Eurofound publishes its work in a range of publication formats to match audience needs and the nature of the output. These include flagship reports on a particular area of activity, research reports summarising the findings of a research project and policy briefs presenting policy pointers from research projects or facts and figures relevant to policy debates. Also included are blog articles, r...Read more
Eurofound publishes its work in a range of publication formats to match audience needs and the nature of the output. These include flagship reports on a particular area of activity, research reports summarising the findings of a research project and policy briefs presenting policy pointers from research projects or facts and figures relevant to policy debates. Also included are blog articles, regular articles on working life in Europe, presentations, working papers providing background material to ongoing or already concluded research, and reports arising from ad hoc requests by policymakers. Other corporate publications include annual reports, brochures and promotional publications. Web databases and online resources such as data visualisation applications are available in Data and resources.
Decree-Law 119/99 of 14 April 1999, which came into effect on 1 July,
outlines a new legal framework for unemployment benefits under the general
social security regime. It applies to all non self-employed workers.
On 6 June 1999, in discussions chaired by the Chancellor, Gerhard Schröder,
the German federal government and the collective bargaining parties in the
construction industry - the German Building, Agriculture and Environmental
Union (IG Bauen-Agrar-Umwelt, IG BAU) and the employers' associations,
Hauptverband der Deutschen Bauindustrie (HDB) and Zentralverband des
Deutschen Baugewerbes (ZDB) - reached an agreement on the principles of a new
regulation of the bad-weather allowance (Schlechtwettergeld).
In mid-June 1999, a report from the National Economic and Social Council
(NESC) setting out the strategic choices facing Ireland's social partners in
the first few years of the new millennium was leaked to the Dublin-based
daily newspaper, the /Irish Independent/. The report, expected to be formally
published in September 1999, sets out the central issues which the NESC
believes need to be tackled in any follow-on national programme to replace
Ireland's current three-year national agreement, Partnership 2000  (P2000)
(IE9702103F ). Pay formation, a central element in any new agreement, is
highlighted in the draft report, a copy of which has also been seen by EIRO's
Irish national centre. The various NESC three-year strategy documents which
have been published since its influential 1986 /Strategy for development/
report have been key landmarks in the run up to centralised negotiations. The
NESC is made up of representatives of the various social partner
A new Act, defining the working and employment conditions in Swedish labour
law which apply when an employer established in another country posts
employees on a temporary basis to Sweden, was accepted by parliament on 20
May 1999. It will come into force 16 December 1999, in line with the
provisions of the EU Directive concerning the posting of workers in the
framework of the provision of services (96/71/EC) . Under the legislation,
certain rules in Swedish labour law must be applied to posted workers -
covering paid holidays, working time, the work environment, protection for
pregnant women and women with new-born children, rotection for young workers
under 18 years of age and bans on discrimination. The employer is free to
provide more favourable terms to the employee than laid down in the Directive
if it so wishes.
A new trade union organisation for Norwegian postal workers may soon become a
reality, after dual membership ballots, held on 6 May 1999, produced a large
majority in favour of merging the Norwegian Union of Postal Employees (Den
norske Postorganisasjon, DNP) and the Norwegian Union of Postal Workers
(Norsk Postforbund, NPF). Both organisations are member unions of the
Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions (Landsorganisasjonen i Norge, LO).
DNP has traditionally organised white-collar workers, while NPF has drawn its
members mainly from blue-collar workers. The new organisation will comprise
approximately 30,000 employees in the Norwegian postal service, and will
become operative from 1 July 2000.
In May 1999, France's Ministry for Employment and Solidarity published an
initial progress report on the 1998 law on the 35-hour working week, aimed at
fueling discussions on the second law on the issue, which is to be voted on
by the end of 1999. On 21 June, Martine Aubry, the Minister concerned,
publicly announced the principal outlines of the proposed second law. She
plans a one-year transition period between the law being passed and its
coming into effect, while her comments have triggered a debate on the
legitimacy of the agreements on working time signed by minority trade unions.
Worker representatives and the management of Michelin in Spain have used
collective bargaining to adapt prevailing legislation to their own
circumstances, by creating a contractual formula half way between the
full-time and the part-time employment contract. The result, agreed in June
1998, is a permanent contract that allows full-time workers to be switched to
part-time work in line with production requirements. The agreement stresses
the participation of worker representatives in this process. The agreement
permitted 400 new permanent contracts to be signed by June 1999.
