na

na

ÖGB European Federation of Building and Woodworkers (EFBWW) Building and Wood Workers’ International (BWI)

BE

ACV-CSC Bie

77.3

Yes, both MEB and SEB

Yes

On a regular basis

ACV-CSC IndustriAll Europe; UNI Europe; European Federation Building and Woodworkers International; EVV-CES IndustriAll; UNI; Building and Woodworkers International; IVV

BE

AC ABVV – CG FGTB

n/a

Yes, both MEB and SEB

Yes

On a regular basis

ABVV-FGTB European Federation of Building and Woodworkers; European Federation of Public Service Unions InternationaalBouwenHout; IndustriALL Global Union; UNI Global Union

BE

ACLVB-CGSLB

6.6

Yes, both MEB and SEB

na

na

/ ETUC + IndustriALL, ETF, EFFAT, FETBB, EPSU, EuroCOOP, UNI Europa, EFBWW ITUC + UNI, UITA; TUAC

BG

 FTUOFWI

3.6

Yes, both MEB and SEB

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

CITUB EFBWW Building and Wood Workers International (BWI)

BG

FLI

0.9

Yes, MEB only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

CL Podkrepa The Confederation of European Paper Industries (CEPI) IndustriALL Global Union (IAGU)

CY

OOIMSEK-SEK

n/a

Yes, both MEB and SEB

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

SEK EFBWW BWI

CY

Construction Workers Union-PEO

n/a

Yes, both MEB and SEB

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

PEO None UITBB

CZ

OS DLV ČR

3.7

Yes, both MEB and SEB

No

na

Českomoravská konfederace odborových svazů (ČMKOS) European Federation of Building and Woodworkers (EFBWW) Building and Wood Worker's International (BWI)

DE

IG Metall

n/a

Yes, both MEB and SEB

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

DGB EFBWW IFBWW

DK

3F

145.2

Yes, both MEB and SEB

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

Danish Confederation of Trade Unions, LO EFBWW, ETF, Industry All, EFFAT, UNI Europa, EPSU ITF, PSI, Uni-global, Industry All Global

EE

EMTAÜ

1.3

No

Yes

na

Estonian Trade Union Confederation (EAKL) European Federation of Building and Woodworkers (EFBWW)

ES

MCA-UGT

n/a

Yes, both MEB and SEB

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

 EFBWW Building and Woodworkers International

ES

CCOO CONSTRUCCIÓN Y SERVICIOS

8.1

Yes, both MEB and SEB

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

None EFBWW Building and Woodworkers International

ES

ELA-HAINBAT

n/a

na

na

na

 EFBWW

FI

 Puuliitto

103.3

Yes, both MEB and SEB

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

The Central Organisation of Finnish Trade Unions SAK EFBWW NBTF, BWI

FI

Proliitto

4.1

Yes, both MEB and SEB

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

STTK, Industrial employees TP, SASK – Trade Union Solidarity Centre of Finland (among others) EFBWW None

FR

FO Construction

n/a

Yes, both MEB and SEB

na

na

CGT-FO, Confédération Générale du Travail-Force Ouvrière / General Confederation of Labour – Force ouvrière European Federation of Building and Woodworkers (EFBWW) Building and Wood Workers International (BWI)

FR

CFDT Construction et Bois

17.9

Yes, both MEB and SEB

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

CFDT, Confédération Française démocratique du Travail / French Democratic Confederation of Labour European Federation of Building and Woodworkers (EFBWW) Building and Wood Worker's International - BWI

FR

FNS CGT Construction, Bois, Ameublement

5.5

Yes, both MEB and SEB

No

na

CGT, Confédération générale du travail/ General Confederation of Labour European Federation of Building and Woodworkers (EFBWW) - ETUC Building and Wood Worker's International - BWI

FR

Fédération BATI-MAT-TP CFTC

n/a

Yes, both MEB and SEB

na

na

CFTC, Confédération des Travailleurs Chrétiens / French Christian Workers’ Confederation No affiliation No affiliation

FR

FIBOPA CFE-CGC

n/a

Yes, both MEB and SEB

No

na

ENERMIN - CGE-CGC, Confédération Générale de l’Encadrement-Confédération générale des cadres / French Confederation of Professional and Managerial Staff – General Confederation of Professional and Managerial Staff CEC European Managers (CEC) through ENERMIN federation. None

EL

Federation of Construction Workers and Allied Trades of Greece

n/a

Yes, MEB only

No

na

Greek General Confederation of Labour (GSEE) None Info not available

HR

SDIPI

21.1

Yes, both MEB and SEB

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

Savez samostalnih sindikata Hrvatske (Autonomous Trade Union of Croatia) Krešimirov trg 2, Zagreb EFBWW – European Federation of Building and Woodworkers BWI - Building and Wood Worker's International

HU

ÉFÉDOSZSZ - FBDSZ

n/a

Yes, both MEB and SEB

No

na

National Confederation of Hungarian Trade Unions / Magyar Szakszervezetek Országos Szövetsége (MSZOSZ) European Federation of Building and Woodworkers (EFBWW) BWI / Building and Wood Worker's International

IE

SIPTU

n/a

Yes, SEB only

na

na

 (EFBWW) European Federation of Building and Woodworkers

IE

BATU

n/a

Yes, SEB only

na

na

 

IE

UCATT

n/a

 

na

na

 

IT

Fillea – Cgil

23.0

Yes, both MEB and SEB

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

CGIL, Confederazione Generali Italiana del Lavoro EFBWW, European Federation of Building and Woodworkers BWI, Building and Wood Workers international

