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  • Article
    27 februari 1997

    The Trades Union Congress (TUC) launched its campaign to put workers' rights
    at the centre of the general election on 14 February 1997. The campaign,
    which will cost GBP 1 million, includes newspaper and cinema ads, billboards
    and leaflets.

  • Article
    27 februari 1997

    1997's collective bargaining in the private sector is concentrating on three
    main issues: 100% wage compensation during maternity leave; further
    negotiations over the pension scheme initiated in 1991; and a limited wage
    increase to allow for inflation. The social partners in the different
    bargaining areas are largely in agreement on the content of the new
    collective agreements, but the central social partner organisations - the
    Danish Confederation of Trade Unions (LO) and the Danish Employers'
    Confederation (DA) - still cannot agree whether the new collective agreements
    should be of two or three years' duration.

  • Article
    27 februari 1997

    At the end of 1996, the major trade unions and employers' associations signed
    the Second National Agreement on Continuing Training (II Acuerdo Nacional de
    Formación Continua), which was later endorsed by a tripartite agreement
    between these organisations and the Government. The new agreements build on
    certain basic aspects of the continuing training system in Spain that was
    started in 1993, though they also introduce some important innovations.

  • Article
    27 februari 1997

    On 6 February 1997, theSwedish Paper Workers' Union and the Employers'
    Federation of Swedish Forest Industries told the conciliators Lars-Gunnar
    Albåge and Rune Larson that they accepted their proposal for a national
    collective agreement on wages for 1997. There had been two stumbling blocks
    in the negotiations: the trade union's claim for a reduction of annual
    working time by 25 hours; and the employers' insistence on an agreement that
    would run for at least two years. The outcome is an agreement on wages only,
    that runs for one year, backdated to 1 January 1997.

  • Article
    27 februari 1997

    On 18 September 1996, the European Commission adopted a /Communication
    Concerning the Development of the Social Dialogue Process at Community Level/
    (COM(96) 448 final). Launching the Communication, the commissioner
    responsible for social affairs, Padraig Flynn, said that the time had come to
    reform and adapt the social dialogue in view of the new challenges facing the
    European Union in years to come. The Commission was" aiming at a
    rationalisation of structures and an optimal allocation of the resources

  • Article
    27 februari 1997

    This action, which came as a complete surprise to the 3,100 employees, is
    part of the French-owned motor manufacturer's "new industrial strategy" of
    concentrating production to cut its financial losses. Michel de Virville,
    managing director of Renault, announced the closure adding that:

  • Article
    27 februari 1997

    In accordance with its 1995 collective agreement, Akzo Nobel has evaluated
    the effects of "working time differentiation" and more flexible working hours
    on employment. Since the effects appear positive, a 36-hour week is expected
    to be introduced by 1 July 1997.

  • Article
    27 februari 1997

    Telecom Eireann's plan to introduce personal contracts for 300 of its
    managers who report directly to senior executives must be seen in the context
    of the company's effort to implement a major programme of change to meet the
    requirements of EU-driven deregulation requirements. A Telecom redundancy
    package was also reactivated recently, one of several in recent years, as the
    company seeks to reduce costs. It is also to enter talks with the union
    representing general workers in Telecom, the Communications Workers Union, on
    a proposed IEP 110 million cost savings plan.

  • Article
    27 februari 1997

    On 4 February, following a mediation proposal by the Government, the national
    metalworking collective agreement was signed. Negotiations had lasted for
    nine months and were marked by moments of breakdown and conflict which
    resulted in strikes. The metalworking settlement, which covers some 1.5
    million workers, is Italy's most important industry-wide agreement. It will
    strongly influence both the forthcoming renewals of contracts in other
    sectors and the evaluation of the July 1993 tripartite central agreement on
    incomes policy and collective bargaining structure, planned for June 1997.

  • Article
    27 februari 1997

    In January and February 1997, many French towns were hit by public transport
    strikes, affecting bus, tram and underground rail services. The strikers'
    demands differed somewhat from town to town but certain themes have been
    common. such as: improvements in working conditions; better protection from
    crime and delinquency, two consecutive days off in a week; and less taxing
    route schedules. Strikers have also been demanding pay rises and a reduction
    in the working week to 35 hours or less, with the recruitment of new
    personnel to take up the slack. Demands for the right to retire with full
    pensions at the age of 55, along with systematic replacement of retiring
    employees by new recruitment, have also been frequently voiced.


  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.

  • European Working Conditions Telephone Survey 2021

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Developments in working life, industrial relations and working conditions in the EU

    This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

Forthcoming publications

  • Report
    mei 2024

    The report maps trends in income inequality and examines the situation of the middle classes in the EU during 2020, the year most associated with the COVID-19 lockdowns. It charts developments in the size and composition of middle-class households across countries, identifies those that suffered disproportionately in 2020. Taking a longer lens, the report describes the evolution of income inequalities over the last 15 years, comparing the Great Recession (2007–2009) with the COVID-19 pandemic, and outlines the trends both between and within Member States.

  • Report
    december 2024

    This report explores the implications of the right of all EU citizens to live independently. It investigates the barriers faced by people who wish to live independently, and the situation of people at risk of living in institutional settings. It maps the various measures taken by EU Member States to foster independent living and autonomy. The report also includes policy pointers to support future decision-makers and provides a review of lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic.