EMCC European Monitoring Centre on Change

Emerging forms of entrepreneurship

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Leif Jakobsen
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The current policy and public debate on the overall topic of ‘entrepreneurship’ pays little attention to more specific or emerging forms of entrepreneurship such as one-person enterprises and self-employment, part-time entrepreneurs, parallel and serial entrepreneurs, and business transfer and successions. This study examines the appearance of these distinct catgeories in public and policy discussions across Europe and gives an overview of the availability of quantitative and qualitative statistical information and of research on emerging forms of entrepreneurship.This study notes that the category of one-person enterprises and self-employment is the one most often included in the debate, whereas the other forms of emerging entrepreneurship receive less attention. However, across Europe growing attention is paid to all these forms as drivers for growth and employment, and they are being recognised as flexible forms that offer a transitional state between employment and business development.

The study was compiled on the basis of individual national reports submitted by the ERM correspondents. The text of each of these national reports is available below. The reports have not been edited or approved by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. The national reports were drawn up in response to a questionnaire and should be read in conjunction with it.http://www.oecd.org/std/business-stats/theentrepreneurshipindicatorsprogrammeeipbackgroundinformation.htm

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Introduction

Entrepreneurship has been and still is on the agenda in policy and public debates in most EU Member States. However, the debate has been broad, mainly addressing the overall topic of entrepreneurship without giving much attention to more specific or emerging forms of entrepreneurship. This study aims to map information on emerging forms of entrepreneurship and their economic and business activities at national and international level, drawing on information from public discussions and policy debates as well as standardised and non-standardised statistical data and research.

The purpose of this report is to give an overview of the current position of the public and policy debate and the research on emerging entrepreneurship, and of the availability of statistical data on the emerging forms of entrepreneurship in EU Member States and Norway. Compilation and analysis of data is not the purpose of this project.

National correspondents in the EU Member States and Norway have completed questionnaires and these form the main source of information for this report. The questionnaires were completed in mid-2010, with the exceptions of Finland and Latvia where there were no national correspondents. As a result, the report is based on completed questionnaires from 26 European countries (25 EU Member States and Norway).

Some countries were unable to complete the entire questionnaire because their national debates have a somewhat different focus. In Luxembourg, Norway and Slovenia, the entrepreneurial debate tends to focus on entrepreneurship in general without addressing any specific emerging forms of entrepreneurship. In Ireland, the debate is about similar entrepreneurial forms but is based on other definitions than those applied in this report.

This report consists of six sections:

  1. Presenting working definitions for the emerging forms of entrepreneurship analysed.
  2. An overview of public and policy discussions about the five emerging forms of entrepreneurship.
  3. An in-depth analysis of the content of the public debate and associated policies.
  4. A summary of findings, in the context of the availability and access to statistical data.
  5. A summary of the content of national research and studies, and the highlighting of key issues in the EU debate.
  6. A bibliography and annexes that summarise individual answers from all the national correspondents surveyed.

1. Emerging forms of entrepreneurship – working definitions

One-person enterprises and self-employment has been part of the business landscape for some time, and at the same time this business model has contributed to structural change in the business landscape. These changes are shaped by socio-demographic, economic and technological developments which have affected the speed of knowledge transfer, market access and business development. Some industrial sectors have a high proportion of one-person enterprises and self-employment. However, other types of entrepreneurship and business activities are also emerging and they are becoming more explicit in the European debate. In many sectors these emerging forms of entrepreneurship are having a significant impact on business dynamics and conditions of employment. The result is a need for a more heterogeneous and diversified understanding of entrepreneurship.

The following section presents an introduction to the specific forms of entrepreneurship that are the focus of this report, using definitions that have informed the search for information. The definitions are based on very specific elements, such as income shares, drawn from literature.

One-person enterprises and the self-employed; businesses which employ no staff

This form of entrepreneurship includes persons undertaking business activities, which, irrespective of their legal status, whether incorporated or not, contribute an important part to the person’s income and hence go beyond hobby activities. Self-employment is not a new phenomenon, although the sectors where such business activity is common have changed over time. Several sectors, such as ICT and related services, crafts and construction, have particularly high levels of one-person enterprises and self-employment. The important characteristic of this form of entrepreneurship is that the entrepreneur conducts his or her business activities without permanent employees. However, they often they cooperate with other businesses.

Part-time entrepreneurs

There is no general, common definition of part-time entrepreneurs. The Organisation for European Economic Cooperation (OECD) does not provide any definition of this entrepreneurial form. The definitions outlined by the EU Labour Force Survey make a distinction between full-time and part-time work or entrepreneurship, based on a spontaneous response from the respondents. Thus, in some countries a part-time entrepreneurship is defined as someone working fewer than 35 hours per week. Other sources, such as Entrepreneurship in Missouri, define part-time entrepreneurs in terms of how big a share of their income is generated by a person’s self-employed activities. However, part-time entrepreneurs are also often regarded as initial entrepreneurs in transition, testing the market to see whether their business is economically sustainable before becoming a full-time entrepreneur. Other authors, such as F.Welter (2009), see part-time entrepreneurship as being often a necessity-based way of earning a living, and observe that such businesses are characterised by low-growth ambitions and low survival rates. Part-time entrepreneurs can be employed, retired, enrolled in education or training programmes, or undertaking household chores alongside running a business. Examples are a part-time social worker running a farm shop on the side, and business or IT consultants who are employed part time and also take on self-employed contracts. Part-time students may be working on a self-employed basis in parallel with their studies, and parents may run their own part time business alongside their childcare responsibilities.

Parallel entrepreneurs: running two or more businesses at the same time

In addition to the opportunities of part-time entrepreneurship, there are examples of entrepreneurs running several different businesses in parallel. The flow of knowledge and hence of business opportunities allows particularly active entrepreneurs to set up and run several businesses at the same time. These businesses may be based on common synergies, such as addressing the same customer base, but offering the supply of different products and services. These businesses may be at different stages of their life cycles; an entrepreneur may, for instance, start up a new business when it becomes apparent that an existing one will not be competitive at some point in the future. When this happens, the definition of a parallel entrepreneur can overlap with the nexy category, serial entrepreneurship.