IT

Filca – Cisl

n/a

Yes, both MEB and SEB

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

CISL, Confederazione Italiana Sindacati Lavoratori EFBWW, European Federation of Building and Woodworkers BWI, Building and Wood Workers international

IT

Feneal – Uil

n/a

Yes, both MEB and SEB

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

UIL, Unione Italiana del Lavoro EFBWW, European Federation of Building and Woodworkers BWI, Building and Wood Workers international

IT

UGL Costruzioni

n/a

Yes, both MEB and SEB

na

na

Ugl, Unione Generale del Lavoro

LT

LMPF

n/a

 

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

Lithuanian Trade Union Confederation (LPSK) EFBWW BWI, IndustriALL

LU

OGBL

n/a

No

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

OGBL European Federation of Building and Woodworkers (EFBWW) Building and Wood Worker's International (BWI)

LU

LCGB Construction et artisanat

28.9

No

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

LCGB European Federation of Building and Woodworkers (EFBWW) Building and Wood Worker's International (BWI)

LV

LMNA

4.6

Yes, MEB only

Yes

On a regular basis

Free Trade Union Confederation of Latvia European Federation of Building and Wood Workers – EFBWW International Federation of Building and Wood Workers – IFBWW; International Federation of Chemical, Energy, Mine and General Workers Union – ICEM

MT

GWU

6.5

 

Yes

On a regular basis

n/a European Federation of Public Service Unions (EPSU), European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC), European Union Network (UNI Europa), European Workers' Education Association (EURO WEA), Federation of Europe Retired Personal Association (FERPA), Council of European Professional and Managerial Staff (Eurocadres), European Transport Federation (ETF), European Federation of Building and Wood Workers (EFBWW), Metalworkers Federation (EMF), European Federation of Trade Unions in the Food, Agriculture and Tourism sectors and Allied Branches (EFFAT). Public Services International (PSI), International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC), International Labour Organisation (ILO), International Transport Workers' Federation (ITF), International Union of Food, Agriculture, Hotel, Restaurant, Catering, Tobacco and Allied Workers' Association (IUF), International Federation of Building and Wood Workers (IFBWW), International Metalworkers' Federation (IMF), International Federation of Chemical, Energy, Mining and General Workers' Union (ICEM), International Textiles, Garment and Leather Workers' Federation (ITGLWF), Union Network International (UNI), International Federation of Musicians (IFM) and the International Federation of Workers' Education (IFWEA).

NL

FNV Bouw

3.7

Yes, MEB only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

FNV EFBBW EFBBW - International

NL

CNV Vakmensen

2.0

Yes, MEB only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

CNV EFBBW -

PL

SKPM in NSZZ ‘Solidarność‘

1.4

No

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

The Independent and Self-Governing Trade Union Solidarność (NSZZ ‘Solidarność‘) European Federation of Building and Woodworkers (EFBWW) Building and Wood Worker's International (BWI)

PL

ZZ Budowlani

0.7

No

No

na

The All-Poland Alliance of Trade Unions (OPZZ) European Federation of Building and Woodworkers (EFBWW) Building and Wood Workers' International (BWI)

PL

ZZ Meblarzy RP

0.6

No

No

na

The All-Poland Alliance of Trade Unions (OPZZ) No affiliation at European-level No affiliation at international level

PT

SETACCOP

n/a

Yes, MEB only

na

na

UGT EFBWW Info not available

PT

FEVICCOM

n/a

Yes, MEB only

na

na

CGTP-IN Info not available Info not available

RO

FSLIL

15.5

No

Yes

On a regular basis

CNSLR-Fratia (RO) European Federation of Building and Woodworkers (EFBWW); INNOTrans (Europäisches Branchen-Netzwerk für Interessenvertretungen in der Holz- und Möbelindustrie). Building and Wood Workers’ International (BWI);

RO

FSCR

4.4

Yes, both MEB and SEB

Yes

On a regular basis

Confederation of Democratic Trade Unions European Federation of Building and Woodworkers (EFBWW) The International Federation of Wood Workers and Construction Workers

RO

FLMCH

99.2

 

Yes

na

CNS Cartel Alfa - -

RO

FGS Familia

n/a

Yes, both MEB and SEB

Yes

On a regular basis

CNS Cartel-Alfa - -

SE

GS

114.8

Yes, MEB only

Yes

On a regular basis

Swedish Trade Union Confederation (LO) UNI EUROPA Graphical, The European Federation of Building and Woodworkers (EFBWW) Building and Wood Workers; International (BWI), Union Global Union (UNI)

SE

Unionen

9.2

Yes, MEB only

No

na

The Swedish Confederation for Professional Employees (TCO) European Federation of Food, Agriculture and Tourism Trade Unions (EFFAT), UNI Europa, European Transport Workers’ Federation (ETF),IndustriALL European Trade Union (IndustriALL Europe) UNI Global Union (UNI), International Transport Workers’ Federation (ITF), IndustriALL Global Union (IndustriALL)

SE

Ledarna

6.8

Yes, MEB only

No

na

None CEC European Managers, ETF ITF

SE

Sveriges Ingenjörer

n/a

Yes, MEB only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

SACO IndustriALL Europe, UNI Europa, Fédération Européenne d'Associations Nationales d´Ingenieurs (FEANI) IndustriALL, UNI

