Quality of life

Naar de toekomst van Europa: Sociale factoren die bepalend zijn voor het optimisme en pessimisme onder burgers

Report
Gepubliceerd
16 september 2021
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Executive summary in 22 languages
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Auteur(s): 
Bericat, Eduardo

Hoofdconclusies

  • As Europe emerges from the pandemic, it will be crucial for policymakers to understand the drivers of optimism and pessimism in order to address the challenges arising from potentially growing disillusionment. Evidence shows that high levels of pessimism can undermine social cohesion and the legitimacy of the established political system.
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  • As Europe emerges from the pandemic, it will be crucial for policymakers to understand the drivers of optimism and pessimism in order to address the challenges arising from potentially growing disillusionment. Evidence shows that high levels of pessimism can undermine social cohesion and the legitimacy of the established political system.
  • Age appears to have the greatest net effect on social optimism: young people were found to have the happiest outlook, in middle age there was a dip in positivity, then optimism increased again among older people.
  • Trust in institutions and GDP growth rates were found to be key country-level drivers of optimism. Evidence highlights that facilitating access to high-quality public services can help to (re)build trust in institutions.
  • Citizens who feel their voice counts are not only more optimistic about their own future but also about the society in which they live. Initiatives that involve citizens in the debate about the recovery process, such as the Conference on the Future of Europe, will be critical going forward.
  • Findings point to the important role a person’s place in the labour market and their financial situation plays in their perception about the future. As emphasised by EU leaders in the 2021 Porto Declaration, a shift in policy focus from protecting jobs to creating new opportunities will be required to improve the EU’s employment situation.
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Samenvatting

Al meer dan tien jaar neemt in grote delen van de EU de onzekerheid over de toekomst toe. Veel mensen geloven dat de samenleving in verval is, waardoor algemene gevoelens van pessimisme zijn ontstaan. Bestaat er een verband tussen de stijgende populariteit van anti-establishmentpartijen en het toRead more

Al meer dan tien jaar neemt in grote delen van de EU de onzekerheid over de toekomst toe. Veel mensen geloven dat de samenleving in verval is, waardoor algemene gevoelens van pessimisme zijn ontstaan. Bestaat er een verband tussen de stijgende populariteit van anti-establishmentpartijen en het toegenomen pessimisme? De negatieve sentimenten kunnen het politieke klimaat in afzonderlijke lidstaten verslechteren en ook de legitimiteit van het Europese project ondermijnen. Dit rapport noemt de belangrijkste factoren die opvattingen over de toekomst voeden en beschrijft het onderzoek naar verschillen in sociaal-economische, culturele en politieke kenmerken tussen optimisten en pessimisten. Het rapport beschrijft het sociaal-economische en sociaal-politieke profiel van optimisten en pessimisten en onderzoekt op basis daarvan in hoeverre de ene groep zich anders gedraagt dan de andere. Tot slot volgt een beschrijving van het onderzoek naar de wijze waarop het niveau van optimisme in de lidstaten verschilt al naargelang de nationale context. Bij de analysen worden gegevens van voor de COVID-19-pandemie toegepast. Uit de resultaten blijkt dat het belangrijk is om te volgen hoe gevoelens van mensen over de toekomst zich tijdens het herstel na de crisis ontwikkelen.

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Formats and languages

  • Verslag

    Aantal bladzijden: 
    70
    Nummer: 
    EF21004
    ISBN: 
    978-92-897-2203-2
    Catalogusnummer: 
    TJ-03-21-369-EN-N
    DOI: 
    10.2806/458259
    Catalogue info

    Naar de toekomst van Europa: Sociale factoren die bepalend zijn voor het optimisme en pessimisme onder burgers

    Auteur(s): 
    Bericat, Eduardo

    Formaten

    Deze publicatie citeren: 

    Eurofound (2021), Towards the future of Europe: Social factors shaping optimism and pessimism among citizens, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.

  • Executive summary

    Nummer: 
    EF21004EN1
    Catalogue info

    Naar de toekomst van Europa: Sociale factoren die bepalend zijn voor het optimisme en pessimisme onder burgers

    Auteur(s): 
    Eurofound

    Beschikbaar om te downloaden in 22 talen

    Downloaden
  • Tables and graphs

    The report contains the following lists of tables and figures.

    List of tables

    • Table 1: Social Optimism Index – Six questions
    • Table 2: Assessment of the impact of the economic crisis on the job market by social optimism level, EU27, 2019 (%)
    • Table 3: Key drivers of social optimism and pessimism
    • Table 4: Perceptions relating to the economic crisis by level of social optimism, EU27 (%)
    • Table 5: Views on the future living conditions of children and young people by level of social optimism, EU27 (%)
    • Table 6: Political efficacy by level of social optimism, EU27 (%)
    • Table 7: Voting behaviour by level of social optimism, EU27 (%)
    • Table 8: Assessment of the political system by level of social optimism, EU27 (%)
    • Table 9: Perceptions of the EU by level of social optimism, EU27 (%)
    • Table 10: Prospects for future generations in the EU by self-reported social class, EU27 (%)
    • Table 11: Subjective social mobility and optimism, EU27 (%)
    • Table 12: Perceptions of social inequality by level of social optimism, EU27 (%)
    • Table 13: Views on potential political actions to tackle inequality by level of social optimism, EU27 (%)
    • Table 14: Personal and societal sense of fairness, EU27 (%)
    • Table 15: Personal and societal sense of fairness by level of social optimism, EU27 (%)
    • Table 16: Social optimism: country-level domains and factors
    • Table 17: Personal and societal expectations: level of optimism in the EU27 (%)

    List of figures

    • Figure 1: Social optimism: emotional dimension, EU27, 2019 (%)
    • Figure 2: Social optimism: evaluative dimension, EU27, 2019 (%)
    • Figure 3: Social optimism: cognitive dimension, EU27, 2019 (%)
    • Figure 4: Social Optimism Index scores by response category
    • Figure 5: Expectations about a return to growth following the economic crisis by level of social optimism, EU27, 2017 (%)
    • Figure 6: Perceptions about change in quality of life by level of social optimism, EU27 (%)
    • Figure 7: Opinion about prospects for future generations by EU Member State (%)
    • Figure 8: Likelihood of voting in the next European Parliament election by level of social optimism, EU27 (%)
    • Figure 9: Image of the EU by level of social optimism, EU27 (%)
    • Figure 10: European identity by level of social optimism, EU27 (%)
    • Figure 11: Social optimism by self-reported social status, EU27 (%)
    • Figure 12: Views about state intervention by level of social optimism, EU27 (%)
    • Figure 13: Belief in functioning meritocracy by level of social optimism, EU27 (%)
    • Figure 14: Social Optimism Index scores (mean) by EU Member State
    • Figure 15: Proportion of optimists and pessimists by EU Member State (%)
    • Figure 16: Pessimism gap: personal and societal pessimism by EU Member State (%)

Onderzoek dat is uitgevoerd vóór de terugtrekking van het VK uit de Europese Unie op 31 januari 2020 en dat vervolgens is gepubliceerd, kan gegevens over de 28 EU-lidstaten bevatten. Na deze datum wordt bij onderzoek alleen rekening gehouden met de 27 EU-lidstaten (EU28 minus het VK), tenzij anders vermeld.

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