Serial entrepreneurs; starting up a business after selling, closing or introducing new management to a previous one

Entrepreneurs can assume these days that they will not need to devote 10, 20 or 30 years to their businesses. Business cycles are faster, perhaps because products are being replaced more quickly in the market, and the competitive situation can change more rapidly. An entrepreneur may also realise that their expertise lies in start-up rather than consolidation. It is possible to build a successful business over a short period, perhaps in five to eight years, and then sell it on. The market for purchasing and investing in these kinds of companies has developed dramatically in recent years. In other words, an entrepreneur who prefers the process of starting a company can sell off their young company or transfer its ownership or management to another entrepreneur and then begin again.

Business transfers and successions; the transfer of management or ownership to a new entrepreneur while the business continues to operate

This survey defines business transfer as the transfer of ownership or a major part of it, or the transfer of management control from one entrepreneur to another while the business itself continues, including its employment relationships with its workers and any other contracts it has entered into. Business transfers can take place in different situations. These include:

  • Transfer from parents to a son or daughter, a traditional generational change.
  • After passing the entrepreneurial stage of business development, a company will typically face new strategic options and managerial challenges that are likely to demand a fresh injection of skills. At this stage, it is common to introduce new management skills and perhaps to transfer ownership to a professional board.
  • Transfer of ownership, or part of it, through a management buyout or the private sale of the business or shares.

Other definitions

Official or informal national definitions have been considered in this report, even if they may deviate from the above definitions. These, however, only concern one-person enterprises and self-employment. The other four emerging forms of entrepreneurship are considered in the context of the definitions above.

In Austria, for example, one-person enterprises or self-employment is identified in three distinct forms: the ‘free service contract workers’ (Freie Dienstnehmer), the ‘new self-employed’ (Neue Selbständige) and the ‘traditional self-employed’. The first two categories are often associated with atypical employment and the working situation of such people more closely resembles that of dependent employees than entrepreneurs. They do not need trade licences.

In Romania, different definitions are also used for one-person enterprises or self-employment. The ‘one-person enterprise’ is defined as being ‘an unincorporated entity established by an individual entrepreneur’. A second category of ‘sole proprietorship’ is defined as ‘any individual duly authorised to conduct any type of business permitted by law, and making use mainly of his or her own working capacity’. According to the legislation, sole proprietors may not hire labour or third parties by contract. They may work as both sole proprietor and salaried worker, they pay social security contributions, and are therefore entitled to receive a state pension and other benefits such as unemployment and health insurance from the social security fund. However, a sole proprietor may not combine this role with that of the legal owner of a one-person enterprise.

The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (www.gemconsortium.org) is carried out in almost all countries included in this study. It distinguishes between

  • nascent entrepreneurs – those actively planning a new venture;
  • new firm entrepreneurs – a new business that is between four and 42 months old;
  • established business owners – over 42 months old.

As these categories can be combined with information about the (expected) levels of employment, it will be possible to use this data to give an indication of one-person enterprises and self-employment. In Ireland, the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor is the reference study on entrepreneurship.

The European Labour Force Survey (ELFS) is carried out in all Member States and many national correspondents refer to this survey. The ELFS defines the self-employed as ‘persons who work in their own enterprise (registered or not) for the purpose of earning a profit, and who employ no other persons‘.

There may be overlaps between forms of entrepreneurships, such as part-time one-person businesses or business transfers that result in serial entrepreneurship.

2. Public and policy discussion on emerging forms of entrepreneurship

A general observation is that there has been an ongoing public and policy debate about entrepreneurship for many years. It first emerged at some time at the beginning of the 1980s in northern and western European countries, gradually moving south. After 1990, it entered the central and eastern European countries as an integrated component of the transition process to a market economy. In the last decade the discussion has intensified and differentiated across Europe. The survey undertaken for this study suggests that during the last few years the public and policy discussion across Europe has focused more on the different forms of entrepreneurship rather than on debating business policy and entrepreneurship in general. This analysis has looked at to what degree the public and policy discussion has focused on emerging forms of entrepreneurship (see also Annex A).

Most attention is paid to the entrepreneurial forms which are an integrated part of the general debate on entrepreneurship and fit into a common view of entrepreneurship – in other words, those involving one-person enterprises or the self employed and which are hoping to grow and perhaps move towards business transfer. However, public and policy discussions pay less attention to the part-time, parallel and serial types of entrepreneurship.

Even though emerging forms of entrepreneurship in general have become more visible in public and policy discussions in recent years, it is worth noting that there are variations in the different countries.

The following findings give a short overview of the presence of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship in public debate and policy discussions across Europe (see Annex A for more detailed responses per country).

Discussions in the EU and Norway have increasingly focused more on the one-person enterprise and self-employment styles of entrepreneurship. This increased focus is particularly observed in a number of countries such as Hungary, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland and Spain and slightly less so in Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Italy, Lithuania, Romania and the United Kingdom. The main reported explanation is that this form of entrepreneurship is very closely linked to a traditional perception of entrepreneurship where one-person enterprises and self-employment are seen as the first stage of enterprise development.

There is a similar increased focus on part-time entrepreneurs and on business transfers and successions, but the underlying reasons for this are different. Part-time entrepreneurs are often associated with one-person enterprises and self-employment and therefore become part of that discussion, especially in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania and Sweden. Increased attention paid to business transfers and successions is often related to transferring a family business to the next generation. If this is not successful it has a negative impact on jobs and on the broader economy. Three countries, Hungary, Sweden and the United Kingdom, indicate a relatively high degree of increased focus on this form of entrepreneurship.