SI

SINLES

n/a

Yes, MEB only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

ZSSS / /

SI

KNSS

n/a

Yes, MEB only

na

na

/ / /

SK

OZ DLV

3.7

Yes, both MEB and SEB

Yes

On a regular basis

KOZ SR European Federation of Public Service Unions (EPSU) None

UK

GMB

6.1

Yes, MEB only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

Trades Union Congress (TUC), General Federation of Trade Unions (GFTU). European Federation of Building and Woodworkers (EFBWW), European Federation of Food, Agriculture and Tourism Trade Unions (EFFAT), European Federation of Public Service Unions (EPSU), European Transport Workers’ Federation (ETF),IndustriAll European Trade Union, UNI Europa. Building and Wood Workers’ International(BWI),IndustriAll Global Union, International Transport Workers’ Federation (ITF),International Union of Food, Agricultural, Hotel, Restaurant, Catering, Tobacco and Allied Workers (IUF), Public Services International (PSI), UNI Global Union.

UK

Unite

0.1

No

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

Trades Union Congress (TUC). European Federation of Building and Woodworkers (EFBWW), European Federation of Food, Agriculture and Tourism Trade Unions (EFFAT), European Federation of Public Service Unions (EPSU), European Transport Workers’ Federation (ETF), IndustriAll European Trade Union, UNI Europa. Building and Wood Workers’ International (BWI), IndustriAll Global Union, International Transport Workers’ Federation (ITF), International Union of Food, Agricultural, Hotel, Restaurant, Catering, Tobacco and Allied Workers (IUF), Public Services International (PSI), UNI Global Union.

Table A3: Trade union organisations in furniture sector – domain coverage, domain description (2014)

Country

National association

Domain coverage

Domain description

AT

GPA-djp

Sectional overlap

All private-sector white-collar workers across the economy and a few blue-collar workers (e.g. in the printing and paper industries)

AT

GBH

Sectional overlap

Blue collar workers in furniture and many other construction and industry sectors such as building construction and civil engineering; colour processing trades; natural, cast and concrete stone producing and processing trade and industry; etc.

BE

ACV-CSC Bie

Sectional overlap

Blue collar workers in furniture and many other sectors such as glass industry; construction, chemical industry; etc.

BE

AC ABVV – CG FGTB

Sectional overlap

Blue collar workers in furniture and many other sectors such as glass industry; construction, chemical industry.

BE

ACLVB-CGSLB

Overlap

Information not provided

BG

 FTUOFWI

Sectional overlap

All kinds of workers in part of furniture sector (31.03 not covered); forestry; manufacture of wood.

BG

FLI

Sectional overlap

All kinds of workers in part of furniture sector (31.01 and 31.03 are not covered); manufacture of textiles and clothing; manufacture of paper and paperboard

CY

OOIMSEK-SEK

Overlap

All kinds of workers in the whole private sector

CY

Construction Workers Union-PEO

Overlap

All kinds of workers in the whole industry sector

CZ

OS DLV ČR

Overlap

All kinds of workers in furniture; production of music instruments; paper-making industry, water supply; forestry and logging; stationery; production of hygienic equipment and schools; etc.

DE

IG Metall

Overlap

Information not provided

DK

3F

Sectional overlap

Blue-collar workers in the private sector

EE

EMTAÜ

Overlap

All kinds of workers in furniture; forestry; woodwork; construction

ES

MCA-UGT

Overlap

All kinds of workers in furniture; woodworking; metal; construction sectors

ES

CCOO CONSTRUCCIÓN Y SERVICIOS

Overlap

All kinds of workers in furniture; construction; services

ES

ELA-HAINBAT

Sectional overlap

All kinds of workers in the Basque Country region in furniture; woodworking; chemical; metal; graphic arts; fish, ports; energy, construction, telecommunication and ceramic sectors

FI

 Puuliitto

Overlap

All kinds of workers in mechanical forest industry; woodworking industry; forestry and harvesting industries; boat-building industry; agricultural industries.

FI

Proliitto

Overlap

All kinds of workers in industries; the service sector; ICT and finance.

FR

FO Construction

Overlap

All kinds of workers in furniture; paper; wood industry; materials; ceramics; quarries; pulp and paper; tiles and bricks; cement; architecture; construction

FR

CFDT Construction et Bois

Overlap

All kinds of workers in furniture; wood industry; social housing, wood trading and materials; quarries; learning and training centre for apprentices; tiles and bricks; cement; ceramics and porcelain; architect and surveyor; climatic engineering

FR

FNS CGT Construction, Bois, Ameublement

Sectional overlap

All kinds of workers in part of furniture sector (group 31.03 not covered); construction and civil engineering; wood industry and furniture; lime and cement; wood trading and materials; architect; surveyor; economist; toys industry; quarries and materials.

FR

Fédération BATI-MAT-TP CFTC

Overlap

All kinds of workers in furniture; construction; wood industry; wood trading and materials; quarries, tiles and bricks; lime and cement; ceramics and porcelain; architect; surveyor; economist

FR

FIBOPA CFE-CGC

Overlap

All kinds of workers in furniture; paper and pulp industry; woodworking.

EL

Federation of Construction Workers and Allied Trades of Greece

Sectional overlap

All kinds of workers in part of furniture sector (group 31.03 not covered); builders and other technical specialties related to construction

HR

SDIPI

Overlap

All kinds of workers in furniture; woodworking; paper industry

HU

ÉFÉDOSZSZ - FBDSZ

Overlap

All kinds of workers in furniture; construction; woodworking

IE

SIPTU

Overlap

Cross-sectoral trade union

IE

BATU

Sectional overlap

Blue collar-workers in furniture; construction

IE

UCATT

Sectional overlap

Blue collar-workers in larger firms in most of the sectors

IT

Fillea – Cgil

Overlap

All kinds of workers in furniture; woodworking; mining and building sectors.

