Spain: Developments in collectively agreed pay 2013

  • Observatory: EurWORK
  • Topic:
  • Agreements,
  • Collective bargaining,
  • Arbeidsverhoudingen,
  • Salaris en inkomen,
  • Working conditions,
  • Published on: 05 juni 2014



About
Country:
Spain
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Disclaimer: This information is made available as a service to the public but has not been edited by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. The content is the responsibility of the authors.

 

1 – General collectively agreed pay increases

1.1 Indexation of salaries

  • Is a mechanism on wage indexation in place in your country? If so, please briefly describe the main features (name of agreement/law, is it the basis for further agreements, who makes the agreements…).

In Spain there is not wage indexation mechanism in place, understood as a mechanism where salaries are automatically increased if a given index reaches certain level. Social partners have the autonomy to set a wage increase. Until 2010, the wage indexation mechanism followed by the social partners was based on the inflation rate forecast by the government. In order to correct potential deviation between real inflation and forecast inflation, many agreements introduced wage revision clauses. Accordingly, wage increases agreed in Spain have tended to evolve in line with the inflation rate during the years prior to the crisis.

In 2010, the cross sectoral agreement for employment and collective bargaining 2010-2012 signed by the most representative social partners did not use the inflation forecast as the wage indexation mechanism. Rather, it established references for salary increases agreed in collective bargaining that did not take into consideration the inflation rate. In 2012 the agreement was renewed up to 2014, using the same wage indexation criteria.

  • Please give the nominal increase in % as stated in the agreement
  • from 2012 to 2013 and
  • from 2011 to 2012.

n/a

1.2 Central agreements or minimum increases set by government covering ‘the whole’ or major parts of the economy

In some countries major (cross-sectoral) agreements between social partners or minimum increases prescribed by government exist which cover either ‘the whole’ or major parts of the economy and serve as a basis for further agreements to be made at different levels.

  • If there is such an agreement in your country, please provide the name of the agreement.

The cross sectoral agreement for employment and collective bargaining 2012-2014

  • Who are the signatory parties of this agreement?

The General Workers Confederation (UGT), the Trade Union Confederation of Workers’ Commissions (CCOO), the Spanish Confederation of Employers’ Organisations (CEOE) and the Spanish Confederation of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (CEPYME)

  • Is this agreement the basis for further agreements at lower levels?

It sets up guidelines that social partners commit to follow at lower levels

  • Please indicate the nominal increase that was negotiated or set in %
  • from 2012 to 2013 and
  • from 2011 to 2012.

In 2010, the cross sectoral agreement for employment and collective bargaining 2010-2012 signed by the most representative social partners it established that salary increases agreed in collective bargaining should oscillate between 1% and 2% in 2011.

In 2012 the agreement was renewed. The new agreement acknowledged that in the short term the rise in prices is below the European average in order to improve the competitiveness of the Spanish economy. Bearing this in mind, the agreement states that wages stipulated in collective bargaining should not rise by more than 0.5% in 2012 and 0.6% in 2013.

  • What was the exact period for which the pay increase has been agreed:
  • from 2012 to 2013 (for example: 1 March 2012 – 28 February 2013),
  • from 2011 to 2012 (for example 1 March 2011 – 29 February 2012)?

In case the agreement has been made for an indefinite duration (i.e. with no period for renewal mentioned), please state this.

The cross sectoral agreement for employment and collective bargaining 2010-2012 was signed on the 11th of February of 2010. It was supposed to be in force until January 2013. However, on the 25th of January of 2012 the social parterres decided to renew the agreement which will be in force until January 2015.

  • Were there any recent major changes?

As it is explained in question 1.1, until 2010, the wage indexation mechanism followed by the social partners was based on the inflation rate forecast by the government. In order to correct potential deviation between real inflation and forecast inflation, many agreements introduced wage revision clauses. Accordingly, wage increases agreed in Spain have tended to evolve in line with the inflation rate during the years prior to the crisis. From 1995 to 2007, a period of economic growth, the average of the annual wage increase agreed was 3.6% while the average of the annual inflation rate was 3.1% (Cruces et al. 2013). In 2008 and 2009, wages increases were agreed at a higher level than the inflation rate. This is partly explained by the fact that during those years, inflation rate forecast was higher than real inflation. The existence of multi-annual agreements negotiated before the crisis must also be taken into consideration (Pérez Infante 2011).

