Browse publications

Latest publications

  • Article
    27 februari 1997

    The Dutch Government wants to allow employers temporary exemptions from the
    legal minimum wage [1] (WML- wettelijk minimumloon), and to that end, a bill
    was submitted to Parliament in 1996. The target group consists of long-term
    unemployed people aged between 20 and 65. The purpose of the bill is to give
    such people the prospect of qualifying for a full-time job while working. The
    definition of "long-term unemployed" is taken from an existing statutory


  • Article
    27 februari 1997

    On Sunday 2 February 1997, a so-called "multicoloured march for jobs" drew
    about 50,000 people from all over Belgium to the streets of Clabecq, a small
    industrial town on the borders of the provinces of Brabant and Hainaut.

  • Article
    27 februari 1997

    The end of 1996 and the first two months of 1997 were marked by a wave of
    strikes that began last November and December, upsetting the relative
    industrial calm that had existed over recent years. The strikes peaked during
    January but continued throughout February, for at least certain groups of
    employees, though by then they had begun to peter out. The strikes represent
    basically a head-on clash with the Government's policy of austerity, and
    focus primarily on discontent with the tax system and a recently-passed tax
    law. This clash also acquired a political character, since the demands of
    workers across various sectors converged and merged within the wider context
    of discontent.

  • Article
    27 februari 1997

    The primary objectives of Partnership 2000 (P2000) are: " the continued
    development of an efficient modern economy capable of high and sustainable
    economic and employment growth and operating within the constraints of
    international competitiveness, ensuring that Irish society becomes more
    inclusive, that long-term unemployment is substantially reduced, and that the
    benefits of growth are more equally distributed. The strategy provides a
    framework within which specific issues or programmes will be developed, in
    the normal way."

  • Article
    27 februari 1997

    The new decree, issued on 14 January, brings Italian pensions legislation
    more into line with the rest of the EU. Presenting the decision to the press,
    the Minister of Labour, Tiziano Treu said that "1997 will be the year in
    which a real supplementary social security system will begin to be set up in

  • Article
    27 februari 1997

    At a special Social Dialogue Committee meeting held on 29 November 1996, the
    European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC), the Union of Industrial and
    Employers' Confederations of Europe (UNICE), and the European Centre of
    Enterprises with Public Participation (CEEP) adopted a joint contribution to
    the /Confidence Pact for Action on Employment in Europe,/ in preparation for
    the Dublin European Council summit held in December. In their statement, the
    social partners express their deepest concern at the high level of
    unemployment which continues to prevail across the EU, and criticise what
    they perceive as a lack of coordination and implementation of a Europe-wide
    strategy to combat the problem effectively. They pronounce themselves in
    favour of Commission President Santer's proposal for a Confidence Pact, and
    see their declaration as "a committed response to his proposals on the themes
    of youth unemployment, lifelong learning, and better use of Structural Funds
    for job creation, in a macroeconomic environment conducive to growth and

  • Article
    27 februari 1997

    On 19 February, Arbio, the employers' association for the forestry industry,
    sued the Swedish Paper Workers' Union before the Labour Court. Formally, the
    parties are arguing over a sum of less than SEK 50, though in practice the
    case concerns an unlimited amount of money. This is a test case, and the
    question that the Court has to address is: how is the collective agreement on
    sick pay for employees in the paper industry to be interpreted?

  • Article
    27 februari 1997

    Three independent pay review bodies were created more than 25 years ago in
    what has been described as an attempt "to remove a range of highly sensitive
    settlements from the political arena" (P Bassett, /The Times,/ 7 February
    1997). They recommended pay increases for doctors and dentists, the most
    senior grades in the armed forces, the civil service and the judiciary, and
    for the rest of the armed forces. The pay review system assumed greater
    importance when it was extended to cover nearly 500,000 nurses, midwives and
    other health service professionals in 1983 and a similar number of
    schoolteachers in England and Wales in 1992. In both cases, the creation of
    pay review bodies followed lengthy disputes and a history of repeated failure
    of the negotiating machinery to produce agreement on pay settlements without
    frequent arbitration or periodic special enquiries.

  • Article
    27 februari 1997

    On 6 February 1997, the Bundesverband Druck employers' association and the
    Industriegewerkschaft Medien trade union signed two new nationwide collective
    agreements for the 130,000 manual workers in the German printing industry.
    The first agreement covers the general developments of wages, and the second
    agreement is a renewal of the sector's general framework agreement on
    employment conditions [1] (Manteltarifvertrag).


  • Article
    27 februari 1997

    On 29 January 1997, Tele Danmark informed its employees of its decision to
    reduce staff by 2,500 and take on 500 new employees. The decision, which was
    due to come into effect by mid-1998, is part of an efficiency plan, which
    will cut annual costs by DKK 600 million and implement major organisational


  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.

  • European Working Conditions Telephone Survey 2021

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Developments in working life, industrial relations and working conditions in the EU

    This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

Forthcoming publications