IT

Filca – Cisl

Overlap

All kinds of workers in furniture; woodworking and building sectors.

IT

Feneal – Uil

Overlap

All kinds of workers in furniture; woodworking; building sectors

IT

UGL Costruzioni

Overlap

All kinds of workers in furniture; woodworking; building sectors

LT

LMPF

Overlap

All kinds of workers in furniture; woodwork; construction; forestry

LU

OGBL

Overlap

All kinds of workers in furniture and construction sector

LU

LCGB Construction et artisanat

Overlap

All kinds of workers in furniture and construction sector

LV

LMNA

Overlap

All kinds of workers in furniture; forestry; timber processing; management institutions; state forests.

MT

GWU

Overlap

Cross-sectoral trade union

NL

FNV Bouw

Congruence

All kinds of workers in furniture sector

NL

CNV Vakmensen

Congruence

All kinds of workers in furniture sector

PL

SKPM in NSZZ ‘Solidarność’

Sectionalism

All kinds of workers in furniture sector group 31.03

PL

ZZ Budowlani

Sectional overlap

Workers in IKEA Industries company in some regions and in several sectors: furniture; construction

PL

ZZ Meblarzy RP

Sectionalism

Blue-collar workers in north-eastern Poland in furniture sector in all kinds of companies except IKEA

PT

SETACCOP

Sectional overlap

All kinds of workers in furniture; construction; public works; services

PT

FEVICCOM

Overlap

Information not provided

RO

FSLIL

Overlap

All kinds of workers in furniture; forestry

RO

FSCR

Sectionalism

Furniture workers employed in multinational companies

RO

FLMCH

Overlap

All kinds of workers in furniture; woodwork; paper industry

RO

FGS Familia

Sectional overlap

Information not provided

SE

GS

Sectional overlap

Blue-collar workers in furniture; graphics; forestry; wood sectors.

SE

Unionen

Sectional overlap

White-collar workers in all private sectors

SE

Ledarna

Sectional overlap

Managers in all the sectors

SE

Sveriges Ingenjörer

Sectional overlap

Graduate engineers in all sectors.

SI

SINLES

Overlap

All kinds of works in furniture; manufacture of wood and of products of wood and cork; manufacture of articles of straw and plaiting materials; manufacture of musical instruments; manufacture of sports goods; manufacture of games and toys; manufacture of brooms and brushes

SI

KNSS

Overlap

All kinds of workers in furniture; metal and electrical industry; production and processing of chemical products; postal activities; urban transport; communal activities; production of leather and leather products and defence.

SK

OZ DLV

Overlap

All kinds of workers in furniture; paper industry; forestry; water management.

UK

GMB

Overlap

Cross-sectoral trade union

UK

Unite

Overlap

Cross-sectoral trade union

Employer organisations

Table A4: Employer/business organisations in furniture sector – domain coverage and membership (2014)

Country

Employer organisation

Domain coverage

Type of membership

Companies total

Companies in sector

Employees total

Employees in sector

AT

FH

Sectional overlap

Compulsory

1,402

47

27,571

6,700

AT

BT

Sectional overlap

Compulsory

na

na

32,848

na

BE

Fedustria

Overlap

Voluntary

540

300

29,193

15,000

BG

BCWFI

Overlap

Voluntary

290

232

na

 

CY

PASYXEV

Overlap

Voluntary

na

na

na

na

CZ

AČN

Overlap

Voluntary

na

69

6,400

6,200

DE

HDH

Overlap

Voluntary

na

na

na

na

DE

VDM

Overlap

Voluntary

500000

na

90,000

na

DE

Federal guild of the carpenters craft

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

15,000

na

150,000

na

DK

DI

Overlap

Voluntary

10000

na

500,000

na

EE

EMTL

Overlap

Voluntary

50

34

na

 

ES

CONFEMADERA

Overlap

Voluntary

25,973

na

127,724

na

ES

ANIEME

Congruence

Voluntary

200

200

na

 

FI

Puusepänteollisuus

Overlap

Voluntary

48

na

3.1

na

FI

AFWFI

Overlap

Voluntary

500

200

6,000

2,500

FR

UNIFA

Overlap

Voluntary

400

na

na

na

EL

POVSKX

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

4,500

na

na

na

HR

HUP

Overlap

Voluntary

6,500

31

394739

4,000

HU

Bútorszövetség

Overlap

Voluntary

40

40

4,500

4,500

HU

OAFSZ

Overlap

Voluntary

400

300

na

 

IE

CIF

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

2,500

10

na

 

IT

Federlegno – Arredo

Overlap

Voluntary

2,800

1,105

na

na

IT

Unital – Confapi

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

na

na

21,000

na

IT

Confimi Impresa – Legno, Arredo e Design

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

350

na

5,000

na

IT

Confartigianato – Legno e Arredo

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

14800

3226

52,000

11300

IT

CNA – Produzione

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

na

na

40,000

na

IT

CLAAI

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

18,000

na

90,000

na

IT

CASArtigiani

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

na

na

na

na

LT

LM

Overlap

Voluntary

70

35

9,600

5200

LV

LKF

Overlap

Voluntary

na

na

na

na

LV

Latvijas mēbeles

Congruence

Voluntary

16

16

1,837

1,837

LV

LKUEA

Overlap

Voluntary

na

na

na

na

MT

MFMO

Congruence

Voluntary

26

26

300

300

NL

CBM

Congruence

Voluntary

477

477

10,008

10,008

PL

OIGPM

Sectionalism

Voluntary

100

100

na

 

