In dit verslag presenteert Eurofound zijn onderzoek naar telewerken tijdens de COVID-19-pandemie in 2020 en 2021. Er wordt gekeken naar veranderingen in het aantal telewerkers, de werkomstandigheden van thuiswerkende werknemers en veranderingen in de regelgeving met betrekking tot deze werkregeling. De resultaten laten een snelle toename van telewerk als gevolg van de pandemie zien: in 2021 werkten twee op de tien Europese werknemers op afstand – een cijfer dat zonder de pandemie waarschijnlijk niet voor 2027 zou zijn bereikt.
De enquête “Leven, werken en COVID-19”, die begin 2020 door Eurofound werd gelanceerd, is bedoeld om de brede impact van de pandemie op het werk en het leven van EU-burgers in kaart te brengen. De vijfde editie van de Eurofound-enquête, die in het voorjaar van 2022 werd gehouden, werpt ook licht op een nieuwe onzekere realiteit die het gevolg is van de oorlog in Oekraïne, de historisch hoge inflatie en sterk gestegen kosten van levensonderhoud.
Eurofound’s European Restructuring Monitor database reveals the impact of the energy crisis on employment in the EU. Following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, energy prices have hit record highs. The European Commission imposed sanctions and limitations on the import of oil and gas from Russia, which has reacted by reneging on supply commitments to many Member States. Compared to other countries, market disruption has been especially acute in the EU, given the bloc’s overdependence on Russian energy supply.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the electricity sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.
In dit rapport wordt geanalyseerd wat de rol was van de sociale dialoog en collectieve onderhandelingen bij het aangaan van de uitdagingen waar de burgerluchtvaartsector tijdens de COVID-19-pandemie voor stond. De mate waarin de sociale partners werden betrokken bij de genomen maatregelen om de negatieve gevolgen van de pandemie te beperken, verschilt per Europees land. De sociale dialoog en collectieve onderhandelingen speelden in de meeste landen een prominente rol. In andere landen was hun rol beperkter.
In dit verslag wordt de rol geanalyseerd van de sociale dialoog en collectieve onderhandelingen bij het aanpakken van de uitdagingen die door de COVID-19-pandemie in de ziekenhuissector zijn ontstaan of zijn verergerd. Ook wordt onderzocht of de bestaande processen voor sociale dialoog en collectieve onderhandelingen op nationaal niveau zijn aangepast om deze nieuwe uitdagingen het hoofd te kunnen bieden.
Dit verslag werd opgesteld in het kader van het driejarig (2021-2023) proefproject “De rol van het minimuminkomen bij de vaststelling van de universele arbeidsgarantie”, dat door de Europese Commissie in opdracht is gegeven aan Eurofound. Het verslag is gericht op de derde module van het project: onderzoek naar minimumlonen en andere vormen van beloning voor zelfstandigen.
Als gevolg van de strenge gezondheidsmaatregelen die de overheid in 2020 heeft opgelegd om de COVID-19-pandemie het hoofd te bieden, is ons werkleven er plots helemaal anders gaan uitzien. De beperkingen hebben zich ook in de twee jaar daarna nog laten voelen. Tussen maart en november 2021 werden meer dan 70 000 gesprekken gevoerd in 36 landen in het kader van de telefonische Europese enquête naar de arbeidsomstandigheden (EWCS), een kwalitatief hoogstaande steekproefenquête.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the Food and drink sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of Eurofound’s studies on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the field of industrial relations in the EU Member States.
In het verslag wordt onderzocht hoe het vertrouwen van burgers in instellingen – waaronder nationale overheden, de EU, de wetenschap en de media – zich tijdens de COVID-19-pandemie in 2020 en 2021 ontwikkelde. De rol van de media wordt erin geanalyseerd, en dan met name het verband tussen het gebruik van sociale media en vertrouwen evenals de impact van onjuiste of misleidende informatie en van desinformatie (opzettelijk misleidende informatie) tijdens de crisis.
