Publications

Search results: 931 items found
  • Article
    27 desember 1997

    Meeting in Brussels on 15 December 1997, the Council of Labour and Social
    Affairs Ministers unanimously adopted a Directive to implement the framework
    agreement on part-time work [1] concluded by the Union of Industrial and
    Employers' Confederations of Europe (UNICE), the European Centre of
    Enterprises with Public Participation and of Enterprises of General Economic
    Interest (CEEP) and the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) on 6 June
    1997 (EU9706131F [2]). This agreement aims to institute the principle of
    non-discrimination for part-time workers and to facilitate the development of
    part-time work on a voluntary basis and to contribute to the flexible
    organisation of working time in a manner which takes into account the needs
    of employers and workers. It also seeks to ensure that the equal treatment of
    part-time workers in terms of pay (pro rata) and working conditions is
    applied, unless there are "objective reasons" for differential treatment.
    Clause 5 of the agreement calls upon Member States to review any obstacles
    which may limited opportunities for part-time work and, where appropriate, to
    eliminate them.

    [1] http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/soc-dial/social/parttime_en.htm
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined/social-partners-reach-framework-agreement-on-part-time-work

  • Article
    27 desember 1997

    Following the special Jobs Summit [1] which took place in Luxembourg on 20-21
    November 1997 (EU9711168F [2]), the European Commission adopted a final
    proposal for Guidelines for Member States' employment policies for 1998 [3]
    on 3 December 1997. The proposal, which was adopted by the Council of Labour
    and Social Affairs Ministers on 15 December 1997 (EU9712175N [4]), launches
    the European employment strategy agreed at the Amsterdam European Council
    meeting in June 1997 (EU9706133N [5]). These guidelines now have to be
    incorporated into national employment action plans drawn up by the Member
    States in the form of national objectives. Member States are committed to
    submitting these plans in time for their examination by the European Council
    meeting to take place in Cardiff in June 1998. The implementation of these
    guidelines will be monitored regularly and an annual report will be produced
    by the Commission. This approach draws on the existing practice of
    multiannual surveillance established after the December 1994 Essen summit, to
    monitor the implementation of the recommendation drawn up at that meeting.

    [1] http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/elm/summit/en/home.htm
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined/employment-summit-agrees-limited-package-of-measures-to-combat-unemployment
    [3] http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/elm/summit/en/papers/guide2.htm
    [4] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/social-affairs-council-adopts-directive-to-implement-part-time-work-agreement
    [5] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/amsterdam-summit-agrees-new-draft-treaty

  • Article
    27 desember 1997

    The European Commission has long emphasised the importance of small and
    medium-sized enterprises (SME s) in job creation. The recently published 1997
    annual report [1] by theEuropean Observatory for SMEs [2] shows a complex
    picture in terms of the employment impact of SMEs. According to the report,
    there are over 19 million enterprises active in the non-primary private
    sector in Europe (including Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland).
    Of these, around 99.8% fall into the EU classification of SMEs. Based on the
    analysis of trends between 1988 and 1997, the report suggests that during the
    1990-3 recession, the decline in employment was greater in large or
    medium-sized companies than in SMEs, thus suggesting that larger enterprises
    are more vulnerable to fluctuations in the business cycle. However,
    employment figures in SMEs nevertheless declined to 110 million persons. The
    report shows that while employment remains more stable in SMEs during periods
    of recession, in times of economic recovery, employment growth tends to be
    concentrated in the larger enterprises. SMEs were found to create more jobs
    than large enterprises, but they equally destroy more jobs. Significantly,
    the net rate of employment growth tends to be the same for enterprises of
    different sizes.

    [1] http://europa.eu.int/en/comm/dg23/download/eurobsen.pdf
    [2] http://europa.eu.int/en/comm/dg23/guide_en/eurobs.htm

  • Article
    27 desember 1997

    In the context of the special Employment Summit [1] held in Luxembourg on
    20-21 November 1997, the European Centre of Enterprises with Public
    Participation and of Enterprises of General Economic Interest (CEEP) issued
    an "opinion on employment policies in Europe". In the document CEEP outlines
    its priorities in the area of employment policy, with the aim of creating
    more jobs and achieving a more even balance between the economic and social
    aspects of the EU single market.