PT

AIMMP

Overlap

Voluntary

na

na

na

na

PT

APIMA

na

Voluntary

na

na

na

na

RO

APMR

Overlap

Voluntary

398

212

37,731

24,460

SE

TMF

Overlap

Voluntary

665

176

24,234

8,095

SI

ZDS

Overlap

Voluntary

na

na

na

na

SI

GZS-ZLPI

Overlap

Voluntary

na

na

na

na

SK

ZSD SR

Overlap

Voluntary

109

27

3,681

883

UK

BFM

Congruence

na

205

180

23,940

 

Note: Please find a more detailed description of the trade unions’ membership domain with regard to the sector in Table A3; na = not available

Table A5: Employer organisations in furniture sector – density, collective bargaining, consultation and affiliations (2013)

Country

Employer organisation

Sectoral density (%) – Companies

Sectoral density (%) –Employees

Collective bargaining

Consultation

National European international affiliations

AT

FH

1.5

23.4

Yes, MEB only

Yes

On a regular basis

WKO, EFIC

AT

BT

n/a

n/a

Yes, MEB only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

WKO

BE

Fedustria

9.7

52.4

Yes, both MEB and SEB

Yes

On a regular basis

VBO-FEB, VOKA, UWE EFIC; CEI-Bois, Euratex

BG

BCWFI

11.6

n/a

Yes, MEB only

No

na

Bulgarian Industrial Association (BIA); Bulgarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (BCCI); Association of Industrial Capital in Bulgaria (AICB) UEA UEA

CY

PASYXEV

n/a

n/a

Yes, MEB only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

OEB UEA None

CZ

AČN

0.4

20.3

No

Yes

na

Confederation of the Czech Forest and Wood Processing Associations (KLDS), UEA, World Furniture Confederation

DE

HDH

n/a

n/a

 

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

German Confederation of Employers’ Associations (BDA) CEI-BOIS European Furniture Industries Confederation (EFIC)

DE

VDM

n/a

n/a

Yes, MEB only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

HDH EFIC CEI-Bois: indirectly via HDH

DE

Federal guild of the carpenters craft

n/a

n/a

Yes, MEB only

Yes

On a regular basis

German Association of Skilled Crafts Confederations (UDH), Federal association construction industry (Bundesvereinigung Bauwirtschaft), German economic council wood (Deutscher Holzwirtschaftsrat) None. But regular exchange with Austria, Swiss and South Tyrol None.

DK

DI

n/a

n/a

Yes, both MEB and SEB

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

Confederation of Danish Employers, DA EFIC, CEI-Bois, EOS (TMI/DI), Business Europe (DI) BIAC

EE

EMTL

5.6

n/a

na

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

Estonian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ECCI) Federation of European Furniture Manufacturers (UEA)

ES

CONFEMADERA

n/a

n/a

Yes, MEB only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

CEOE-CEPYME, CEPCO, AENOR CEI BOIS, EFIC None

ES

ANIEME

1.4

n/a

No

na

na

CEOE UEA

FI

Puusepänteollisuus

n/a

n/a

Yes, MEB only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

Finnish Forest Industries, The Confederation of the Finnish Industries EK CEI-Bois (European Confederation of Woodworking Industries) through Finnish Forest Industries None

FI

AFWFI

20.3

34.4

Yes, MEB only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

The Federation of Finnish Enterprises (SY) None

FR

UNIFA

n/a

n/a

Yes, MEB only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

MEDEF; EFIC; Fédération Européenne du Mobilier de Bureau (FEMB); European Bedding Industries' Association (EBIA). None

EL

POVSKX

n/a

n/a

Yes, MEB only

No

na

GSEVEE UEA (Federation of European Furniture Manufacturers) None

HR

HUP

3.2

42.1

Yes, both MEB and SEB

Yes

On a regular basis

Croatian Employers Association Business Europe IOE, ICC, European Furniture Manufacturers Federation

HU

Bútorszövetség

1.1

47.4

No

No

na

Confederation of Hungarian Employers and Industrialists (Munkaadók és Gyáriparosok Országos Szövetsége, MGYOSZ), Hungarian Association of Entrepreneurs and Employers (Vállalkozók és Munkáltatók Országos Szövetsége, VOSZ), Hungarian Association of Craftsmen's Corporations (Ipartestületek Országos Szövetsége, IPOSZ) EFIC

HU

OAFSZ

8.4

n/a

Yes, MEB only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

Hungarian Association of Craftsmen’s Corporations (Ipartestületek Országos Szövetsége, IPOSZ); Hungarian Industrial Association (Magyar Iparszövetség) None

IE

CIF

1.7

n/a

No

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

n/a FIEC FIEC

IT

Federlegno – Arredo

n/a

n/a

Yes, MEB only

na

na

 EFIC, European Furniture Industries Confederation

IT

Unital – Confapi

n/a

n/a

Yes, MEB only

na

na

 n/a

IT

Confimi Impresa – Legno, Arredo e Design

n/a

n/a

Yes, MEB only

na

na

  n/a

IT

Confartigianato – Legno e Arredo

16.7

7.7

Yes, MEB only

Yes

On a regular basis

Confartigianato Imprese Confartigianato Imprese is affiliated to UEAPME, Union Europeenne de l’Artisanat e des Petites et Moyennes Entreprises None

IT

CNA – Produzione

n/a

n/a

Yes, MEB only

na

na

  n/a

IT

CLAAI

n/a

n/a

Yes, MEB only

na

na

  n/a

IT

CASArtigiani

n/a

n/a

Yes, MEB only

na

na

  n/a

LT

LM

2.6

#¡DIV/0!

