Self-employed or not self-employed? Working conditions of ‘economically dependent workers’ - Background paper
29 September 2013
In recent years, practices such as outsourcing and contracting-out have increasingly blurred the boundaries between dependent employment and self-employment. A new group of workers has emerged, which comprises workers who are formally ‘self-employed’, but present some characteristics of employees. These ‘economically dependent workers’ usually have a commercial contract (or ‘service contract’) rather than an employment contract; they are therefore registered as self-employed when in reality their working conditions have a lot in common with those of employees. The purpose of this short exploratory paper is to investigate the position of these economically dependent workers and to find out whether overall their working conditions are more similar to those of the self-employed or to those of employees. This exercise builds on data from the 2010 wave of the European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS).
26 August 2012
In 2001, the Foundation carried out a survey on working conditions in 12 candidate countries: Bulgaria, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia. The questionnaire-based survey is identical to the three working conditions surveys carried out in the EU Member States in 1990, 1995 and 2000, allowing for comparisons to be drawn between these two groups of countries. This leaflet presents the main findings of the candidate countries’ survey.
05 June 2012
Work plays a significant role in the lives of people, companies and society at large. Since its inception, the European Union has paid considerable attention to work, and improving working conditions is one of its key policy goals. The European Working Conditions Survey series (the ‘EWCS’) aims to: Measure working conditions across European countries on a harmonised basis; analyse relationships between different aspects of working conditions; identify groups at risks and issues of concern, as well as areas of progress; monitor trends over time; and contribute to European policy development, in particular on quality of work and employment issues. This report analyses the findings of the fifth European Working Conditions Survey, carried out in 2011-2012.
03 December 2007
EU policymakers recognise that improving working conditions is crucial to achieving a better quality of work, greater productivity and increased employment – the Lisbon objectives. In this context, the Foundation’s European Working Conditions Surveys, conducted every five years, have been providing a valuable insight into key aspects of work since 1990. This report analyses the findings of the fourth survey, carried out in autumn 2005 across 31 countries, including the 27 EU Member States. Based on workers’ responses, it paints a broad and varied picture of the physical, intellectual and psychological dimensions of work and its impact on personal fulfilment and work-life balance.
17 October 2003
The Foundation carried out its Third European Working Conditions Survey in the 15 Member States of the European Union (EU) in 2000. In 2001, the survey was extended to cover the 12 acceding and candidate countries and the following year the survey included Turkey. Working conditions in the acceding and candidate countries provides the first important benchmark of the situation in all 13 countries. Gauging the status on issues ranging from stress in the workplace to types of employment or working hours, the report attempts to portray a realistic picture of the working environment of these countries as they take this critical step towards an enlarged Europe.