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  • Article
    27 Септември 1999

    Since 1994, the first stage of reforming and gradually privatising the
    federal railway system in Germany has been implemented. This has included the
    transformation of the federal railways in eastern and western Germany into a
    public company, Deutsche Bahn AG (DB), and its reorganisation into several
    divisions free to operate competitively in the transport market under their
    own responsibility. On 9 September 1999, DB presented a /Report on personnel
    and social issues, 1994-8/ (Personal- und Sozialbericht 1994-8) which
    describes important industrial relations and employment developments.

  • Article
    27 Септември 1999

    In September 1999, Greece's GSEE trade union confederation presented a
    proposal calling for higher unemployment benefits. Despite legislative
    provisions that the daily rate of benefit should not fall below two-thirds of
    the average level of unskilled workers' wages, it is now worth less than
    half.

  • Article
    27 Септември 1999

    The Bank of Ireland and Ulster Bank, two of Ireland's largest banks, have
    concluded deals with the Irish Bank Officials' Association (IBOA) trade union
    on special "Millennium payments" for time worked on Millennium eve, 31
    December 1999, and the subsequent weekend. While the payments are largely
    aimed at information technology (IT) staff required to monitor the computer
    problems associated with the year 2000 "Millennium bug" (whereby some
    computers will be unable to deal with the change in date), they will apply to
    any non-IT staff who may also be needed. These are the among first agreements
    of significance to be negotiated in the Republic in advance of the Millennium
    weekend (IE9905279N [1]).

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/workers-submit-millennium-working-claims

  • Article
    27 Септември 1999

    The Council of Economic and Financial Affairs Ministers reached agreement on
    8 October 1999 on a Directive amending Directive 77/388/EEC on tax
    harmonisation [1], enabling Member States, on an experimental basis, to apply
    a reduced rate of value-added tax (VAT) on certain labour-intensive services.
    The new Directive was to be formally adopted at a subsequent Council meeting.

    [1] http://europa.eu.int/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexapi!prod!CELEXnumdoc&lg=en&numdoc=31977L0388&model=guichett

  • Article
    27 Септември 1999

    The 1999 annual conference of the UK's Trades Union Congress (TUC) took place
    on 13-16 September. The agenda covered a wide range of employment issues and
    featured speeches by a number of government ministers including the Prime
    Minister, Tony Blair, and the trade and industry secretary Stephen Byers.

  • Article
    27 Септември 1999

    In July 1999, during negotiations over the renewal of company agreements at
    the Meridiana airline, pilots and flight attendants staged Italy's first
    "virtual strike". During the four-hour "virtual strike", the employees worked
    as usual but without being paid, while Meridiana undertook to donate the
    receipts from the flights involved to humanitarian organisations. However,
    this use of such alternative forms of industrial action, as provided for by a
    December 1998 agreement for the transport sector, raises a series of
    technical problems. In the Meridiana case, the Minister of Transport will
    have to issue an arbitration award to define the obligations of the two
    sides, particularly as regards the sum to be paid by the company.

  • Article
    27 Септември 1999

    In September 1999, the Dutch Minister of Social Affairs opened the door to
    allowing individuals seeking asylum in the Netherlands to participate in the
    labour market, and the State Secretary of Justice is to present a plan for an
    adapted collective agreement to cover asylum-seekers. Small and medium-sized
    employers and the temporary agency work sector supported this idea, pointing
    to current labour shortages. The central employers' organisation, VNO-NCW,
    and the liberal VVD party, which is a member of the governing coalition, are
    opposed to asylum-seekers participating fully in the labour market.

  • Article
    27 Септември 1999

    Danish companies have access to one of Europe's most favourable selections of
    courses, guidance and educational planning schemes, which are paid for by the
    state. This includes adult vocational training schools (AMU centres), which
    spend somewhere in the region of DKK 2 billion a year on offering highly
    specialised courses designed to meet companies' needs. Trade and industry
    still has considerable influence on which courses these schools offer.

  • Article
    27 Септември 1999

    August 1999 saw the publication of legislation that will bring about sweeping
    changes in the system of penalties imposed in cases of violations of
    Portugal's labour law. The new system divides violations into categories
    according to their seriousness, and fines will vary according to whether
    there is gross neglect or intent, and the size of the enterprise.

  • Article
    27 Септември 1999

    Casual agricultural workers in Spain are covered by a separate system of
    unemployment protection. Trade union calls to include them in the general
    system have so far not borne fruit, and in spring and summer 1999, there have
    been mobilisations of agricultural workers in protest. The debate between
    supporters and detractors of a special protection regime for these workers
    has been reopened.

Series

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications