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research projects or facts and figures relevant to policy debates. Also included are blog articles, regular articleson working life in Europe, presentations, working papers providing background material to ongoing or already concluded research, and reports arising from ad hoc requests by policymakers. Other corporate publications include annual reports, brochures and promotional publications. Web databases and online resources such as data visualisation applications are available in Data and resources.
The book /Invisible Portugal/, published in 2010 and reprinted in 2012,
includes a chapter called ‘Is Undeclared Work Invisible?’ This chapter
explores the relationship between regular employment and undeclared work. It
identifies a range of possible motives for undeclared work, and show how they
impact on several areas of Portuguese life. A new study, based on the 2007
Eurobarometer survey on Undeclared Work in the European Union (1Mb PDF) ,
examines a number of key issues across the EU Member States and compares
Portugal to other countries.
Since its first edition in 2005, the PLUS (Participation, Labour and
Unemployment Survey) (in Italian) , carried out by the Institute of
Training and Labour Studies (Isfol ), has been among the richest sources
of information relating to gender differences in the labour market in Italy.
It is especially useful for information regarding the gender pay gap
On 18 January 2013, at a sitting of the Economic and Social Council of
Slovenia (ESS ), the Government and the social partners decided that from
1 January 2013, until 31 December 2013, the minimum wage in Slovenia would be
€783.66 – an increase of 2.7%. The Minister for Labour was given the
go-ahead to publish the new minimum wage in the official Gazette of the
Republic of Slovenia (in Slovenian)  at end of January 2013.
In December 2012, the UK Government confirmed that it intended to make
changes to existing statutory provisions requiring consultation over
redundancies. The principal change would be to reduce the current 90-day
minimum consultation period to 45 days for large scale redundancies affecting
more than 100 employees.
On 6 November 2012, the Greek Government – formed by a three-party
coalition of New Democracy , PASOK  and Democratic Left  –
submitted the third package of austerity measures to the Hellenic Parliament
 for approval. This third memorandum document was called Approval of the
medium-term fiscal strategy framework 2013–2016 – Urgent measures for the
implementation of Law 4046/2012 and the medium-term fiscal strategy framework
On 2 February 2012, Luxembourg’s Minister of Social Security, Mars Di
Bartolomeo, presented the government’s draft reform (in French, 905Kb PDF)
 of the state pension system. According to the proposals, the burden of
financing the pension system would be shared between the workers, employers
and the state.
The economic and financial crisis of 2008–2010 has impacted on pay in most EU Member States leading to wage deceleration, pay freezes and sometimes pay cuts. The crisis hit vulnerable groups (low-skilled, young, migrants) particularly hard. Data from five key sectors (manufacturing, construction,
accommodation and food services, financial services, public administration) reveal more crisis effects on employment than on wages. Cuts in low-paid and temporary jobs, or reductions in their hours, tended to be the first measure adopted while the ‘wage cushion’ often seen in higher-ranking jobs allowed cost savings through cuts in bonuses and other rewards. Cutting wages is also seen as detrimental to worker motivation and retention. Most responses taken were temporary with few trade-offs at company level between wages and other elements of the employment relationship.
The role of cooperatives as a mainstay of the social economy in Bulgaria was
discussed at an international conference held in Sofia on 4 December 2012 to
mark the conclusion of the 2012 UN International Year of Cooperatives. The
event was attended by social partners, representatives of non-governmental
organisations (NGOs), experts and academics. Discussions involved members of
parliament (MPs), experts from the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy, and
managers of cooperatives and associations.
When the liberal Civil Platform (PO ) won the parliamentary elections in
2007, trade unions feared the marginalisation of social dialogue .
However, the coalition government – made up of PO and the peasant Polish
People’s Party (PSL ) – attached more importance to social dialogue
 than the previous government of Law and Justice (PiS ).
On 8 October 2012, the UK’s Chancellor of the Exchequer, George Osborne,
unexpectedly announced that the Conservative -Liberal Democrat 
Coalition Government intended to establish a new type of employment status
– that of ‘employee owner’. The plan was unveiled at the Conservative
Party’s annual conference. Employee owners would receive shares in the
business they worked for, which would be exempt from capital gains tax. In
return they would forgo a series of statutory employment rights, including
protection against unfair dismissal.