In 2010, the cross sectoral agreement for employment and collective bargaining 2010-2012 signed by the most representative social partners did not use the inflation forecast as the wage indexation mechanism. Rather, it established references for salary increases agreed in collective bargaining that did not take into consideration the inflation rate.

  • Were there any recent debates or disagreements on changes?

Main debates on changing the mechanism were influenced by the crisis and the unemployment problem. Some of the debates were externally influenced. For instance, the Council recommendation of 12 July 2011 on Spain’s 2012 national reform program recommended that Spain implemented a comprehensive reform of the collective bargaining process and the wage indexation system to ensure that wage growth better reflects productivity.

On the other hand, Euro plus Pact Commitments in 2011 encouraged Spain to reform wage setting mechanism.

The idea behind those recommendations was to foster wage moderation in order to improve employment performance. Those debates have been mirrored in the national cross-sectors agreements concluded by the social partners.

  • Which, if any, (economic) indicators provide the basis for discussion on the amount of increase? (This could be past inflation, expected inflation, growth of labour productivity, etc.);

The last cross-sector agreement signed in 2012 does not take any concrete indicator. Rather, it states that the short term the rise in prices is below the European average in order to improve the competitiveness of the Spanish economy.

  • Please give an estimate number of employees covered by the agreement/law, including those through extension.

n/a

  • Please provide any additional comments.

1.3 Sectoral pace or trend setting agreements

In some countries major sectoral agreements serve as pace-setting agreements, i.e. the negotiated increases are then taken in other sectors as well.

  • If there is such an agreement in your country, please provide the name of the agreement.

n/a

1.4 ‘Average’ of collectively agreed pay increases as evidenced in databases or surveys

  • Is there in your country a statistical source, which allows the calculation of weighted or non-weighted averages of collectively agreed pay rises across major parts of the economy? If so, please report what was the average collectively agreed increase per annum stemming from this database (from 2012 to 2013 and from 2011 to 2012)

In 2012, the average collectively agreed increase was 1.02% and in 2013 it was 0.57%.

However, it must be noted that figures of the collective agreements of one year are only considered definitive in the annual publication elaborated with the figures of the collective agreements recorded until the 31st of May two years later. Thus, figures from 2012 will be definitive with the figures of all the collective agreements recorded until the 31st of May of 2014 the economic effects of which started in 2012 and figures of 2013 will be definitive with the figures of all the collective agreements recorded until the 31st of May of 2015 the economic effects of which started in 2013.

Table 1.4A: Metadata for average figures for the whole economy derived from databases

Name of the statistical source

Statistics of Collective Agreements. Ministry of Employment and Social Security (Estadística de Convenios Colectivos de Trabajo (ECC)).

Weblink to the statistical source

Statistics of Collective Agreements

How are the data collected? Is it a sample of agreements or a full register?

 

All collective agreements are collected. It is a full register. The basic source of information derives from what is known as the ‘statistics sheet’, which is completed by the bargaining commissions once the agreement is signed. This sheet is presented along with all the necessary documentation in order to register the agreement.

Are the following types of agreements covered in the database?

What is the rate of coverage of the following, in percentage terms?

Calculations of average increases

2 – Pay increases related to three sectors

This section aims to gather data on collectively agreed pay increases/pay increases set by law related to the three sectors:

  • Chemicals
  • Retail and
  • the Civil service.
  1. Is there a database which records the collective agreements for the different sectors? If such a database is available, which allows you to give an “average” of collectively agreed pay increase, please report this in the first place. If this is available, no further factsheets need to be reported.
  2. In case such an “average” figure does not exist, please report “the most important” collective agreement or pay set by law.

2.1 Outcomes of sector related pay setting: Chemicals sector

  • What was the nominal collectively agreed pay increase (a) from 2012 to 2013 and (b) from 2011 to 2012

2012 (provisional figures). Codes 20, 21 and 22 (NACE rev. 2). Average weighted by number of employees: 0.7%

2013 (provisional figures). Codes 20, 21 and 22 (NACE rev. 2). Average weighted by number of employees: 0.08%

Is the sample or register updated every year? For a sample: does it contain a ‘panel’ of certain agreements, which are followed over time, or are new agreements added and others left out?

It is not updated every year. However, it must be noted that figures of the collective agreements of one year are only considered definitive in the annual publication elaborated with the figures of the collective agreements recorded until 31 May two years later. Thus, figures from 2010 were definitive with the figures of all the collective agreements recorded until 31 May 2012, the economic effects of which started in 2010.