The other two forms of entrepreneurship, parallel entrepreneurs and serial entrepreneurs, have rarely, if at all, been considered in public and policy discussions during the last couple of years. Only two countries report an increased focus on either of these categories. Denmark has considered parallel entrepreneurs and Sweden the serial entrepreneurs, and this heightened interest in these categories has probably been driven by the potential they offer for economic growth. Across the EU, however, these two groups of entrepreneurship are considered too small and therefore not generally important in the discourse on encouraging entrepreneurship. At times, serial entrepreneurs are more commonly identified with the business transfers and successions category, at the point when the serial entrepreneur sells on an established enterprise.

It is not possible to develop a significant geographical grouping of the countries even though some countries have a more increased focus on the emerging forms of entrepreneurship than other countries. However, it is possible to say that there is a tendency in northern and central European countries to have a more differentiated discourse on emerging forms of entrepreneurship than in eastern and southern European countries.

The intensity of the public discussion

In this section this survey narrows its focus and examines the presence of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship in the public debate. Table 1 shows variations between European countries in the way that public and policy debates deal with emerging forms of entrepreneurship, and how the discussion has evolved over time.





Table 1 Number of countries in which the various emerging forms of entrepreneurship are present in the public discussion
 

Continuously

On and off in the last 10 years

Has previously been on the public agenda, but is no longer part of the agenda

Has never been part of the public agenda

One-person enterprises/self-employment 14 9 1 1
Part-time entrepreneurs 4 12 1 8
Parallel entrepreneurs 1 5 0 19
Serial entrepreneurs 0 6 0 18
Business transfers and successions 5 9 3 8

Note: No reply from Ireland for all forms of entrepreneurship and no reply from Norway for serial entrepreneurs

Source: Annex B

The category of one-person enterprises and self-employment is part of the public discussion in most European countries in one way or another. Exceptions are Slovenia, where it has never been part of the political agenda, and Sweden, where it has not been on the political agenda since 2005/6 despite having previously been a key issue with the focus on growth, social security and special target groups such as women, youth and migrants. In the remaining countries, 14 have had this form of entrepreneurship on the political agenda for up to three decades. The debate in nine countries has been introduced more recently and has been less continuous.

Part-time entrepreneurs are discussed in two out of three countries. This category tends to have come to the fore more recently and to have been considered less continuously than one-person enterprises. In eight countries – six small countries and Poland and Spain – this form of entrepreneurship has not been part of the debate. In Denmark, discussions on part-time entrepreneurs were previously prevalent but ceased in the mid 1990s.

Only in six countries parallel or serial entrepreneurs are part of the discussion. Both categories are considered in Bulgaria, Denmark, Italy, Romania and the United Kingdom, and serial entrepreneurs are part of the debate in Sweden. These categories have never been on the public agenda in the remaining countries.

Business transfers and successions are discussed more widely. In half of the countries this form of entrepreneurship is debated continuously or intermittently. In the remainder, this form is no longer or has never been a part of the public discussion.

Media and forums discussing the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

The correspondents have indicated in which of the following media and forums the public debate and policy discussions take place:

  • public media such as newspapers and magazines, and electronic media;
  • policy documents and analysis;
  • proposed legislation and/or business support schemes.

The debate and discussions about the emerging forms of entrepreneurship are almost equally represented in all media and forums, as illustrated by Table 2. The public debate and policy discussions are balanced between a broad public debate, policy documents and analysis. Presumably, this forms the basis for a more informed understanding of different entrepreneurial forms and may lead to policy action such as changes in legislation or new business support schemes.





Table 2: Number of countries and types of media and forums in which emerging forms of entrepreneurship are discussed; multiple answers possible
 

Public media such as newspapers and magazines incl. electronic media

Policy documents and analysis

Proposed legislation and/or business support schemes

Others

One-person enterprises/self-employment

23

23

24

4

Part-time entrepreneurs

17

12

10

2

Parallel entrepreneurs

7

5

4

2

Serial entrepreneurs

6

7

5

1

Business transfers and successions

14

14

12

2

Source: Annex D

The differences in the intensity of the debate and discussions about the five forms of entrepreneurship follow the patterns described above with most attention focused on self-employment, followed by part-time entrepreneurs and business transfers and successions. One-person enterprises and self-employment is typically covered explicitly, and business transfers and successions are covered both explicitly and implicitly, while the other forms of entrepreneurships are usually covered implicitly, if at all.

In almost all countries the public debate, policy analysis, changes in legislation and business support target the one-person enterprise and self-employment.

Part-time entrepreneurs are debated in two out of three countries in public media, but this category does not attract the same level of specific policy analysis, legislation or business support schemes as one-person enterprises. As stressed by the correspondents, initiatives targeting one-person enterprises and self-employment will often also include part-time entrepreneurs because of the overlap between these two forms of business activity.

The category of business transfers and successions is a target for public media debate, policy discussion and policy initiatives in two out of five countries.

Parallel and serial entrepreneurs receive less attention in the public media and in policy documents and initiatives.

3. An in-depth analysis of the content of the political discussion

Policy domains that address issues of emerging entrepreneurship

This section provides an overview of the various policy domains in which the debate on entrepreneurship is embedded. Policy discussions about emerging forms of entrepreneurship appear primarily in domains such as labour policy and economic and industrial policy, followed by educational and regional policy, as shown in Table 3. There is a correlation between the presence of the entrepreneurial forms in the public and policy debates and the number of policy domains in which entrepreneurship is addressed.

Policy discussions mainly address broad topics related to job creation, combating unemployment, and sustainable growth. The primary focus of policy discussions is not on renewal of the enterprise stock with the start up of more competitive and knowledge-intensive enterprises, or on innovative policies associated with entrepreneurship. Instead discussions tend to give higher priority first to developing entrepreneurial culture or spirit, and then to the survival of start-ups. Policies to encourage innovation typically focus more on SMEs and large enterprises, although the relatively higher importance of innovation policies associated with serial entrepreneurs should be noted. As entrepreneurship also forms part of measures designed to enhance employment and employability, countries may not wish to accelerate innovative behaviour in the early start-up phases, seeing this as risky and more likely to lead to closure and job losses. In this sense there is an inherent conflict between EU ambitions about smart growth and innovation, and the way in which entrepreneurship is also regarded as an alternative to the claiming of unemployment or disability benefits, as shown in table Table 3.