 

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

Confederation of Lithuanian Industrialists (LPK) UEA

LV

LKF

n/a

n/a

No

Yes

On a regular basis

Latvian Employers’ Confederation UEA

LV

Latvijas mēbeles

2.6

28.1

Yes, MEB only

Yes

On a regular basis

LKF, UEA

LV

LKUEA

n/a

n/a

No

Yes

On a regular basis

LKF

MT

MFMO

3.8

19.5

No

Yes

On a regular basis

None UEA None

NL

CBM

6.8

24.4

Yes, MEB only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

VNO-NCW EFIC no

PL

OIGPM

0.7

n/a

No

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

Polish Chamber of Commerce (KIG) Federation of European Furniture Manufacturers (UEA) No international organisations affiliation

PT

AIMMP

n/a

n/a

Yes, MEB only

na

na

CFPIMM; CIP; EMBAR EFIC; CEI-Bois; CPCI; EPAL; EPF; FEF-PEB Info not available

PT

APIMA

n/a

n/a

No

na

na

Info not available UEA; WFC Info not available

RO

APMR

5.0

43.3

No

Yes

On a regular basis

COMPIROM, National Export Council member, UEA, World Furniture Organization

SE

TMF

8.0

61.0

Yes, MEB only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

The Confederation of Swedish Enterprise (SvensktNäringsliv) European Confederation of woodworking industries (CEI-Bois), European Furniture Industries Confederation (EFIC) None

SI

ZDS

n/a

n/a

Yes, MEB only

na

na

 BUSINESSEUROPE IOE, BIAC

SI

GZS-ZLPI

n/a

n/a

Yes, MEB only

Yes

On a regular basis

 CEI Bois

Slovakia

ZSD SR

1.7

3.9

Yes, MEB only

Yes

On a regular basis

RUZ SR EFIC (till 2012) and EUMABOIS Europaischer Fertighausverband EFV

UK

BFM

11.5

n/a

Yes, MEB only

na

na

British Furniture Confederation, British Contract Furnishing Association, National Bed Federation, Furniture Industry Research Association, Worshipful Company of Furniture Makers. None (see note to Table 4). None.

Note: MEB = multi-employer bargaining; SEB = single-employer bargaining.

Table A6: Employer organisations – domain coverage and description, furniture sector (2013)

Country

Employer organisation

Domain Coverage

Domain description

AT

FH

Sectional overlap

‘Industry’ segment of the sector and woodworking industry

AT

BT

Sectional overlap

Small-scale crafts (Gewerbe) segment of the sector except group 31.03 and some business activities outside, such as floor covering work, manufacture of wooden canoes etc.

BE

Fedustria

Overlap

All kinds of companies in the furniture sector and companies that not explicitly belong to the sector, but have an activity or interest in it

BG

БКДМП

Overlap

All kinds of companies in the furniture sector and companies providing consulting services

CY

PASYXEV

Overlap

All kinds of companies in the furniture sector and in the woodworking sector

CZ

AČN

Overlap

Companies in the whole furniture manufacturing chain, including wholesale and retail

DE

HDH

Overlap

All kinds of companies in the furniture sector and companies specialised in interior construction or woodworking and plastics.

DE

VDM

Overlap

All kinds of companies in the furniture sector, woodworking and plastic industry

DE

Federal guild of the carpenters craft

Sectional overlap

Carpentry craft companies and construction components and morticians.

DK

DI

Overlap

All manufacturing industry and employers in service and transport as well

EE

EMTL

Overlap

All kinds of companies in the furniture sector, wood processing, sales companies and training providers

ES

CONFEMADERA

Overlap

All kinds of companies in the furniture and woodworking sector

ES

ANIEME

Congruence

All kinds of companies in the furniture sector

FI

Puusepänteollisuus

Overlap

All kinds of companies in the furniture sector and companies in other parts of the joinery industry (e.g. doors and windows)

FI

AFWFI

Overlap

All kinds of companies in the furniture sector and companies in other parts of the joinery industry

FR

UNIFA

Overlap

All kinds of companies in the furniture sector and companies in manufacture of metal and plastics

EL

POVSKX

Sectional overlap

SMEs in furniture sector except group 31.03 and woodworking sector

HR

HUP

Overlap

All kinds of companies in the furniture, woodworking and manufacture of paper sectors

HU

Bútorszövetség

Overlap

All kinds of companies in the furniture sector and woodworking sector

HU

OAFSZ

Overlap

All kinds of companies in the furniture sector and companies in other parts of the joinery industry

IE

CIF

Sectional overlap

All kinds of companies in the furniture sector except group 31.03 and construction sector

IT

Federlegno – Arredo

Overlap

All kinds of companies in the furniture sector and woodworking sector

IT

Unital – Confapi

Sectional overlap

SMEs in the furniture sector and woodworking sector

IT

Confimi Impresa – Legno, Arredo e Design

Sectional overlap

SMEs in the furniture sector and woodworking sector

IT

Confartigianato – Legno e Arredo

Sectional overlap

SMEs in the furniture sector and woodworking sector mining and stone-cutting

IT

CNA – Produzione

Sectional overlap

SMEs in the furniture sector and woodworking sector mining and stone-cutting

IT

CLAAI

Sectional overlap

SMEs in the furniture sector and woodworking sector mining and stone-cutting

IT

CASArtigiani

Sectional overlap

SMEs in the furniture sector and woodworking sector mining and stone-cutting

LT

LM

Overlap

All kinds of companies in the furniture, woodworking and manufacture of paper sectors

