Browse publications

Latest publications

  • Article
    8 Jūlijs 2003

    In late 2000, the Swedish government set up a governmental working time
    committee (Kommittén för nya arbetstids- och semesterregler, KNAS), with
    social partner involvement, to examine the entire system of legislation on
    working time and leave and make proposals for reform (SE0101176N [1]). In
    June 2002, the committee issued a report (/SOU 2002:58/) proposing new
    legislation to give all workers an additional five days of leave per year
    (SE0206105F [2]). On 17 June 2003, it presented its final report (SOU 2003:54
    [3]), calling for a simplification of current rules on annual and other forms
    of leave for employees.


  • Article
    8 Jūlijs 2003

    In 2002, Poland's State Labour Inspection found that, overall, compliance by
    employers with labour law in terms of payment of remuneration and other
    employee benefits improved somewhat. However, the total value of unpaid wages
    and benefits rose sharply, in a context of economic difficulties for
    employers and the economy.

  • Article
    8 Jūlijs 2003

    In June 2003, Telefónica de España - the Spanish fixed telephony business
    of the Telefónica group - announced plans for a workforce reduction of
    around 11% in the short term, in order to deal with market difficulties and
    improve competitiveness. Negotiations are due to start on a redundancy
    procedure with trade unions.

  • Article
    7 Jūlijs 2003

    The reduction of working time has become a central bargaining demand for
    Hungarian trade unions at national level in recent years. In Hungary, regular
    working time is regulated virtually solely by the Labour Code, as its
    reduction is rarely an issue for sectoral or company-level collective
    agreements. The 40-hour statutory working week has not changed since 1992,
    though a minor decrease in annual working time took place in the 1990s owing
    to the introduction of new public holidays. Although the 2002 election
    programme of the Hungarian Socialist Party (Magyar Szocialista Párt,MSZP
    [1]), now the major party in the coalition government, made promises
    concerning the reduction of working time (HU0206101F [2]), until now the
    government has not acted on this issue.


  • Article
    7 Jūlijs 2003

    According to Latvian labour law, the minimum wage paid may not be lower than
    the minimum set by the government. The national minimum wage is not linked to
    any economically-based income indicator, with the cabinet determining the
    minimum wage for 'normal-time' employees and the minimum hourly rate on the
    basis of fiscal and social considerations. From a very low level - EUR 3.48
    in 1992 (1 LVL currently equals 0.661 EUR) - the monthly minimum wage has
    increased to EUR 105.9 in 2003. The government: raised the minimum wage twice
    in 1992 (to EUR 5.07 and EUR 11.35); doubled it in 1993 (to EUR 22.70);
    raised it twice in 1994 (to EUR 34.04 and EUR 42.36); increased it in 1996
    (to EUR 57.49), 1998 (to EUR 63.54), 1999 (to EUR 75.64) and 2001 (to EUR
    90.77); and set it at EUR 105.9 from 1 January 2003.

  • Article
    7 Jūlijs 2003

    A recent statement from the managing director of the Association of Employers
    in the Danish Building Industry (Dansk Byggeri) has angered trade unions
    represented in the building industry, the General Workers' Union
    (Specialarbejderforbundet i Danmark, SiD) and the Union of Wood, Industrial
    and Building Workers (Forbundet Træ-Industri-Byg, TIB). He stated that it
    would be a sign of bad management and leadership if Danish building industry
    employers did not take advantage of the opportunity to employ workers from
    Poland and the Baltic states after they join the European Union in 1 May
    2004. Such workers could be hired at the lowest wage laid down in the
    relevant collective agreement without any difficulty. Normally Danish workers
    are paid close to the double the sector's minimum wage of DKK 94 per hour
    because of local agreements and acquired bonus entitlements. Hiring a central
    or eastern European worker on the lowest possible wage might breach the
    spirit of the wage development agreed in collective bargaining, but would not
    be against any collectively agreed or legislative provision. The employers
    also state that Danish workers on a building site will not be able to demand
    that new recruits from eastern Europe be paid at the same rate as them.

  • Article
    7 Jūlijs 2003

    On 20 June 2003, Ireland’s 270 public health doctors, represented by the
    Irish Medical Organisation (IMO), returned to work after a 10-week strike
    over a demand for concrete proposals from their employers in relation to
    improved pay, status, and terms and conditions of employment (IE0305203F
    [1]). During this time, the dispute became increasingly bitter, as the
    parties’ positions remained polarised. However, the dispute has now been
    resolved by a 'return to work formula' accepted by IMO and the Health Service
    Employers Agency (HSEA). This formula is based on a complex set of proposals
    brokered by the Labour Relations Commission (LRC), under which pay increases
    due under the local pay bargaining clauses of previous national agreements
    and the implementation of the Brennan Review of public health (this review
    was established to examine the future of public health structures, and its
    report was published in April 2002), were referred to the Public Service
    Adjudication Board.


  • Article
    7 Jūlijs 2003

    Two major companies in the Belgian aeronautical industry, Sabca and Sonaca,
    have been forced by the sector's difficulties to restructure their
    activities. Plans announced by the two Wallonia-based companies in spring
    2003 will involve making several hundred workers redundant. The trade unions
    are demanding alternative solutions, and stepped up protest work stoppages
    during June.

  • Article
    7 Jūlijs 2003

    KEY-Finland [1] is the joint mission of the Finnish trade union
    confederations – the Central Organisation of Finnish Trade Unions (Suomen
    Ammattiliittojen Keskusjärjestö, SAK), the Confederation of Salaried
    Employees (Toimihenkilökeskusjärjestö, STTK) and the Confederation of
    Unions for Academic Professionals (AKAVA) – in Brussels. The current
    director of KEY-Finland, Jorma Skippari, leaves his position in summer 2004.
    Due to this, in June 2003 SAK, STTK, and AKAVA invited Jarmo Lähteenmäki,
    the president of the Finnish Paperworkers’ Union (Paperiliitto), to take up
    the position of director of KEY-Finland from 1 April 2004.


  • Article
    7 Jūlijs 2003

    On 24 June 2003, the Cologne Institute for Business Research (Institut der
    deutschen Wirtschaft Köln, IW) published the results of a survey [1] of 900
    firms with a total of 1.6 million employees, conducted in May 2003. The
    survey examined the vocational training situation in Germany. Whereas the
    Federal Labour Office (Bundesanstalt für Arbeit, BA) recently estimated that
    there would be a severe shortage of approximately 70,000 vocational training
    places in Germany in autumn 2003 (DE0305103F [2]), the IW results are more
    optimistic. According to the IW survey 'only' about 20,000 to 30,000 people
    are unlikely to find an apprenticeship place before new courses begin in the



  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

  • European Quality of Life Surveys

    The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.

Forthcoming publications