Table 3: Policy domains in which the emerging forms of entrepreneurship are discussed, by number of countries; multiple answers possible
 

Labour policies

Educational policies

Economic/Industrial policies

Innovation policies

Regional policies

Other

One-person enterprises/self-employment

23

17

21

11

16

11

Part-time entrepreneurs

12

7

10

5

8

2

Parallel entrepreneurs

4

3

7

4

5

1

Serial entrepreneurs

2

3

5

7

3

1

Business transfers and successions

7

4

13

5

7

4

Source: Annex C

Policy domains described in Table 3 as ‘other’ mainly address the category of one-person enterprises and self-employment. The main focus of these domains tends to be where entrepreneurship meets social policy and social security, such as schemes to promote self-employment for persons with disabilities or the use of self-employment to create or enhance pension income. This was mentioned by five countries; Cyprus, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Sweden and the Netherlands. Female entrepreneurship is explicitly identified by Norway and Portugal but, as described later in this survey, many other countries also have a gender dimension in some policy domains.

Another domain deals with the representation of the self-employed, such as union rights and collective bargaining in Spain, representation in national forums in the Netherlands, and statements by employers’ associations or trade unions in Poland. This may indicate a trend towards more bargaining power and a greater influence over policy making for one-person enterprises and self-employed people.

Domains of policy discussion addressing both one-person enterprises and self-employment and part-time entrepreneurs are broadly similar, even though one-person enterprises are to the fore in such discussions in about twice as many countries as part-time entrepreneurs. This may indicate that the challenges connected with being either a one-person enterprise or a part-time entrepreneur are quite similar, and that there is an important overlap between these forms of entrepreneurship.

The policy domains taking account of other forms of emerging entrepreneurship are considerably fewer. However, there are two observations to be made. First, with regard to parallel and serial entrepreneurs, and to business transfer and successions, policy discussions focus primarily on economic and industrial issues. Discussions about one-person enterprises and part-time entrepreneurship are more likely to focus on labour policies. The reported policy discussions may indicate that these particular forms of entrepreneurship often face specific financial and legal challenges affecting their taxation and ownership. The second observation is that serial entrepreneurs and business transfers and successions are more likely to be the focus of policies designed to ecnourage innovation.

One explanation offered by the Swedish correspondents is that serial entrepreneurs are considered important players in the commercialisation of academic research and development through spinoffs and proof that concepts can be taken to the market, and in bringing these to a level of maturity where they can be commercialised. As a result, serial entrepreneurs are often seen in the biotechnology area. Once a biotechnology enterprise is up and running and ready to be sold, the serial entrepreneur can start all over again. In some cases, according to a European Commission report (2009), the entrepreneurs will not sell the entire enterprise but only the product developed by it. They will then use the same business structure to develop new products. These models have evolved from being part of an education programme to a situation where many Swedish Universities and colleges offer various forms of incubator enterprise environments as a way of stimulating the development of highly knowledge-intensive new start-up firms.

Issues and factors motivating the debate

In many countries the debate and discussions are primarily aimed at stimulating business creation in general, rather than addressing specific forms of entrepreneurship. One-person enterprises and self-employment are the exception, being typically regarded within the general debate as business start-ups requiring no employees, often as an alternative to paid employment or the claiming of unemployment benefits. This category also finds its way into the debate in the context of political ambitions to encourage economic growth.

Even though emerging forms of entrepreneurship are common in most countries, they may not be recognised in the political system, as is the case in Bulgaria and the Czech Republic. In Cyprus, Greece, and Romania the debate is broad, but nonetheless has a clear focus on small family businesses in traditional sectors. However, in Cyprus, for example, issues identified in other countries as problematic for entrepreneurs, such as the administrative burden that falls on them, taxation, and the precarious nature of their work, do not seem to feature in the debate.

During the last decade, the Danish debate has been motivated by discussion about how forms of entrepreneurship may contribute to growth, and has distinguished between growth-oriented and non-growth-oriented entrepreneurs. Little attention has been paid to the differing categories of entrepreneurship analysed in this report. In France and Sweden, the debate focuses on fostering economic growth and employment through the encouragment of entrepreneurship.

In Germany, the debate is driven by the question of how to increase the number of new businesses and focuses particularly on one-person enterprises and transfer of business.

In Ireland, public debate and policy discussions deal with categories of entrepreneurship that are not quite the same as the emerging forms of entrepreneurship that are the focus of this report. Nevertheless, the debate is driven by issues such as competitiveness, innovation and employment creation in much the same way. A similar situation can be seen in the United Kingdom with the exception here that emerging forms of entrepreneurship are explicitly discussed, and that difficulties such as administrative burdens and red tape are directly addressed.

In Italy, for example, different forms of self-employment have been debated with the aim of distinguishing between employment and self-employment, simplifying bureaucratic procedures and reforming social provisions for self-employed persons. The object is to understand and define new forms of self-employment. This debate identifies new forms of self-employment that differ from traditional ones in their socio-economic conditions and their level or lack of social security; such entrepreneurs often work as economically dependent self-employed persons under a VAT registration, on contract for the duration of a project or doing freelance work, without belonging to a professional association or having other social security protection.

The Italian debate seeks to understand the emerging forms of entrepreneurship as new categories of self-employment rather than as an intermediary process in the development of new businesses. Other countries seem to have a more traditional approach, viewing self-employment as a transitional stage between being employed and running a business with employees.

In Spain, the only category of emerging entrepreneurship discussed is self-employment because the number of self-employed workers has increased. The creation of a self-employed persons’ association has triggered the debate about, among other things, creating a self-employment statute and unemployment insurance.