 

• Agreements from different levels of bargaining (company, subsector, sectoral level).

Company agreements and sectoral agreements.

• Agreements made by certain unions or employers’ organisations.

All agreements irrespective of the unions or employers’ organisations that signed them.

• Agreements made within certain sectors.

All sectors are covered.

• Agreements made within specific types of companies.

All types of companies are covered.

 

The number of collective wage agreements in the database in relation to all collective wage agreements in the whole economy.

100%

The number of employees covered by the collective wage agreements listed in the database (including those through extension) in relation to all employees covered by collective wage agreements (including those through extension) in the whole economy.

100%

The number of companies covered by the collective wage agreements listed in the database (independent of the bargaining level and including those companies to which the agreements are extended) in relation to the number of all companies in the economy covered by a collective wage agreement.

100%

 

Are the reported averages weighted, and if so, based on which weights (for example, employees, companies, payrolls and so on)?

They are weighted based on the number of employees covered by every agreement.

How are collective agreements that are valid in more than one year treated?

The source records the agreements whose economic effects start in the year, irrespective of its actual duration. Multiannual collective agreements longer than two years, which are annually renewed, are recorded every year. Thus, if a multiannual agreement that covers the period 2010–2014 has been annually renewed, every year it will be recorded as a new agreement.

How are collective agreements that are valid for more than 12 months treated?

Multiannual collective agreements longer than two years, which are annually renewed, are also recorded every year as a new agreement. Thus, if a multiannual agreement that covers the period 2010–2014 has been annually renewed, every year it will be recorded as a new agreement.

Are agreed lump sum payments taken into account?

No, the statistics only take into consideration wage rates as they are defined by the ILO.  Thus, it includes basic wages, cost of living allowances and other guaranteed and regularly paid allowances, but excludes overtime payments, bonuses and gratuities, family allowances and other social security payments made by employers. Ex gratia payments in kind, supplementary to normal wage rates, are also excluded.

Are collective agreements that have not been renewed part of the average?

No

Any other relevant information in relation to the calculation of percentage increases?

It has been observed that many ‘statistics sheets’ tend to repeat the same number of companies and employees covered by every agreement year after year. Since the average on wages are weighted based on the number of employees covered by every agreement, that mistake can affect the average on wage increase provided.

 
  Number of employees Pay increase agreed

CODES (NACE rev. 2)

20

21

22

20

21

22

2012

33,462

289

27,437

0.48

0.5

1.04

2013

268,968

1,198

17,976

0.05

2.66

0.36

Source: Labour Statistics Bulletin. Main Series. Ministry of Labour.

  • To what exact periods do these changes refer?

Figures provided are extracted from Statistics on Collective Agreements. They take into consideration all the collective agreements concluded in the chemical sector the economic effects of which started in 2012 and 2013

  • Please describe if and how wage bargaining/setting within the sector is coordinated within the sector (i.e. sector and company level), with institutions outside the sector (e.g. peak level organisations) and possibly also across sectors.

In the chemical sector there exists a general multi-employer agreement concluded at national level that encompasses NACE rev. 2 codes 20, 21 and 22. This agreement regulates general issues and establishes the structure of collective bargaining in the sector. On the other hand, it articulates the relationship between the sectoral level and the company level by means of the so-called “implementation agreements” (pactos de aplicación). The “implementation agreements allow companies or groups of companies to develop and specify at the company level the general conditions agreed at the national sectoral level.

As far as pay setting is concerned, the sectoral collective agreement concluded in the chemical sector in 2013 establishes a multi-tier system. It establishes three concepts: minimum wage (salaried base), extra pay by agreement (“plus convenio”) and personal extra payment (“complement personal”). The minimum wage is set up at sectoral national level for the professional group; the extra pay by agreement is set up at company level and must be applied to the professional group; and the personal extra payment encompasses all extra payment by tenure, mobility, productivity and so on paid by the company on an individual basis (González 2013).

Table 2.1A: Metadata for average figures for the chemicals sector derived from databases

Name of the statistical source

Labour Statistics Bulletin. Main series. Ministry of Labour. (Main series). Figures taken from Statistics of Collective Agreements

Weblink to the statistical source

Labour Statistics Bulletin. Main Series. Ministry of Labour.

How are the data collected? Is it a sample of agreements or a full register?