LV

LKF

Overlap

All kinds of companies in the furniture and woodworking sector

LV

Latvijas mēbeles

Congruence

All kinds of companies in the furniture sector

LV

LKUEA

Overlap

All kinds of companies in the furniture and woodworking sector

MT

MFMO

Congruence

All kinds of companies in the furniture and woodworking sector

NL

CBM

Congruence

All kinds of companies in the furniture and woodworking sector

PL

OIGPM

Sectionalism

All kinds of companies in the furniture sector except group 31.03

PT

AIMMP

Overlap

Information not provided

PT

APIMA

na

Information  not provided

RO

APMR

Overlap

All kinds of companies in the furniture sector and companies specialised in production of prime matter and components of furniture

SE

TMF

Overlap

All kinds of companies in the furniture and woodworking sector

SI

ZDS

Overlap

Cross-sectoral employer association

SI

GZS-ZLPI

Overlap

All kinds of companies in the furniture and woodworking sector

SK

ZSD SR

Overlap

All kinds of companies in the furniture sector. Wood processing, suppliers of materials and wood processing technologies and manufacturing of wooden buildings.

UK

BFM

Congruence

All kinds of companies in the furniture and woodworking sector

A7: Furniture sector – number of employees, turnover, by country

Country

Number of employees

Turnover (€ million)

PL

142,484

8,323

DE (*)

138,221

17,738

IT (*)

135,838

15,950

ES

78,998

4,611

UK

62,466

7,022

RO

59,810

1,594

FR (*)

53,642

7,929

PT (*)

31,975

 

AT (*)

27,400

2,115

CZ

22,887

1,459

BG

20,879

268

NL (*)

19,786

2,119

LT

19,047

1,090

HU (*)

16,115

1,017

SE (*)

14,915

3,021

SK

13,063

928

BE (*)

12,388

1,953 (BE and LU)

HR

11,384

369

DK (*)

9,250

2,147

SI

8,823

619

FI

8,010

929

EE

7,221

373

LV

5,794

188

CY

1,281

82

LU

168

 

EU28

92,1845

84,147

 

 

 

10 countries where EFIC has affiliates (indicated with (*)

459,530

50%

55,343

66%

Source:Study on the EU furniture market situation and a possible furniture products initiative, p.77 and p.46.

Annex 2: Organisation names and abbreviations

Trade union organisations – abbreviated names

Country

Abbreviation

Full association name

AT

GPA-djp

Union of Salaried Employees, Graphical Workers and Journalists

AT

GBH

Construction and Woodworkers Union

BE

ACV-CSC Bie

General Christian Trade Union - construction, industry & energy

BE

AC ABVV – CG FGTB

General Centre Belgian Socialistic Trade Union

BE

ACLVB-CGSLB

Liberal Trade Union of Belgium

BG

 FTUOFWI

Federation of Trade Union Organizations in Forestry and Woodworking Industry at CITUB

BG

FLI

Federation Light Industry in Confederation at CL Podkrepa

CY

OOIMSEK-SEK

Federation of Builders and Miners and Relevant Professions

CY

Construction Workers Union-PEO

Construction Workers, Carpenters, Metal Workers and General Workers Trade Union

CZ

OS DLV ČR

Trade Union of Workers in Woodworking Industry, Forestry and Management of Water

DE

IG Metall

Metalworkers Union

DK

3F

United Federation of Danish Workers

EE

EMTAÜ

Trade Union of Estonian Forest Industry Workers

ES

MCA-UGT

Federation of Metal, Construction and Related Activities of the General Workers’ Unions

ES

CCOO CONSTRUCCIÓN Y SERVICIOS

Federation of Construction and Services of the of the Trade Union Confederation of Workers’ Commissions

ES

ELA-HAINBAT

Basque Workers’ Solidarity

FI

 Puuliitto

Woodworkers’ Union

FI

Proliitto

Trade Union Pro

FR

FO Construction

General Federation Force ouvrière, Construction, wood industry, paper, pulp, ceramic

FR

CFDT Construction et Bois

National Federation of building and wood Industry’s workers - CFDT

FR

FNS CGT Construction, Bois, Ameublement

National Federation or employees of the construction, wood and furniture

FR

Fédération BATI-MAT-TP CFTC

BATI-MAT-TP CFTC Federation

FR

FIBOPA CFE-CGC

CGE-CGC union of the Wood and Paper sector

EL

Federation of Construction Workers and Allied Trades of Greece

Federation of Construction Workers and Allied Trades of Greece

HR

SDIPI

Trade Union of Timber and Wood and Paper-Processing Industry of Croatia

HU

ÉFÉDOSZSZ - FBDSZ

Federation of Builders, Wood & Building Materials Industry Workers' Unions – Wood and Furniture Trade Union