The content of discussions relating to each of the five categories of emerging entrepreneurship

One-person enterprises and self-employment

One-person enterprises and self-employment are part of the public debate and on the political agenda in most countries, but the debate and discussion mainly revolve around labour market policies which focus on various issues:

  • Job creation: This entrepreneurial form is seen as playing an important role in combating unemployment by creating new jobs, at least by keeping the entrepreneurs themselves out of the unemployment statistics and later, if the business is successful, leading to the recruitment of others. In this sense entrepreneurship and job creation are closely intertwined since the goal is to increase the number of enterprises. Discussions along these lines can be found in Austria, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, and Romania.
  • Social security and the private economy of the entrepreneur: A frequently mentioned barrier to becoming self-employed is the economic risk associated with it where less favourable – if any – social security, such as unemployment benefit, is offered. The debate on differing social security rights for the self-employed occurs in Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Norway, Slovakia, Spain and Sweden. It is also a concern that if a company is established as a sole proprietorship, the private assets of the entrepreneur are often mixed with the assets of the enterprise. This can have far-reaching consequences. In Belgium there are ongoing discussions on measures which could protect private assets should the entrepreneur go bankrupt, for instance, by establishing a separate legal entity for such enterprises. In the Czech Republic, growing unemployment due to the economic crisis has led to the creation of favourable schemes for the self-employed, including tax breaks and schemes to cover social security and health insurance benefits. However, since some employees are forced into self-employment while still working for their former employer, it can be the employer who benefits from this system while the former employee is burdened with extra administrative work and personal economic risk. A similar debate is taking place in Estonia, Italy, Lithuania and Luxembourg. In Hungary, The Netherlands and Romania the debate is about undeclared work and measures that can be taken to regulate the so-called black market.
  • Administrative conditions: Under the topic of economic/industrial policy, the debate here focuses on the perceived red tape of running a business. General discussions along these lines are taking place in Greece and Hungary. In other countries the administrative discussion focuses on:
  1. reducing or simplifying administrative formalities when establishing and closing down an enterprise due to bankruptcy or the transfer of ownership to a new owner, as in Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Poland and Portugal;
  2. reducing the administrative burden/procedures and creating favourable conditions including tax schemes, for instance, to reduce the tax burden for new businesses, as in Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Estonia, France, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania and the United Kingdom;
  3. lack of access to finance as a key barrier to entrepreneurship, as in Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia, Hungary, Ireland, Lithuania, Malta, Norway and Poland.
  4. General business conditions are also raised as a policy issue in Cyprus and Malta by highlighting unfair competition. It is reported that in Cyprus regulations restricting where a business can be located or its opening hours can also be a challenge for new enterprises.
  • Special target groups: such groups are an issue in some countries that want to increase the number of female and young entrepreneurs, for instance, as well as entrepreneurship among university graduates, immigrants and repatriated persons. In addition to promoting entrepreneurial spirit, this discussion also plays a part in discussions about better integration of specific groups into the labour market. This is the case in Cyprus, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania and Sweden. Other target groups are also part of the discussion. An example is Cyprus where self-employment for persons with disabilities has been introduced into the debate.
  • Educational policies: Austria and Poland have discussed educational policies in connection with the fact that entrepreneurs often cannot afford to participate in further education and training in the context of lifelong learning. Consequently, their need for training to improve business skills and competences is not met. In addition, funded training programmes typically target employees, not entrepreneurs. In other countries, there are debates about the introduction of business education and entrepreneurial training in education systems at different levels. In the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Greece, Ireland, Poland, Portugal and Sweden, the policy focus is on primary and lower secondary education to encourage entrepreneurial skills and culture in young people. Some studies, such as the ones undertaken by the Danish Technological Institute, show that the impact of such measures tends to be poor. In other countries the primary focus is on counselling in combination with the education and training of the entrepreneurs themselves. The aim is to encourage the establishment and survival of new enterprises, as in Denmark, Estonia, Ireland and Malta.
  • Innovation: Attempts have been made in several countries, such as Austria, Cyprus, Denmark, Ireland, Luxembourg and Norway, to link the entrepreneurial debate with innovation, as many innovative ideas originate with entrepreneurs and could contribute to a more competitive business environment. However, in some countries innovation has been introduced into the debate with little success and has not become a part of public debate as, for instance, in Cyprus, or, as in Austria, where entrepreneurship has not been linked with innovation programmes.

Part-time entrepreneurs

Part-time entrepreneurship is often closely associated with the category of one-person enterprises and self-employment since the challenges of running a business are considered to be very similar in both categories; this is the view taken in the public debate in Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Malta, The Netherlands, Norway, Romania, Slovakia, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.

In Italy part-time entrepreneurs tend to be considered in the context of irregular work and the need to regulate it.

The discussion about part-time entrepreneurship is often about special groups with casual connections to the labour market. Some examples of policies which target such groups include:

  • Retired entrepreneurs being encouraged to continue in business by allowing income-generating activities;
  • Schemes to help people in poor health or with disabilities create their own employment opportunities, as in Belgium;
  • Promoting female entrepreneurship as in, for instance, Belgium, Italy, Germany and Sweden, as a way to raise women’s standard of living or help them balance their family and work commitments;
  • Encouraging students to use their skills and/or research activities through the creation of student companies, as in Bulgaria, or as part of a general move towards motivating young people to start their own businesses, as in Italy;
  • Supporting employees who establish new enterprises without giving up their current jobs, minimising the financial risks by providing the safety net of a return to conventional employment should the business fail, as in France and Norway, or to provide an additional source of income to groups such as a farmers whose regular work cannot generate sufficient income, as in Norway and Romania.

Education and training is not a focal point in the discussions about part-time entrepreneurship, although in Bulgaria part of the debate does focus on increasing entrepreneurial awareness and spirit as well as business skills and competences. In Slovakia, initiatives to encourage part-time entrepreneurs to remain in business include legislation to reduce or eliminate double social insurance payments.

