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  • Article
    27 Март 1997

    In a Communication published in March 1997, the European Commission calls for
    the modernisation, adaptation and improvement of social protection systems in
    the member states. It argues that these systems, most of which were
    established decades ago, no longer conform with the changing economic and
    social conditions of today's society. The Commission sees a particular need
    for social protection systems, which currently account for 28% of total EU
    GDP, to be adapted to:

  • Article
    27 Март 1997

    At the beginning of March the first steps were taken towards the creation of
    the first "European super union". One of Britain's biggest trade unions, the
    General, Municipal and Boilermakers' Union (GMB), signed a joint membership
    agreement with the German chemical workers' union. The deal between the GMB
    and IG Chemie-Papier-Keramik means that 1.8 million workers will be entitled
    to joint membership. Although the two unions may not provide the same
    services, UK workers in Germany can expect legal advice, support from
    representatives, and training facilities, while German workers in the UK can
    expect legal advice, health and safety information and financial benefits
    (Record DE9703206N [1]).


  • Article
    27 Март 1997

    Health and safety at work has arisen as a very serious matter of social
    concern over recent years and has become a focus of interest for both the
    state and the social institutions concerned. The magnitude and complexity of
    the problem and the need to find direct and effective solutions have induced
    both employers and employees to examine the problem of occupational hazards
    and conditions affecting the working environment in general. It is estimated
    that in Greece the national economy is burdened by GRD 20 billion a year due
    to accidents at work (excluding costs of medical care). The Social Insurance
    Foundation (IKA) alone receives 25,000 reports of accidents at work a year.
    The problem is even bigger if we add in the cost of occupational illnesses
    which remain undiagnosed, since these are ignored by the official statistics.

  • Article
    27 Март 1997

    The number of member companies of the Confederation of Norwegian Business and
    Industry (NHO) increased by around 2,000 during 1996. NHO aims for a further
    growth in membership towards the year 2000.

  • Article
    27 Март 1997

    The cause of the industrial unrest was the announcement by the ruling
    Conservative-Liberal coalition Government that it was planning to scale back
    annual subsidies for the - basically west - German hard coal (Steinkohle)
    industry dramatically. During the ensuing protests, Germany saw a human chain
    of more than 90 kilometres straight through the Ruhr coal heartland, and
    sympathy demonstrations from east German brown coal miners. Miners in the
    Ruhr and the Saar areas went on strike. Tens of thousands of miners took to
    the streets, occupied pits and town halls, and blocked roads as well as the
    Bonn headquarters of Chancellor Helmut Kohl's ruling Christian Democratic
    Party (CDU) and its coalition partner, the Free Democrat Party (FDP). In the
    days before the compromise, the protests of the rank and file seemed to get
    out of control of the miners' union, IG Bergbau und Energie (IGBE), and its
    chair, Hans Berger. For the first time in German post-war history, furious
    miners even entered the restricted area surrounding government buildings in
    Bonn where no public meetings or marches may be held. As an "act of
    solidarity with miners fighting for their existence" the Social Democratic
    Party (SPD) temporarily boycotted a meeting in which opposition and coalition
    politicians were discussing the reform of the German tax system. When the
    miners laid siege to Bonn, Chancellor Kohl temporarily put off talks with the
    union leaders to avoid having to negotiate under duress.

  • Article
    27 Март 1997

    The Government has published a working document, entitled "Maritime and ports
    policy at the approach of the 21st Century", for public debate. In the
    document it proposes a number of measures to deregulate dock work, and the
    National Federation of Dockers' Unions has criticised the lack of prior
    dialogue and is opposing the new proposals.

  • Article
    27 Март 1997

    The European Commission adopted its first annual report on equal
    opportunities between men and women in the European Union at its meeting on 5
    March 1997. The report: outlines the embodiment of equality principles in
    European Union policies; examines gender differences in the EU labour market;
    looks at Community actions to improve the interaction between work and family
    life; explores initiatives to aimed at achieving a greater involvement of
    women in decision-making bodies; outlines initiatives aimed a enabling women
    to exercise their rights; and provides an update on the recommendations of
    the 1995 Beijing Conference. Commenting on the publication of the report,
    commissioner for social affairs Padraig Flynn said that this was the first in
    what will be a series of annual reports covering the Union's policies on
    equal opportunities as a whole. Commissioner Flynn stated that the aim of the
    report was to give visible expression to EU policies on equal opportunities
    between men and women, to encourage debate on the progress achieved and
    policies to develop, and to act as a reference point for the Commission,
    member states and countries applying for membership of the Union.

  • Article
    27 Март 1997

    In recent years there has been increasing public concern over what is widely
    viewed as the spiralling remuneration of company directors. At a time when
    companies are keen to promote pay schemes based on performance, too often the
    links between directors' pay and performance are viewed as non-existent. In a
    report on director's remuneration publicised in March 1997, the IOD is keen
    to set the record straight. It argues that, although it recognises that
    directors' pay in the largest companies has been on average high, it has been
    relatively modest for those directors who work for small to medium-sized
    enterprises. In fact, the median pay increase for this group of directors in
    1996 was 4%, the equivalent of the increase in average earnings for all
    employees in that year.


  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.

  • European Working Conditions Telephone Survey 2021

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Developments in working life, industrial relations and working conditions in the EU

    This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

Forthcoming publications