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  • Article
    27 Kovas 1997

    The Government has published a working document, entitled "Maritime and ports
    policy at the approach of the 21st Century", for public debate. In the
    document it proposes a number of measures to deregulate dock work, and the
    National Federation of Dockers' Unions has criticised the lack of prior
    dialogue and is opposing the new proposals.

  • Article
    27 Kovas 1997

    The cause of the industrial unrest was the announcement by the ruling
    Conservative-Liberal coalition Government that it was planning to scale back
    annual subsidies for the - basically west - German hard coal (Steinkohle)
    industry dramatically. During the ensuing protests, Germany saw a human chain
    of more than 90 kilometres straight through the Ruhr coal heartland, and
    sympathy demonstrations from east German brown coal miners. Miners in the
    Ruhr and the Saar areas went on strike. Tens of thousands of miners took to
    the streets, occupied pits and town halls, and blocked roads as well as the
    Bonn headquarters of Chancellor Helmut Kohl's ruling Christian Democratic
    Party (CDU) and its coalition partner, the Free Democrat Party (FDP). In the
    days before the compromise, the protests of the rank and file seemed to get
    out of control of the miners' union, IG Bergbau und Energie (IGBE), and its
    chair, Hans Berger. For the first time in German post-war history, furious
    miners even entered the restricted area surrounding government buildings in
    Bonn where no public meetings or marches may be held. As an "act of
    solidarity with miners fighting for their existence" the Social Democratic
    Party (SPD) temporarily boycotted a meeting in which opposition and coalition
    politicians were discussing the reform of the German tax system. When the
    miners laid siege to Bonn, Chancellor Kohl temporarily put off talks with the
    union leaders to avoid having to negotiate under duress.

  • Article
    27 Kovas 1997

    One of the keenest debates in industrial relations in Europe is the
    relationship between the institutional structure of the labour market and
    economic performance and, in particular, the contribution of the wage
    determination process to national competitiveness. Considerable attention has
    focused on European economies, like Germany and Sweden, whose traditionally
    centralised and coordinated bargaining systems have come under significant
    pressures in recent years. The case of Ireland has attracted less attention.

  • Article
    27 Kovas 1997

    The European Commission adopted its first annual report on equal
    opportunities between men and women in the European Union at its meeting on 5
    March 1997. The report: outlines the embodiment of equality principles in
    European Union policies; examines gender differences in the EU labour market;
    looks at Community actions to improve the interaction between work and family
    life; explores initiatives to aimed at achieving a greater involvement of
    women in decision-making bodies; outlines initiatives aimed a enabling women
    to exercise their rights; and provides an update on the recommendations of
    the 1995 Beijing Conference. Commenting on the publication of the report,
    commissioner for social affairs Padraig Flynn said that this was the first in
    what will be a series of annual reports covering the Union's policies on
    equal opportunities as a whole. Commissioner Flynn stated that the aim of the
    report was to give visible expression to EU policies on equal opportunities
    between men and women, to encourage debate on the progress achieved and
    policies to develop, and to act as a reference point for the Commission,
    member states and countries applying for membership of the Union.

  • Article
    27 Kovas 1997

    In recent years there has been increasing public concern over what is widely
    viewed as the spiralling remuneration of company directors. At a time when
    companies are keen to promote pay schemes based on performance, too often the
    links between directors' pay and performance are viewed as non-existent. In a
    report on director's remuneration publicised in March 1997, the IOD is keen
    to set the record straight. It argues that, although it recognises that
    directors' pay in the largest companies has been on average high, it has been
    relatively modest for those directors who work for small to medium-sized
    enterprises. In fact, the median pay increase for this group of directors in
    1996 was 4%, the equivalent of the increase in average earnings for all
    employees in that year.

  • Article
    27 Kovas 1997

    The phenomenon of illegal immigration in Greece has taken on an ever more
    serious dimension. According to evidence from the Ministry of Public Order
    the number of foreign workers without a work permit is now around 400,000,
    and is expected to increase still further owing to the recent crises in
    Albania and Bulgaria. The main countries of origin are Albania, Poland,
    Bulgaria and Romania, as well as countries in Asia and Africa. However, there
    are also around 30,000 additional foreign nationals who originate from EU
    member states, and obtain a special written permit from the Ministry of

  • Article
    27 Kovas 1997

    A current bill amending the 1971 Works Councils Act has focused attention on
    the increasingly important role played by Dutch works councils in the
    negotiation of terms of employment. However, although the function of the
    trade unions is being somewhat eroded, even in the area of determining
    primary terms of employment, the traditional division of roles between unions
    and works councils has remained fundamentally intact.


  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications