Casual agricultural workers in Spain are covered by a separate system of
unemployment protection. Trade union calls to include them in the general
system have so far not borne fruit, and in spring and summer 1999, there have
been mobilisations of agricultural workers in protest. The debate between
supporters and detractors of a special protection regime for these workers
has been reopened.
At its first summer conference, held in early September 1999, France's MEDEF
employers' organisation examined the major questions facing French society
and restated its opposition to legislation implementing the 35-hour working
On 6 September 1999, approximately 12 000 employees in the offshore
oil-production industry took strike action against the government's apparent
lack of initiative vis-à-vis the present crisis in the Norwegian oil sector.
There is growing uncertainty about the state of affairs in the sector, which
has generated a low rate of investments among oil companies operating on the
Norwegian continental shelf. As a consequence, significant increases in
unemployment are expected in the near future. The industries supplying oil-
and gas-related technology and products are already witnessing a crisis, with
empty order-books and approximately 4,000 employees made redundant or laid
off. The initiative to strike was taken by trade union representatives at
three large offshore companies, Aker Maritime, Kværner and Umoe Haugesund,
and followed two previous political strikes on 20 May and 1 June 1999.
Members of unions including the Norwegian United Federation of Trade Unions
(Fellesforbundet) and the Norwegian Oil and Petrochemical Workers Union
(Norsk Olje- og Petrokjemisk Fagforbund, NOPEF) took part in the strike,
which went ahead despite the government's proposed crisis package made public
on 3 September 1999.
At its annual conference held in September 1999 (UK9909128N ), the Trades
Union Congress (TUC) gave strong backing to a motion  urging the
government to prepare for early UK entry into the single European currency,
despite misgivings on the part of some major unions. Delegates voted for a
motion which supported the UK having "the option of actively pursuing [euro]
entry early in the new decade through action to bring the UK economic cycle
more closely into line with that of our EU partners".
At the beginning of September 1999, Italy's Radicals political party
announced that it had collected enough signatures to hold 20 referenda in
spring 2000, with the aim of repealing various legislative provisions. Many
of the issues covered by the referenda concern trade union or labour issues,
like the collection of trade union membership dues, or individual dismissal
procedures. The trade union confederations are firmly opposed to the
Radicals' initiative, which they regard as "anti-union".
Given an increasing amount of contracting out of public services and the
privatisation of state-owned corporations, and after a freeze on the new
employment of public servants which has so far lasted two years, it seems
there is no future for trade unions in solely organising public servants and
other employees in the public sector. The large public sector trade unions
have drawn this lesson and have, so to speak, moved with their old members
into the private sector, representing more and more private sector workers.
This has caused discord within the Danish Confederation of Trade Unions
(Landsorganisationen i Danmark, LO) (DK9709129F ).
In September 1999, the Dutch petroleum company, NAM, announced a sweeping
reorganisation that could cut 450 jobs from its 2,500-strong workforce. The
trade unions expressed their intention to fight the plan vigorously. NAM,
which is based in the Netherlands' northern provinces, provides a significant
portion of employment in the region and also generates employment outside the
company. Provincial authorities responded to the plan with disappointment.
Before Portugal's general election on 10 October 1999, the main political
parties set out their policies on social, employment and labour issues.
Themes such as employment creation, training and equal opportunities were
highlighted in nearly all party programmes.
The European Commission decided at the end of July 1999 to launch or pursue
proceedings against a number of Member States in relation to poor
implementation of Community Directives in the social field. This relates
particularly to the pregnant workers' Directive (92/85/EEC) , the
Directive on minimum health and safety requirements applicable to the use of
equipment by workers (89/655/EEC) , the transfer of undertakings Directive
(77/187/EEC , amended by 98/59/EC ) and Directives on collective
redundancies (now consolidated in 98/59/EC ).
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2020. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in two rounds – in April and in July 2020. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the live performance sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of Eurofound’s studies on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the field of industrial relations in the EU Member States.
This report investigates the convergence of Member States in various dimensions of living conditions. Indicators are drawn from the European Quality of Life Surveys and other surveys. The analysis pays special attention to particular subgroups such as young people and women. The analysis also investigates the key drivers of convergence in living conditions.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the overlaps between different parts of the public sector, especially with regard to social services. Firstly, the overlaps in terms of employment structures are analysed; secondly, the overlaps of all national sector-related organisations are assessed; and thirdly, the overlaps of the European social partner organisation are considered. The conclusions of this report should help decision-making regarding which ESSDC social services activities fit best in.
The European Jobs Monitor biannual report comprises two sections: one providing a jobs-based analysis of labour market developments, while the other has a thematic focus on shifts in the employment structure from both a gender and an age perspective. The age-based analysis examines how the age profile of employment has evolved since the crisis and explores whether employment continues to be more resilient in jobs with an older age profile. The gender analysis reassesses the findings of the jobs approach using more gender-disaggregated job-ranking data, based on both wage and education.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the civil aviation (groundcrew and air traffic control crew) sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.
The objective of this study is to examine the quality and effectiveness of the tripartite social dialogue practices involving national social partners aimed at addressing relevant reforms and particularly those adocpted as CSRs in the context of the European Semester. It also analyses the structural, political or operational reasons limiting or shaping the effective involvement of the social partners in these processes.