    [1] http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/elm/summit/en/home.htm

  • Article
    27 desember 1997

    EUROCADRES (the Council for European Professional and Managerial Staff)
    represents over 4 million professional and managerial staff in Europe who are
    members of trade unions affiliated to the European Trade Union Confederation.
    The organisation hosted a conference on 2-3 December 1997 to showcase what it
    sees as the underpublicised problem of long working hours among Europe's
    managers. Trends in working hours for these workers, who are potentially
    excluded from the coverage of much of the 1993 EU Directive on certain
    aspects of the organisation of working time (93/104/EC [1]), have run counter
    to the general trend towards a reduction of working hours. The conference,
    which was attended by 150 individuals from among EUROCADRES' member
    organisations and other European and national social partner organisations
    and institutions, focused on the findings of a report on /Professional
    employees' working hours in Europe/ produced by Jean-Yves Boulin (University
    of Paris-Dauphine) and Robert Plasman (Free University of Brussels).

    [1] http://europa.eu.int/comm/sg/scadplus/leg/en/cha/c10405.htm

  • Article
    27 desember 1997

    Measures to improve the working environment and the health and safety of the
    workforce have been the cornerstone of the European social dimension since
    the inception of the European Communities. Articles 117 and 118 of the Treaty
    of Rome called for the Community to be instrumental in achieving the
    improvement of living and working conditions in the Member States. These
    provisions were strengthened under Article 118A [1] of the Single European
    Act (which came into force in 1987), and a Directive [2] on the introduction
    of measures to encourage improvements in the safety and health of workers at
    the workplace (89/391/EEC) was subsequently adopted by the Labour and Social
    Affairs Council in June 1989. This framework Directive, intended as a
    spearhead for other individual Directives, lays down fundamental requirements
    for health and safety at work, including the obligations of employers and
    workers, the establishment and maintenance of prevention, protection and
    emergency services at the workplace, comprehensive information and training
    and consultation of workers in all matters relating to health and safety. The
    adoption of the framework Directive led to a spate of Community legislation
    on health and safety related issues between 1989 and 1992. The individual
    Directives fall into three main categories. They aim to:

    [1] http://www.europa.eu.int/abc/obj/treaties/en/entr6d08.htm#Article_118a
    [2] http://europa.eu.int/comm/sg/scadplus/leg/en/cha/c11113.htm

  • Article
    27 desember 1997

    In recent years the Spanish economy has undergone a process of recovery.
    After the recession of the early 1990s, a cycle of growth began, parallel to
    that of other countries in the European Union. In 1997, GDP rose by 3.4% -
    compared with 2.1% in 1994, 2.8% in 1995 and 2.1% in 1996. This was mainly
    due to the increase in domestic consumption, investment and industrial
    activity and the resurgence of construction. The prospects for growth in 1998
    are also optimistic, with forecasts of around 3.6%. This has been
    particularly helped by the fall in inflation, which at 2.1% in 1997, was the
    lowest for 30 years. This low inflation rate has led to a reduction in
    interest rates, which were very high in the 1980s. The public deficit has
    also been reduced through restrictive budgets and privatisation of public
    companies (ES9709123N [1]). The public deficit stood at 2.6% of GDP in 1997.
    According to Eurostat figures, the unemployment rate stood at 20.8% in 1997,
    compared with 22.2% in 1996 and 24.3% in 1995. The number of those in
    employment increased by about 371,000 in 1997 in comparison with 1996.
    Nevertheless, fewer jobs were created than in the previous year, despite
    greater economic growth.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/a-new-step-in-the-privatisation-of-the-industrial-public-sector-in-spain

  • Article
    27 desember 1997

    In late 1997, the International Monetary Fund once more asked Spain for
    greater flexibility in its labour market, but stated that it should be based
    on social dialogue. The Prime Minister and several of his ministers have
    stated their support for the introduction of such a new reform, but the trade
    unions are radically opposed to any changes until the results of 1997's
    "April agreements" have been analysed.

  • Article
    27 desember 1997

    In late 1997, the Committee on Freedom of Association of the International
    Labour Organisation (ILO) issued a report favourable to the pay claims of
    Spanish civil servants.