Parallel and serial entrepreneurs

There is little or no public and policy discussion about parallel and serial entrepreneurs in most countries. No special attention is paid to these categories in the overall discussion about entrepreneurship in Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden. In Bulgaria, Sweden and the United Kingdom, there is no specific debate about parallel entrepreneurs.

Parallel entrepreneurs are discussed in Denmark in connection with tax regulation, capital tax and administrative regulations.

In Bulgaria, serial entrepreneurs are associated with business angels and spin-offs, and the discussion addresses funding such as grants, loans and equity, and new, innovative businesses. The Swedish debate is more directly focused on the commercialisation of innovation and access to venture capital. A similar discussion is taking place in Denmark and the United Kingdom, but here it is focused on issues concerning bankruptcy and administrative regulations. In Denmark, the public debate tries to present this entrepreneurial form as a role model, whereas in the United Kingdom this category is perceived to be more commonly associated with illegal business activities.

In Cyprus, parallel entrepreneurship is discussed against a rather different background, motivated by the unfair competition inflicted by big businesses or multinational companies on SMEs when they establish subsidiary companies. These are considered to be a form of parallel entrepreneurship.

Business transfers and successions

Many countries, mainly among the EU15, report that the public and policy discussion of business transfers and succession has been part of the entrepreneurial debate. In Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Italy, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway and the United Kingdom, the discussion is very closely linked to the transfer of family businesses from one generation to another, with the focus on not only securing the future of a business but also its employment capacity.

This debate also focuses on raising entrepreneurs’ awareness of the issues so that they can prepare for retirement in good time. Some countries such as Denmark, Germany, Italy and Norway offer counselling about business succession between generations, and in Sweden specific policies ease the administrative procedures.

In the United Kingdom, the discussion has highlighted the issue of the inheritance tax that becomes due when a business is transferred to relatives and which, it is argued, is unfair and financially damaging. In Denmark, business transfers and succession are also linked to a discussion about the market-based transfers of enterprises, such as innovative technology-oriented enterprises being sold to multinationals.

In eastern and central European countries business transfers and successions are associated with privatisation during the transition period, as in Bulgaria. In Estonia, this entrepreneurial form has also been affected by a discussion about the implementation of the EU Council Directive on safeguarding employees in the case of business transfers. In Romania, the discussion focuses on reducing illegal business and tax evasion and on encouraging more transparent business deals.

The outcome and impact of the public debate in European countries

New legislation and industrial support schemes offering financial support or consultancy services to entrepreneurs have been put into effect as a result of the ongoing debate about entrepreneurship.

One-person enterprises and self-employment

Several different initiatives have been set up to support one-person enterprises and self-employment, in particular to encourage job creation, but also to attract specific target groups to entrepreneurship such as young persons, female entrepreneurs and people with disabilities and people with a higher education. However, as one-person enterprises and self-employment are often seen as a first stage of developing an enterprise, the initiatives are not solely or explicitly designed for this particular form of entrepreneurship but are aimed at entrepreneurs in general. Nevertheless, as these initiatives are relevant for one-person enterprises and self-employment, they are presented below.

Among the main barriers to establishing new enterprises are the lack of access to capital, unhelpful tax regimes and fiscal schemes or complex labour market regulations. Several countries have initiated different kinds of economic incentives to mitigate these difficulties. These include:

  • financial incentives to unemployed persons starting a new business, as in Estonia, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania and Sweden;
  • grant or subsidy schemes available for business start-ups, as in Estonia, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Norway and Poland;
  • financial aid to young entrepreneurs, as in Austria;
  • microcredit schemes, special credit products for start-ups, seed capital funds mainly aimed at technology-oriented enterprises and high-value services, and other schemes whereby entrepreneurs, who often have no credit record, can gain access to credit more easily, as in Austria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ireland, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Norway, Poland, Portugal and Sweden;
  • sponsorship for innovative business ideas, as in Austria, or tax breaks for investment in R&D, as in Luxembourg, Malta and Norway. Similar tax credits and incentives give preferential treatment to entrepreneurs by reducing duties, deducting accrued losses or offering access to unemployment insurance and health and social benefits, as in Austria, Bulgaria, Estonia, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, The Netherlands, and Sweden, and as proposed in Spain;
  • grants for hiring a business’s first employees or the subsidy of part of the employees’ gross income, as in Austria;
  • simplified payment of taxes and social contributions and an easing of the tax burden, as offered in France where the self-employed can submit a simple tax return without registering in the trade or company register. They are not subject to VAT and do not have to pay trade tax for three years. Special tax and VAT schemes are also available in Hungary, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Romania;
  • access to a ‘substitute entrepreneur‘ who can replace a self-employed person when circumstances prevent him or her from running the business, as in Belgium.

Many countries have changed business legislation and administrative procedures and have set up simpler regulations for establishing and running a business. These measures include:

  • information and support packages on how to start a new business, and in many countries so-called ‘business incubators’ offer premises and support services for entrepreneurs, as in Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania and Sweden;
  • simplifying the administrative procedures for establishing and running new enterprises, as in Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Estonia, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Poland, Romania and the United Kingdom;
  • establishing an electronic register of companies with the aim of simplifying administrative procedures as, for instance, through the Banque-carrefour des Enterprises in Belgium;
  • creating a new legal form of company establishment like, for instance, the SPRL starter in Belgium which requires a nominal level of capital (€1 – €18,555), making it easier to set up a company. In France, the 2009 Modernisation of the Economy Law introduces the new legal and fiscal status for the self-employed of ‘auto-entrepreneur’. This is a measure which is likely to also be adopted by Luxembourg;
  • introducing legislation designed to stop forced self-employment resulting in precarious work, for instance, in Poland where the Labour Code and Personal Income Tax Act have been changed with this intention, or in Spain where the Spanish Act 20/2000 of 11 July 2000 has created a statute of self-employed which also includes the economically dependent self-employed;
  • legislation to protect the family dwellings of entrepreneurs, as in Belgium.