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.
This series brings together publications and other outputs of the European Jobs Monitor (EJM), which tracks structural change in European labour markets. The EJM analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives a qualitative assessment of these shifts using various proxies of job quality – wages, skill-levels, etc.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2016, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2015, the sixth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
The COVID-19 pandemic triggered an extraordinary level of provision of social services across the EU. Healthcare and care providers carried much of the burden and, together with essential services, played a crucial role in getting citizens through the crisis. This report explores how public services adapted to the new reality and what role was played by the digital transformation of services. The aim is to contribute to the documentation and analysis of changes in funding, delivery and use of healthcare and social services during the pandemic.
Are the policies required to meet the commitments outlined under the EU’s plan for a green transition, the Fit-for-55 package, and the associated budgetary commitments – the Green New Deal – likely to lead to positive or negative employment outcomes by 2030? What types of jobs will be created or destroyed? Will shifts in employment be skewed towards the bottom, middle or top of the job–wage distribution? This report aims to provide answers to these questions, using macro-modelled estimates of the likely impacts of these policies on the structure of employment.
This report explores the potential socio-economic implications of the transition to a climate-neutral economy on different EU regions and groups of people. It adopts a foresight approach to envision potential actions that can be taken to shape the future. After consulting with stakeholders and experts, three scenarios were developed to consider emerging economic and social inequalities at EU and regional level. The report includes policy pointers which outline measures to be taken to achieve a just transition to a sustainable, climate-neutral economy where no one is left behind.
This report explores how environmental performance has converged – or diverged – among the EU Member States since the early 2000s. With environmental goals piling up at the EU level, is it reasonable to expect Member States to adhere to this emerging EU environmental aquis? And, just as importantly, can we expect Member States to reach these goals at the same time? This report attempts to provide answers to these and other questions high on the political agenda.
This report investigates the potential individual and societal impacts of labour market insecurity, focusing on workers with non-permanent contracts, part-time and self-employed workers, and workers who perceive their job as insecure. It explores the impact of labour market insecurities on health and well-being, social exclusion, trust in people and the perception of fairness, as well as trust in institutions. Policies aimed at reducing labour market instability following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic are also presented.
This report – published every two years – covers important developments resulting from legislative reforms in collective bargaining at national or sectoral level in 2021 and 2022. It examines the average weekly working hours set by collective agreements, both across national economies and in five sectors: education, health, transport, retail and public administration.
This policy brief provides facts and figures on the working life and job quality of so-called ‘essential workers’ and is based on data from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) extraordinary edition 2021. It will define various subgroups of essential workers, describe the challenges they face and outline the type of responses provided, or being developed, to address those challenges.
This policy brief aims to contribute to the effective monitoring and evaluation of the European Child Guarantee. Progress at EU level is measured by a monitoring framework which monitors the key areas of the European Child Guarantee: early childhood education and care; education, including school-based activities and at least one healthy meal each school day; healthcare; healthy nutrition; and adequate housing. The policy brief explores trends and disparities in these areas using a convergence analysis, which tracks any disparities among EU Member States.
This report highlights the prevalence of psychosocial risks across countries, sectors and occupations during the later phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. It outlines the specific working conditions that can lead to work-related health problems. In particular, the report investigates the potential pitfalls related to the expansion of telework, the role of job and income insecurity as a psychosocial risk and the phenomenon of adverse social behaviour and discrimination at work. In addition, it offers policy pointers on tackling the increase in work absenteeism due to mental health problems.
The urban-rural divide in EU countries has grown in recent years, and the depopulation of certain rural areas in favour of cities is a challenge when it comes to promoting economic development and maintaining social cohesion and convergence. Using data from Eurofound and Eurostat, this report will investigate the trends and drivers of the urban-rural divide, in various dimensions: economic and employment opportunities, access to services, living conditions and quality of life.