Literature review - Online moderately skilled click-work: Employment and working conditions

As part of Eurofound’s research activities on ‘work and employment in the digital age’, and more specifically its research strand related to platforms, this paper aims to provide a review of relevant literature on online micro-tasks. The literature selection mainly contains publications between 2011 and 2019. The paper aims to define online micro-tasks and give examples of the most relevant platforms and most commonly requested types of tasks. It focuses on the employment and working conditions of online micro-task workers, by defining their demographic profiles, discussing their motivation to do online micro-task work, reviewing their employment status and access to social protection, providing information on autonomy and earnings, evaluating their work

Eurofound (2019), Literature review – Online moderately skilled click-work: Employment and working conditions, Eurofound, Dublin.


  • Research publication
  • EU28, Other, Sub-Saharan Africa, United States
  • Yes
  • Online moderately skilled click work
  • Amazon Mechanical Turk, CrowdFlower, Microworkers
  • autonomy, flexibility and control, challenges, employment status, income, motivation, platform characteristics, skills and skills development, worker characteristics
  • English
  • Eurofound (Research institute)
  • Qualitative research
  • 2019
  • Open access
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