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research projects or facts and figures relevant to policy debates. Also included are blog articles, regular articleson working life in Europe, presentations, working papers providing background material to ongoing or already concluded research, and reports arising from ad hoc requests by policymakers. Other corporate publications include annual reports, brochures and promotional publications. Web databases and online resources such as data visualisation applications are available in Data and resources.
Youth unemployment is an increasingly critical issue in Portugal despite
improving levels of educational attainment. A survey of 15–34 year-olds by
Statistics Portugal in the second quarter of 2009 found that the average age
of leaving formal education was 19 years-old. Over 90% of respondents who
were not still studying were in a job lasting more than three months. The
average time taken to find the first job was 20.4 months (excluding those who
did work while at school).
The influence of parenting on the well-being and future opportunities of children is widely acknowledged, but it is only recently that parenting support and education have come to be viewed as a social investment that contributes towards reducing parental stress and helping parents to manage their work–life balance. European Member States provide support for parenting in many different ways, from very practical medical-based interventions such as support with breastfeeding, to programmes that aim to increase the confidence and self-esteem of parents and thus improve their relationship with their children. This report gives an up-to-date overview of the main elements of parenting support services and the structure of services across Europe. It includes more detailed information about parenting support in seven Member States: Austria, Belgium, Estonia, Hungary, Ireland, Portugal and Sweden. The report summarises common challenges faced by all providers of parenting support, and concludes with policy recommendations based on what has been observed to work in different countries.
The biggest employer in air transport, Czech Airlines (ČSA ), had a
workforce of around 1,000 in 2011. Czech Railways (ČD ), the largest
employer in the railway transport sector, had 26,400 workers in 2012. The two
companies successfully concluded collective agreements with union
organisations in December 2012.
The annual Norwegian wage settlement negotiations came to an end in December
when the National Wages Board (Rikslønnsnemnda ) ruled on the final two
industrial conflicts in the 2012 bargaining round. Rulings were made on
collective agreements for security personnel and for private nursing homes.
Strikes among employees in the North Sea oil industry also ended in
In May 2012, the Norwegian Government  approved a new regulation (in
Norwegian)  for the accreditation of cleaning companies. The accreditation
scheme came into force in September 2012, and requires all companies
providing cleaning services to Norwegian companies to be approved by the
Labour Inspectorate (Arbeidstilsynet ).
Struggling steelmaking giant ArcelorMittal , which operates in 60
countries and employs around 260,000 people worldwide, had a difficult 2012
in Luxembourg where it employs 3,000 workers. Despite uncertainties
surrounding the future of ArcelorMittal’s sites in Luxembourg, and after
several months of negotiations, early in the year there had been some
progress with social partners in the steelmaking sector and the government.
On 28 March 2012, a newspaper article (in French)  said that a tripartite
memorandum of understanding had been signed setting out a plan to tackle
growing economic problems.
In December 2012, the Norwegian Government  set up a public committee to
review wage formation in Norwegian working life. The tripartite committee was
chaired by Professor of Economics at the University of Oslo , Steinar
Holden. All the major employer and employee organisations were represented on
the committee by their economics experts. The committee said in a press
release (in Norwegian)  it planned to have its recommendations ready by
December 15, 2013, well in advance of the wage settlements of spring 2014.
The irregular and delayed payment of wages is a problem that has dogged
periods of transition and economic reform in Bulgaria, but it is especially
acute in times of crisis. The Bulgarian Government seems to have had a
significant impact on the worsening of the situation. Wages have not been
paid regularly in state-owned companies such as Irrigation Systems EAD and
military engineering plant Sopot EAD. The Government also owes money to
companies in the private sector.
In March 2012, new research claimed youth unemployment in Bulgaria was much
higher than figures from the National Statistical Institute (NSI )
suggested. The findings came from a report by research agency Mediana ,
which specialises in political, marketing and social surveys. It presented
the main results in its study Unemployment in Bulgaria – factors, type of
unemployment, state policy, programmes, effectiveness of measures, and
problem identification (in Bulgarian, 665Kb PDF) .
A National Bank of Poland report (in Polish, 1.2Mb PDF)  examined wage
pressure on Polish companies using studies conducted among the unemployed and
employers, based on two representative samples. The first involved 4,752
respondents, and the second 4,971. They included a random sample of 1,152
firms and a purposive sample of 1,145 firms. The study is inspired by a job
search and matching perspective.