Beyond consultancy and entrepreneurial training, other education initiatives have been introduced. Basic business studies have been included in the curriculum in upper secondary education in the Czech Republic, and training schemes for self-employed entrepreneurs to improve their business skills and competences and strengthen an entrepreneurial culture have been introduced in Estonia, Greece, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Portugal and Romania.

Part-time Entrepreneurs

The entrepreneurship debate has increased policy awareness of part-time entrepreneurs in Bulgaria. In several countries it has also resulted in changed labour market or social security regulations and a more favourable tax regime for this group. These measures include:

  • improvement of maternity leave for women in Belgium and, in Germany, special business advice offered to women working as part-time entrepreneurs to help with business operations such as tax and social security contribution regulations.
  • the French system of allowing a person to be both self-employed and employed at the same time. This is supported by regulations applied to the employment contract through an ‘exclusivity‘ or ‘a non-concurrence clause’ and access to temporary leave. If the employee has been employed for at least two years with the same employer, they have the right to ask for part-time working hours or leave of absence, and the employer is obliged to re-employ the employee after his or her leave.
  • favourable tax and social security measures, as in The Netherlands, or legislation to reduce or eliminate double payments for compulsory social insurance, as in Slovakia.

Parallel entrepreneurs

In Denmark, discussions about this category of entrepreneurs have led to simplified administrative regulations, easier access to capital, and a change in public attitudes towards this kind of entrepreneurship.

Serial entrepreneurs

A network of business angels has been established in Bulgaria with the intention of providing a support structure for serial entrepreneurs. The network not only provides access to capital but also to managerial and entrepreneurial skills, since business angels have typically been involved in several business start ups of their own.

In Denmark and the United Kingdom, the debate has resulted in more efficient bankruptcy regulations, making it easier to re-enter business after a bankruptcy. In Denmark this also includes simplified administrative rules and easier access to capital.

Sweden has launched a business promotion scheme that targets serial entrepreneurship. It is part of an innovation, commercialisation and technology transfer scheme and it offers better access to capital. This scheme is aimed at a more efficient commercialisation of research results through the transfer of research ideas to business. It may include that transfer of ownership of the business idea, but researchers and entrepreneurs may also go on to develop new research based business.

Business transfers and successions

Various policy initiatives target business transfers and successions. They include:

Financial support programmes and favourable taxation regimes, including:

  • access to financial aid in Austria and Romania;
  • the decrease or abolition of inheritance tax in Belgium, Sweden and the United Kingdom, and in Germany, for example, a decrease in inheritance tax is offered for a period of four years provided that the successor to the original entrepreneur continues to run the enterprise and pay salaries;
  • financial instruments , such as business angels or investment funds, to finance the transfer of companies, as in Belgium.

Business information, support and regulation, such as:

  • electronic platforms for transferring or trading businesses are reported in Belgium and similar database platforms are also being seen in Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Austria and Finland (European Commission, 2006);
  • simplified administrative regulations, fewer administrative burdens, as in Denmark, Greece and Sweden, or codes of business conduct (Romania and Slovakia).

Labour market regulation, such as:

  • the increased social protection of employees affected by a business transfer, as in Romania and Slovakia.

4. Standardised structural data

The available statistics cover many different sources of information, and the methods for gathering data vary considerably from country to country. The sources include data from public registers such as business, trade or commercial registers, tax and social security registers, censuses of enterprises or of the population, and surveys. Several countries have mentioned the Labour Force Survey as well as the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor.

Typically, business statistics are based on register data while demographic statistics about entrepreneurs are survey-based, using the Labour Force Survey methodology. In most countries, the main source of entrepreneurial statistics is the national statistical office. However, these statistics are typically produced by using register data such as business registers, social security data, tax data or censuses and surveys focusing on different aspects of entrepreneurship, and this makes the statistics less comparable. Denmark and Sweden appear to be the only countries where the same organisation gathers statistical figures for all indicators based on register data, and where there are extensive possibilities for crosstabulating data and even combining business and demographic figures. The Netherlands is planning to establish a similar service.

Other data sources are public and private registers, such as lists of members available from chambers of commerce.

The statistical data is typically available free of charge in most countries, but a fee must be paid to make advanced use of the data.

The availability of standardised statistical data on the five emerging forms of entrepreneurship has been analysed based on statistical variables within business statistics (see Table 4) and demographic statistics of the entrepreneur (see Table 5).







Table 4: Statistical variable: Business statistics and number of countries where vari

 

 

One-person enterprises

Part-time entrepreneur

Parallel entrepreneur

Serial entrepreneur

Business transfer and successions

Background information

Number of enterprises

22

9

5

4

3

Enterprise by branch

22

6

4

3

2

Regional data

20

5

4

3

2

Type of Ownership

18

4

2

2

2

Turnover

13

4

2

2

2

Economic data

Export

7

1

1

1

1

Employment

13

4

2

2

2

Others

4

6

 

 

 

Sustainability

No. of new enterprises per year

17

8

4

3

2

No. of discontinued enterprises

15

7

4

3

3

Survival rate

11

4

3

2

3

Others

3

1

 

 

 

Source: Annex F1 – F5






Table 5: Statistical variable: Demographic statistics of the entrepreneur and number of countries where variables are accessible by the emerging form of entrepreneurship
 

One-person enterprises

Part-time entrepreneur

Parallel entrepreneur

Serial entrepreneur

Business transfer and successions

Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur

6

4

4

2

1

Gender

17

9

4

3

1

Ethnicity

9

5

3

3

1

Civic status

8

4

2

2

 

Age

12

7

4

3

1

Geographical location

15

7

4

3

1

Education

10

5

3

3

1

Current/previous employment

9

4

2

3

 

Sector familiarity

13

6

3

3

1

Working hours

9

2

3

1

1

Income

6

5

4

2

1

Others

3

1

 