 

All collective agreements are collected. It is a full register. The basic source of information derives from what is known as the ‘statistics sheet’, which is completed by the bargaining commissions once the agreement is signed. This sheet is presented along with all the necessary documentation in order to register the agreement.

Are the following types of agreements covered in the database?

What is the rate of coverage of the following, in percentage terms?

Calculations of average increases

Which bargaining levels exist in the sector?

2.2 Outcomes of sector related pay setting: Retail sector

Figures provided refer to NACE rev. 2 code 47: Retail trade, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles.

  • What was the nominal collectively agreed pay increase (a) from 2012 to 2013 and (b) from 2011 to 2012

2012 (provisional figures): 1.09

2013 (provisional figures): 2.54

  • To what exact periods do these changes refer?

Figures provided are extracted from Statistics on Collective Agreements. They take into consideration all the collective agreements concluded in the retail sector the economic effects of which started in 2012 and 2013

  • Please describe if and how wage bargaining/setting within the sector is coordinated within the sector (i.e. sector and company level), with institutions outside the sector (e.g. peak level organisations) and possibly also across sectors.

The national frame agreement for the commerce sector concluded in February 2012 permits collective bargaining at national, provincial, interprovincial, regional and company levels. It establishes that company agreements prevail over multi-employer agreements in basic pay and pay supplement in companies that have at least 500 employees, and which operate in two or more autonomous communities or in more than 50% of the provinces of a single autonomous community.

Table 2.2A: Metadata for average figures for the retail sector derived from databases

 

Is the sample or register updated every year? For a sample: does it contain a ‘panel’ of certain agreements, which are followed over time, or are new agreements added and others left out?

It is not updated every year. However, it must be noted that figures of the collective agreements of one year are only considered definitive in the annual publication elaborated with the figures of the collective agreements recorded until 31 May two years later. Thus, figures from 2010 were definitive with the figures of all the collective agreements recorded until 31 May 2012, the economic effects of which started in 2010.

 

• Agreements from different levels of bargaining (company, subsector, sectoral level).

Company agreements and sectoral agreements.

• Agreements made by certain unions or employers’ organisations.

All agreements irrespective of the unions or employers’ organisations that signed them.

• Agreements made within certain sectors.

All sectors are covered.

• Agreements made within specific types of companies.

All types of companies are covered.

 

The number of collective wage agreements in the database in relation to all collective wage agreements in the whole economy.

100%

The number of employees covered by the collective wage agreements listed in the database (including those through extension) in relation to all employees covered by collective wage agreements (including those through extension) in the whole economy.

100%

288,142 employees covered by collective agreements in 2013 according to Labour Statistics Bulletin. Main Series. Ministry of Labour. Figures are provisional

202,704 employees affiliated to the Social Security extracted from the Labour Statistics Bulletin of the Ministry of Employment.

230,825 employees according to Spanish Labour Force Survey

The number of companies covered by the collective wage agreements listed in the database (independent of the bargaining level and including those companies to which the agreements are extended) in relation to the number of all companies in the economy covered by a collective wage agreement.

100%

 

Are the reported averages weighted, and if so, based on which weights (for example, employees, companies, payrolls and so on)?

They are weighted based on the number of employees covered by every agreement.

How are collective agreements that are valid in more than one year treated?

The source records the agreements whose economic effects start in the year, irrespective of its actual duration. Multiannual collective agreements longer than two years, which are annually renewed, are recorded every year. Thus, if a multiannual agreement that covers the period 2010–2014 has been annually renewed, every year it will be recorded as a new agreement.

How are collective agreements that are valid for more than 12 months treated?

Multiannual collective agreements longer than two years, which are annually renewed, are also recorded every year as a new agreement. Thus, if a multiannual agreement that covers the period 2010–2014 has been annually renewed, every year it will be recorded as a new agreement.

Are agreed lump sum payments taken into account?

No, the statistics only take into consideration wage rates as they are defined by the ILO.  Thus, it includes basic wages, cost of living allowances and other guaranteed and regularly paid allowances, but excludes overtime payments, bonuses and gratuities, family allowances and other social security payments made by employers. Ex gratia payments in kind, supplementary to normal wage rates, are also excluded.

Are collective agreements that have not been renewed part of the average?

No

 

Central agreement (national level, cross-sectoral covering more than three broad sectors).

Yes

At sectoral or subsectoral (branch) level (multi-employer agreement).

Yes

Regional level

No

At company level (single-employer agreement, including cases where more agreements cover a number of companies).