Ireland's largest trade union, SIPTU, and the Danish-owned multinational
cleaning company, ISS, have concluded a formal "partnership" agreement,
believed to be the first of its kind within the industry, it was reported in
June 1999. The company has been in business for almost 100 years, starting as
a small security operation in Denmark, and is currently a major Europe-wide
company, with important operations in Asia and South America, and has over
100,000 employees worldwide. When ISS established its European Works Council
in 1995, it was one of the first such bodies in the services sector to
include representation from Ireland. ISS is the second-largest contract
cleaning company in Ireland but it has a very high rate of turnover among its
2,500 staff, which it is urgently seeking to address. The new agreement,
which is also aimed at staff retention, is likely to be examined by other
firms with high staff turnover problems.
A new Bill presented to parliament on 6 May 1999 provides a new definition of
"occupational healthcare" in the Swedish Work Environment Act
(arbetsmiljölagen, /SFS 1977:1160, 2b§/
). It states that the employer should be responsible for making arrangements
for all kinds of occupational healthcare required by the working conditions
at the specific workplace. By "occupational healthcare", the law means an
independent expert resource in the areas of the work environment and
rehabilitation. Occupational healthcare should be designed so as to prevent
health risks in workplaces and to outline the links between the work
environment, organisation, productivity and health. The new paragraph will
become operative from 1 January 2000.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2020. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in two rounds – in April and in July 2020. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
While often considered staid, social partner organisations have developed different ways of using technology to communicate with their members, as well as to organise, mobilise and develop both internally, among staff, and externally, vis-à-vis members and the public. This topical update maps current practices in social partner organisations, describes developments in the use of technologies, and outlines the impact on social partner activities and organisation.
Based on data from the European Company Survey 2019, this policy brief investigates associations between innovation and the implementation of workplace practices in companies. It examines the characteristics of innovative companies and the associations between their workplace practices and performance and well-being. It also investigates differences between workplace practices of innovative and non-innovative companies. Data gathered from case studies is used to shed light on the motives and processes of innovative companies.
This report sets out the major findings of the European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) 2020, the seventh edition of this survey. Based on interviews with approximately 45,000 workers in 37 European countries, the EWCS 2020 looks at different aspects of their working life – working time, work organisation, work–life balance and work-related health issues. The survey provides up-to-date and objective data to policymakers and researchers on working conditions and the quality of work and employment in Europe, to help improve working lives for all people at work.
What have been the major trends and policy developments regarding digitalisation in Europe? What do we know about the deployment of automation, digitisation and the platform economy? This flagship publication provides an overview of developments in Europe in recent years, as well as mapping the observable or expected effects on employment and working conditions, as well as exploring the implications from a policy perspective.
This flagship report incorporates updated data on trends and all the main findings produced over the course of Eurofound’s research on upward convergence in the EU. Specifically, it provides an overarching and comprehensive discussion on convergence in the dimensions of employment, working conditions, living conditions and other socioeconomic factors.
Based on data from the European Company Survey 2019, this report aims to offer a better understanding of how skills mismatches are related with skills strategies, approaches to and challenges in recruitment, and other workplace practices with regard to work organisation, human resource management and employee involvement. The report will also look at the assocations of skills mismatches with workplace well-being and establishment performance.
The issue of regional convergence and whether disadvantaged regions are catching up with wealthier regions continues to attract enormous attention in the policy debate. This report presents the findings of an investigation into the evolution of social imbalances across EU regions over time, based on indicators including unemployment, social exclusion and poverty. It also examines various aspects of the relationship between growth, regional disparities and interpersonal inequalities.
This report investigates the convergence of Member States in various dimensions of living conditions. Indicators are drawn from the European Quality of Life Surveys and other surveys. The analysis pays special attention to particular subgroups such as young people and women. The analysis also investigates the key drivers of convergence in living conditions.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the live performance sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of Eurofound’s studies on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the field of industrial relations in the EU Member States.
The European Jobs Monitor biannual report comprises two sections: one providing a jobs-based analysis of labour market developments, while the other has a thematic focus on shifts in the employment structure from both a gender and an age perspective. The age-based analysis examines how the age profile of employment has evolved since the crisis and explores whether employment continues to be more resilient in jobs with an older age profile. The gender analysis reassesses the findings of the jobs approach using more gender-disaggregated job-ranking data, based on both wage and education.