IE

SIPTU

Services Industry Professional Technical Union

IE

BATU

Building and Allied Trades’ Union

IE

UCATT

Union of Construction Allied Trades and Technicians

IT

Fillea – Cgil

The Italian Federation of Wood and Construction Workers

IT

Filca – Cisl

The Italian Federation of Construction Workers

IT

Feneal – Uil

The National Federation of Construction and Wood Workers

IT

UGL Costruzioni

National Construction Federation – General Union of Work

LT

LMPF

Federation of Lithuanian forest and wood worker trade unions

LU

OGBL

Construction, Construction Crafts and Metallic constructions Union, Independent Trade Union Confederation of Luxembourg

LU

LCGB Construction et artisanat

Luxembourg Confederation of Christian Unions – Craft and Construction Section

LV

LMNA

Forest Sphere Trade Union of Latvia

MT

GWU

General Workers’ Union

NL

FNV Bouw

Federation Dutch Unions, Construction

NL

CNV Vakmensen

Christian National Union for Craftsmen

PL

SKPM in NSZZ ‘Solidarność‘

National Section of Furniture Producers in the ‘Solidarity’ trade union

PL

ZZ Budowlani

‘Budowlani’ Trade Union

PL

ZZ Meblarzy RP

Polish Trade Union of Furniture Manufacturers

PT

SETACCOP

Union of Construction, Public Works and Services

PT

FEVICCOM

Portuguese Federation of Construction, Ceramics and Glass Unions

RO

FSLIL

Federation of Free Trade Union in Wood Industry

RO

FSCR

Federation of Cement workers Trade Unions in Romania

RO

FLMCH

Federation of Wood, Furniture, Paper Workers

RO

FGS Familia

General Federation of Trade Unions – FAMILY, ‘Anghel Saligny’

SE

GS

The Swedish union of forestry, wood and graphical workers

SE

Unionen

Unionen

SE

Ledarna

Ledarna

SE

Sveriges Ingenjörer

The Swedish Association of Graduate Engineers

SI

SINLES

Trade Union of Wooden Industry of Slovenia

SI

KNSS

Trade Union Confederation Independence

SK

OZ DLV

Trade Union of Wood, Forestry and Water Management

UK

GMB

GMB

UK

Unite

Unite the Union

Employer organisations – abbreviated names

Country

Abbreviation

Full association name

AT

FH

Federal Organisation of the Austrian Wood Industry

AT

BT

Federal Organisation of the Joiners and Wood-designing Crafts

BE

Fedustria

Belgian Federation of the Textile, Wood and Furniture Industry

BG

BCWFI

Bulgarian branch chamber of Woodworking and Furniture industry

CY

PASYXEV

Cyprus Furniture and Woodworking Industry Association

CZ

AČN

Association of the Czech producers of furniture

DE

HDH

Federal association for the woodworking industry and plastics

DE

VDM

Association of the German furniture industries

DE

Federal guild of the carpenters craft

Federal Guild of the Carpenters’ Craft

DK

DI

Confederation of Danish Industry

EE

EMTL

Estonian Furniture Industry Association

ES

CONFEMADERA

Employer organisation’s name, English Translation

ES

ANIEME

Spanish National Association of Furniture Manufacturers and Exporters

FI

Puusepänteollisuus

Association of Finnish Furniture and Joinery Industries

FI

AFWFI

Association of Finnish Woodworking and Furniture Industries

FR

UNIFA

National Union of the French Furniture Industries

EL

POVSKX

Pan-Hellenic Federation of Craft Woodworking Associations (POVSKX)

HR

HUP

Hrvatska udruga poslodavaca, Udruga za drvo i papir

HU

Bútorszövetség

Magyar Bútor és Faipari Szövetség

HU

OAFSZ

Országos Asztalos- és Faipari Szövetség

IE

CIF

Construction Industry Federation

IT

Federlegno – Arredo

Federazione Italiana delle Industrie del Legno, del Sughero, del Mobile e dell’Arredamento

IT

Unital – Confapi

Unione Italiana Arredi Legno Confederazione Italiana della Piccola e Media Impresa privata

IT

Confimi Impresa – Legno, Arredo e Design

Confederazione dell’Industria Manufatturiera Italiana e dell’Impresa Privata Legno, Arredo e Design

IT

Confartigianato – Legno e Arredo

Confartigianato – Legno e Arredo

IT

CNA – Produzione

Confederazione Nazionale dell’Artigianato e della Piccola e Media Impresa – Produzione

IT

CLAAI

Confederazione Libere Associazioni Artigiane Italiane

IT

CASArtigiani

Confederazione Autonoma Sindacati Artigiani

LT

LM

Asociacija ‘Lietuvos mediena’

LV

LKF

Latvijas Kokrūpniecības federācija

LV

Latvijas mēbeles

Asociācija Latvijas mēbeles

LV

LKUEA

Latvijas Kokapstrādes uzņēmēju un eksportētāju asociācija

MT

MFMO

Malta Furniture Manufacturers Organisation

NL

CBM

Royal Centrale Bond van Meubelfabrikanten

PL

OIGPM

Ogólnopolska Izba Gospodarcza Producentów Mebli

PT

AIMMP

Associação das Indústrias de Madeira e Mobiliário de Portugal

PT

APIMA

Associação Portuguesa das Indústrias de Mobiliário e Afins

RO

APMR

AsociatiaProducatorilor de Mobiladin Romania

SE

TMF

Trä– ochmöbelföretagen

SI

ZDS

Združenje delodajalcev Slovenije

SI

GZS-ZLPI

Gospodarska zbornica Slovenije-Združenje lesne in pohištvene industrije

SK

ZSD SR

Woodprocessing Employers of the Slovak Republic

UK

BFM

British Furniture Manufacturers

 

 

EF/15/77

 

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