Yes

 

Name of the statistical source

Labour Statistics Bulletin. Main series. Ministry of Labour. (Main series). Figures taken from Statistics of Collective Agreements

Weblink to the statistical source

Labour Statistics Bulletin. Main Series. Ministry of Labour.

How are the data collected? Is it a sample of agreements or a full register?

 

 

All collective agreements are collected. It is a full register. The basic source of information derives from what is known as the ‘statistics sheet’, which is completed by the bargaining commissions once the agreement is signed. This sheet is presented along with all the necessary documentation in order to register the agreement.

Are the following types of agreements covered in the database?

What is the rate of coverage of the following, in percentage terms?

Calculations of average increases

Which bargaining levels exist in the sector?

2.3 Outcomes of sector related pay setting: Civil service

  • What was the nominal collectively agreed pay increase (a) from 2012 to 2013 and (b) from 2011 to 2012

In 2012 wages in the civil service sector were reduced, since the government did not pay the extra payment before Christmas. In Spain civil servants are paid 14 times a year. Accordingly, that year they only received 13 wages.

In 2013 wages in the civil service were frozen. Pay increase was 0%

  • To what exact periods do these changes refer?

January- 31December 2012 and 1 January- 31December 2013.

  • Please describe if and how wage bargaining/setting within the sector is coordinated within the sector (i.e. sector and company level), with institutions outside the sector (e.g. peak level organisations) and possibly also across sectors.

In 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 pay increased in the civil service sector was not agreed with the unions, it was unliterary imposed by the government.

Table 2.3B: Metadata for individual agreements / law for the civil service sector

 

Is the sample or register updated every year? For a sample: does it contain a ‘panel’ of certain agreements, which are followed over time, or are new agreements added and others left out?

It is not updated every year. However, it must be noted that figures of the collective agreements of one year are only considered definitive in the annual publication elaborated with the figures of the collective agreements recorded until 31 May two years later. Thus, figures from 2010 were definitive with the figures of all the collective agreements recorded until 31 May 2012, the economic effects of which started in 2010.

 

• Agreements from different levels of bargaining (company, subsector, sectoral level).

Company agreements and sectoral agreements.

• Agreements made by certain unions or employers’ organisations.

All agreements irrespective of the unions or employers’ organisations that signed them.

• Agreements made within certain sectors.

All sectors are covered.

• Agreements made within specific types of companies.

All types of companies are covered.

 

The number of collective wage agreements in the database in relation to all collective wage agreements in the whole economy.

100%

The number of employees covered by the collective wage agreements listed in the database (including those through extension) in relation to all employees covered by collective wage agreements (including those through extension) in the whole economy.

100%

781,891 employees covered. Labour Statistics Bulletin. Main Series. Ministry of Labour (2013). Provisional figures

1,233,627 employees. Employees affiliated to the Social Security extracted from the Labour Statistics Bulletin of the Ministry of Employment.

The number of companies covered by the collective wage agreements listed in the database (independent of the bargaining level and including those companies to which the agreements are extended) in relation to the number of all companies in the economy covered by a collective wage agreement.

100%

 

Are the reported averages weighted, and if so, based on which weights (for example, employees, companies, payrolls and so on)?

They are weighted based on the number of employees covered by every agreement.

How are collective agreements that are valid in more than one year treated?

The source records the agreements whose economic effects start in the year, irrespective of its actual duration. Multiannual collective agreements longer than two years, which are annually renewed, are recorded every year. Thus, if a multiannual agreement that covers the period 2010–2014 has been annually renewed, every year it will be recorded as a new agreement.

How are collective agreements that are valid for more than 12 months treated?

Multiannual collective agreements longer than two years, which are annually renewed, are also recorded every year as a new agreement. Thus, if a multiannual agreement that covers the period 2010–2014 has been annually renewed, every year it will be recorded as a new agreement.

Are agreed lump sum payments taken into account?

No, the statistics only take into consideration wage rates as they are defined by the ILO.  Thus, it includes basic wages, cost of living allowances and other guaranteed and regularly paid allowances, but excludes overtime payments, bonuses and gratuities, family allowances and other social security payments made by employers. Ex gratia payments in kind, supplementary to normal wage rates, are also excluded.

Are collective agreements that have not been renewed part of the average?

No

 

Central agreement (national level, cross-sectoral covering more than three broad sectors).

Yes

At sectoral or subsectoral (branch) level (multi-employer agreement).

