21 Мај 2020
Lowering youth unemployment, and aiming to effectively engage as many of Europe’s young people as possible in the world of work, is at the heart of the EU policy agenda. The economic crisis has led to high levels of youth unemployment and thus disengagement among young people.Read more
Lowering youth unemployment, and aiming to effectively engage as many of Europe’s young people as possible in the world of work, is at the heart of the EU policy agenda. The economic crisis has led to high levels of youth unemployment and thus disengagement among young people. In light of this, researchers and government officials have sought new ways of monitoring and analysing the prevalence of labour market vulnerability and disengagement among young people.
The term NEET is used to describe young people not in employment, education or training.Read less
EYE Online - Eurofound panel debate: Being young during the COVID-19 crisis - Impact on work, life and well-being
The concept has been widely used as an indicator to inform youth-oriented policies on employability, education, training and also social inclusion in the 28 EU Member States since 2010.Read more
The concept has been widely used as an indicator to inform youth-oriented policies on employability, education, training and also social inclusion in the 28 EU Member States since 2010.
NEETs were specifically referred to for the first time in European policy discussions in the Europe 2020 flagship initiative ‘Youth on the move’. The age category covered by the term was 15–24 and was later broadened to include those aged 15–29. The concept is now centrally embedded in the policy discourse at EU level. Currently, 14.2% of the population aged 15–29 are NEETs.
In April 2013, the European Commission’s proposal to the Council of the European Union to implement a Youth Guarantee in all Member States was adopted. Reducing the number of NEETs is an explicit policy objective of the Youth Guarantee. This initiative aims to ensure that all young people aged 15–24 receive a good-quality offer of employment, continued education, apprenticeship or traineeship within four months of becoming unemployed or leaving formal education. The roll-out of the Youth Guarantee across Member States, via the Youth Employment Initiative, has contributed to improving the situation on the ground, reducing the number of NEETs.
More recently, on 7 December 2016, the European Commission launched the initiative 'Investing in Europe's Youth', a renewed effort to support young people. Given the positive impact of the Youth Guarantee to date, the Commission aims to boost and extend the finances available for the Youth Employment Initiative until 2020 to encourage more effective outreach to young people.Read less
With Youth Guarantee implementation, the number of NEETs aged 15–29 has slightly decreased, from around 14 million at the height of the crisis to 12.5 million in 2016 (14.2Read more
With Youth Guarantee implementation, the number of NEETs aged 15–29 has slightly decreased, from around 14 million at the height of the crisis to 12.5 million in 2016 (14.2%). However, Eurofound research still estimates the significant loss to European economies to be around €142 billion a year (2015) – in benefits and forgone earnings and taxes. This has a significant impact on the economic and social development of the EU.
To date, Eurofound has pioneered extensive research on NEETs (see publications below) and has:
- performed the first EU comparative analysis on NEETs
- explained who NEETs are
- estimated the economic costs of NEETs
- investigated the social consequences of being NEETs
- estimated risk factors of falling into the NEET category
- investigated the effectiveness of policies for reintegrating NEETs
- monitored Youth Guarantee implementation.
Diversity of NEETs
As part of this research, Eurofound has sought to unravel the heterogeneity of the NEET population. The latest study on the diversity of NEETs provides a new categorisation into seven subgroups in order to better understand the composition of this group of young people. The aim is to better assist policymakers in understanding who the NEETs are and to assist the design of adequate support measures to meet a wide variety of needs. Each of these groups is made up of a mix of vulnerable and non-vulnerable young people who are not accumulating human capital through formal channels, whether voluntarily or involuntarily.
- Publication: Exploring the diversity of NEETs
- Publication: Exploring the diversity of NEETs: Country profiles – Providing a snapshot of the NEET situation at Member State level, the profiles look at trends in youth unemployment and NEET numbers, the compositions of the NEET group and their risk of social exclusion.
Other research topics
In addition to the above study, in recent years Eurofound has explored (see publications below):
- the characteristics and values of youth entrepreneurship
- how to engage the ‘missing middle’: young people with second-level education who do not follow academic routes into higher education
- the social inclusion of young people
- youth transitions in the labour market
- the rise in temporary employment among young people and access to social protection
- working conditions of young entrants to the labour market
- recent policy developments related to NEETs.
Key outputs over the years
Publications & dataTop
The sections below provide access to a range of publications, data and ongoing work on this topic.
- Publications (51)
- Ongoing work (1)
Eurofound publications come in a variety of formats, including reports, policy briefs, blogs, articles and presentations.
EYE Online - Eurofound panel debate: Being young during the COVID-19 crisis - Impact on work, life and well-beingEvent 28 Мај 2020
Informal Meeting of Employment, Social Policy, Health and Consumer Affairs Council (EPSCO) - Employment & Social PolicyEvent 17 Април 2018
A selection of related data on this topic are linked below.
- Infographic: NEETs infographic 2012
Research continues in this topic on a variety of themes, which are outlined below with links to forthcoming titles.
Other ongoing work
- Policy brief on underemployment, long-term unemployment and in-work poverty