Eurofound publishes its work in a range of publication formats to match audience needs and the nature of the output. These include flagship reports on a particular area of activity, research reports summarising the findings of a research project and policy briefs presenting policy pointers from research projects or facts and figures relevant to policy debates. Also included are blog articles, r...Read more
Eurofound publishes its work in a range of publication formats to match audience needs and the nature of the output. These include flagship reports on a particular area of activity, research reports summarising the findings of a research project and policy briefs presenting policy pointers from research projects or facts and figures relevant to policy debates. Also included are blog articles, regular articles on working life in Europe, presentations, working papers providing background material to ongoing or already concluded research, and reports arising from ad hoc requests by policymakers. Other corporate publications include annual reports, brochures and promotional publications. Web databases and online resources such as data visualisation applications are available in Data and resources.
The debate on the level of minimum pensions in Spain has been prominent
during summer 1999. Pressure from trade unions and others to increase these
pensions has been mounting against a background of some 3 million pensioners
living below the poverty line. The issue is also important in the context of
the forthcoming general election in spring 2000.
A new law introducing wide-ranging changes to the rules governing temporary
agency work in Portugal was published at the beginning of September 1999. The
law amends various aspects of the existing legal framework, dating from 1989.
The advantages of Denmark joining the third stage of EU Economic and Monetary
Union (EMU, or Den Økonomiske og Monetære Union, ØMU) far outweigh the
disadvantages. On the other hand, seen in the light of the economic policy
which Denmark has pursued since the end of the 1980s, it would not trigger
economic chaos if, following a new referendum, the Danes chose to remain
outside EMU. However, if they do, they will of course lose the advantages
connected with EMU.
In October 1999, the Health and Safety at Work Act (HASAWA) is 25 years old.
At the time of its adoption in 1974, the HASAWA was hailed as a landmark
piece of legislation that brought 8 million mainly public service workers
within the scope of the law and stimulated greater interest in health and
safety amongst employers and trade unions. Although the UK's health and
safety record compares favourably with most other EU countries, anniversary
celebrations are muted. There is a growing sense that the existing regulatory
framework is ill-adapted to the changing labour market of the late 1990s.
Whilst employers are anxious about whether they are complying with health and
safety requirements, employees and trade unions express concern about the
relatively few prosecutions for health and safety offences and the low levels
of fines imposed on employers when breaches of the HASAWA are proven.
In September 1999, a new national collective agreement for the Italian
commerce sector was signed. The agreement's provisions include: wage
increases; a working time reduction linked to flexibility; new part-time work
regulations; and new sickness and maternity leave regulations.
The International Transport Workers' Federation (ITF), with the support of
the European Transport Workers' Federation (ETF) have organised for 5 October
1999 a repeat of the day of action they held in September 1998 (EU9809127F
) under the banner /Fatigue kills/. The aim of the "international road
transport action day", in which over 100,000 drivers worldwide were due to
participate, was to highlight the health hazards to drivers and the general
public of excessively long working hours. The protest was intended to
underline the trade unions' demands for the limitation of working time to a
maximum of 48 hours per week in line with International Labour Organisation
Convention No. 153 on hours of work and rest periods (road transport) ,
through adoption of legislation at national level in each country. In Europe,
unions are demanding the implementation of European Commission proposals 
to legislate to limit working hours in road transport to an average of 48
hours per week (EU9901144F ). Working time negotiations between ETF and
the International Road Transport Union (IRU) had broken down in September
1999 (EU9809127F ).
In September 1999, the Dutch government presented proposals for a radical
reform of the tax system, whereby the tax base will be broadened, the tax
burden shifted and higher environmental taxes levied. The social partners
have generally been critical of the plan.
In September 1999, French MP Catherine Génisson submitted a report on
equality between women and men at work, commissioned by the Prime Minister.
The report, entitled "More mixing in the labour market for greater equality
between men and women", advocates various measures to ensure "real equality."
Since 1994, the first stage of reforming and gradually privatising the
federal railway system in Germany has been implemented. This has included the
transformation of the federal railways in eastern and western Germany into a
public company, Deutsche Bahn AG (DB), and its reorganisation into several
divisions free to operate competitively in the transport market under their
own responsibility. On 9 September 1999, DB presented a /Report on personnel
and social issues, 1994-8/ (Personal- und Sozialbericht 1994-8) which
describes important industrial relations and employment developments.
In September 1999, Greece's GSEE trade union confederation presented a
proposal calling for higher unemployment benefits. Despite legislative
provisions that the daily rate of benefit should not fall below two-thirds of
the average level of unskilled workers' wages, it is now worth less than
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2020. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in two rounds – in April and in July 2020. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.
This policy brief investigates the evolution of female labour market participation in the last decade and calculates the monetary cost of the persisting gender employment gap to Europe in that period. The analysis also highlights the disproportionate effects that the current COVID-19 crisis is having on working women and how this threatens decades of gains achieved in gender equality.
The long-term care (LTC) sector employs an increasing share of workers in the EU, with increasing shortages. The LTC workforce is mainly female and a relatively large and increasing proportion is 50 or older. Migrants are often concentrated in certain LTC jobs. This report maps the working conditions, the nature of employment and the role of collective bargaining in the sector. It also discusses policies to make the sector more attractive, combat undeclared work and to improve the situation of a particular vulnerable group of LTC workers: live-in carers.
Member States are autonomous when it comes to the design of their social protection systems. However, EU recommendations and treaties oblige them to address the convergence of these systems and policies with other Member States. At the same time, convergence may also come about as a result of economic integration and endeavours to reduce social imbalances. This report looks at the main long-term trends in social protection expenditure and performance across the Member States to assess the extent to which they are converging in this policy area.
Social, economic and technological changes are giving rise to new forms of employment. These differ from 'traditional' work either in the relationship between employer and employee or in the unconventional work patterns and places of work that characterise them. While these new forms of employment can contribute to more inclusive labour markets, legalise undeclared work and offer preferential working conditions, some also raise concerns about, for example, job quality and representation. This report updates Eurofound's 2015 mapping of emerging trends.
New digital technologies have expanded the possibilities of employee monitoring and surveillance, both in and outside the workplace. In the context of the increasing digitalisation of work, there are many issues related to employee monitoring that warrant the attention of policymakers. There are the often-cited privacy and ethical concerns but also important implications for worker–employer relations, as digitally enabled monitoring and surveillance inevitably shift power dynamics in the workplace.
How can working conditions be improved to make work more sustainable over the life course? This question has been the guiding principle for analysis of the 2015 European Working Conditions Survey data during the period of Eurofound’s work programme for 2017–2020. This flagship report brings together the different research strands from this work and gives a comprehensive answer to the question. It includes an analysis of trends in working conditions, examining whether these are the same for all workers or whether inequalities between different groups of workers are increasing.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the local and regional administration sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.
This flagship report consolidates findings in the industrial relations field from research conducted by Eurofound over the course of its multiannual work programme for 2017–2020. It considers the strengths and weaknesses of European social dialogue, including the linkages with national social dialogue and the capacity constraints of the actors. A national comparative analysis draws on projects that have mapped the key features of national industrial relations systems.
This report builds on Eurofound's existing research on social mobility, assessing the distribution and transmission of wealth in Member States. It examines the roles of inheritance and household debt in explaining the transmission of advantage or disadvantage between the generations across Member States. The analysis is based on Eurosystem's Household Finance and Consumption Survey (HFCS).
This report analyses the involvement of the national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, and their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs) and other key policy documents of the European Semester cycle.