Yes

Regional level

Yes

At company level (single-employer agreement, including cases where more agreements cover a number of companies).

Yes

 

Name of the agreement

General Law 2/ 2012 of Public Budget 2012 regulated pay increase for 2012 equal to 0%. Royal-decree 20/2012 of 13th of July 2012 eliminated the extra payment before Christmas

General Law 17/2012 of Public Budget 2013 regulated a pay increase for 2013 equal to 0%

Who are the signatory parties?

It is enacted by the Parliament.

Period of validity (day/month/year).

January-December

 

 

Which bargaining levels exist in the sector?

The structure of collective bargaining for civil servants distinguishes between three different levels attending to territorial criteria. The general level, the level of the Autonomous Communities, and the local level. Furthermore, two other levels are distinguished attending to the functional ambit: the general level, and the sectoral level.

The articulation between the different scopes responds to a hierarchical principle which gives prevalence to general level over the regional and local level, and to the general level over the sectoral level. This principle has not been altered since 2008.

Since 2008, the most important change in the structure of collective bargaining has been the promotion of the sectoral level of bargaining. Accordingly, different sectoral tables in sectors such as justice-administration, health, education and university have been created

At what level has the agreement been concluded?

Scope of agreement(s) in terms of employees

Sectoral scope of the agreement

3 – National minimum wages

This section aims to gather information on the developments and discussions regarding national minimum wages set by law or agreement, with respect to full adult rate and the youth rate.

  • What was the absolute level of the national gross minimum wage in national currency in 2012 and 2013.

2012: €641.40

2013: €645.30

  • What was the increase (in %) of the national gross minimum wage between 2012 and 2013?

0.6%

  • Was there a national minimum wage for specific groups (e.g. youth) in place in 2013? What % of the full rate is paid for these groups?

Statutory minimum wage applies to all employees. There are not excluded groups.

  • How was the minimum wage determined in 2013? What was the involvement of social partners in the determination of the minimum wage?

Determination of minimum wage is regulated in the article 27.1 of the Statute of Workers’ Rights. It establishes that minimum wage will be determined taking into consideration the following four factors

- the annual consumer prices index (Índice de Precios al Consumo)

- the national productiviy average

- the contribution of labour to the Gross National Income

- the general economic context

However, it is does not concrete how every factor will be taken into consideration.

The Royal-decree 1717/2012 that regulated the minimum wage in 2013 points out that the increases is due to the “difficult economic context” and it is in line with the goal of promoting economic recovery and employment creation. It does not specify how the 4 factors have been weighted in order to determine the minimum wage.

Social partners were not involved in the determination of the minimum wage in 2013, as in the previous years.

  • Please describe any discussions or debates involving governments, social partners, or other relevant organisations about the national minimum wage (and the minimum wage for young workers) which took place during 2013.

There were not discussions

4. Country information on wage bargaining

  • Does the paragraph on Bargaining system reflect the current state? If not, please provide here an updated version.

It reflects the current state

  • Does the paragraph on Timing reflect the current state? If not, please provide here an updated version.

It reflects the current state

  • Does the paragraph on Derogation reflect the current state? If not, please provide here an updated version.

It reflects the current state

  • Please write a short background text (max. 150 words) on extension mechanisms in your country.

In Spain all the collective agreements are extended to all the employees and companies irrespectively if the employees are unionized or not and the companies are affiliated to the signatory employer organizations.

Bibliography

Cruces J.; Álvarez, I.; Trillo, F.J. (2013): “Salarios pactados en la negociación colectiva en España”. Fundación 1º de Mayo. Available at: http://www.1mayo.ccoo.es/nova/files/1018/Estudio62.pdf

González, J. (2013): “La particular significación del convenio general de la industria química”. Anuario IET, Vol. 1: 157-166. Available at: http://ddd.uab.cat/pub/anuarioiet/anuarioiet_a2013v1/anuarioiet_a2013v1p157.pdf

Pérez Infante, J.L. (2011): “La negociación colectiva y los salarios en España: un análisis económico agregado”, Cuaderno de Relaciones Laborales, Vol. 29, no.2: 261-301. Available at: http://revistas.ucm.es/index.php/CRLA/article/view/38017

Pérez Infante, J.L. (2013): “Crisis, reformas laborales y devaluación salarial”, Relaciones laborales: Revista crítica de teoría y práctica, no. 10: 69-96

Pablo Sanz, NOTUS

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