1

 

Source: Annex F1 – F5

Observations can be made concerning the availability of statistical data about the five emerging forms of entrepreneurship:

  • In most countries standardised statistics can be found for one-person enterprises and the self-employment. However, business statistics on background information are covered better than data on the economic performance and sustainability of the enterprise and demographic statistics of the entrepreneur (except for gender).
  • For the other four entrepreneurial forms, the coverage of statistical data is poorer with part-time entrepreneurs having the best coverage. Only a few countries offer access to statistical variables concerning business transfer and successions, and in these countries only a limited range of indicators is available.
  • Among the EU countries and Norway, only Denmark has statistical data on all the statistical variables for four of the emerging entrepreneurial forms considered in this survey. Working hours are missing from three of them, and no data exist on business transfer and successions.
  • A group of seven countries – Austria, France, Italy, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom – provides a reasonable coverage of statistical variables on one-person enterprises and self-employment. All other countries have a poorer coverage.
  • The statistical coverage for part-time entrepreneurship is best in Denmark, Sweden and the United Kingdom. When it comes to parallel and serial entrepreneurship, only Denmark and the United Kingdom have a good statistical coverage. Moreover, when it comes to business transfer and successions, only the United Kingdom and Hungary are able to present reasonable statistical data coverage on this form of entrepreneurship.

If business and demographic data are available, it is typically not possible to combine the two sets of data except where the data are based on the same survey, e.g. the Labour Force Survey or the French Information System on New Enterprises (Système d'information sur les nouvelles entreprises, SINE) or, as in Denmark and Sweden, where it is possible to combine register data from different registers. In the Netherlands, the Central Statistical Office is planning to establish a similar statistical system so that it becomes possible to crosstabulate the business and demographic statistics of the entrepreneur.

There is considerable variation across Europe in how often statistical data are updated, in the time series they cover, and in sectoral and regional breakdown. The accessible data for one-person enterprises and self-employment are used to illustrate these differences, since this form of emerging entrepreneurship has the best statistical coverage.

For 17 countries, the statistical data is available on an annual basis, and half of those countries report that some of the statistical variables are also accessible on a monthly or quarterly basis. In Cyprus, some of the data are based on a census of enterprises carried out every five years, and in Slovakia the statistics have only been compiled once.

The data source typically determines its time series since administrative data are updated continuously, for instance, monthly or quarterly, while register data are updated once a year, and censuses and surveys are often carried out once a year or even less frequently.

The length of time series has changed over the last 50 years, but in the 1970s and 1980s the production of statistical data about entrepreneurship became more common, and by the 1990s entrepreneurial data was being gathered in almost all countries.

The authors have investigated the sectoral and regional breakdown for one-person enterprises and self-employment. As seen in the table in Annex E, the level of breakdown of data available is seen to be particularly heterogeneous when taking into account:

  • NACE digit level where data are reported from 1-5 digit level to countries where this information has not been identified. However, in most countries there will be access to a breakdown at NACE digit 1 or 2 level, but for one out of two countries it is possible to have access to data at digit 4 level or at an even more detailed level.
  • Regional breakdown covers information from the location of individual enterprises to the regional level overviews, but breakdown at regional level is the most common.

To summarise, then, the widely differing variables within national statistics and differences in data collection methods give only very limited possibilities for analysis between the full range of countries examined by this survey, and then only for the main category of one-person enterprises and self-employment.

5. Summary of the content of national research and studies, and of the key issues in the EU debate

The authors have identified national studies and research for each of the five emerging forms of entrepreneurship for all the countries by searching the following sources:

  • private companies and research organisations;
  • university research institutes;
  • studies by journals and business magazines;
  • online blogs and forums covering and researching the different forms of entrepreneurship.

The national discussions

The overall focus of research generally follows national discussions. Twenty-one countries report research focusing on one-person enterprises and self-employment. Only five countries have indentified research publications focusing on part-time entrepreneurs, while four countries have identified research on parallel entrepreneurs, seven countries on serial entrepreneurs and eight countries on business transfer and successions.

Most of the identified research has been conducted within the last five years. Many studies have been carried out particularly in France and Italy over the last few years, while few have addressed the subject in the United Kingdom in the last five years.

The methodology used for gathering new data typically consists of surveys and other forms of interviews although a few studies are based on register statistics or administrative databases.

Research projects typically study the motivation, characteristics, behaviour, development and performance of the entrepreneurs as well as the challenges they face. Studies of one-person enterprises and self-employment can be categorised either as having a general entrepreneurial focus or addressing specific issues for one-person-enterprises and self-employment. The first type of study refers to, for example, barriers and enablers to establishing and running a one-person enterprise, as in Cyprus and Poland, or the potential for development of self-employment, as in Slovakia. Other studies look into the reasons for becoming self-employed, and these findings are mapped against the performance of the enterprise such as survival rate, income and turnover, and the need for support measures. This is the case for Austria, Bulgaria, the Netherlands and Norway. Access to capital and the impact of financial support are the focus of research into the development of one-person enterprises and self-employment in Greece and Germany, as is the impact of the economic crisis on entrepreneurs for Italy.

Other studies analyse more specific aspects of one-person enterprises and the self-employed, addressing their position in relation to labour legislation on issues such as contributions to social security or questions of health insurance, as seen in the Czech Republic, France, Lithuania, the Netherlands and Spain. Some studies focus on the transition from salaried work to self-employment and discuss issues such as the rights and status of self-employed workers’ associations, as in Spain and Lithuania.

The few studies that address part-time entrepreneurship analyse the benefits of being defined in this way, as seen in Austrian and German studies. In Sweden, part-time entrepreneurs are analaysed from the perspective of being in transition between self-employment and employment, and the focus is on the motivation and challenges associated with this form of entrepreneurship.

Parallel entrepreneurs are only mentioned in studies discussing attitudes to entrepreneurship and examining entrepreneurial success factors, as in Estonia and Germany.

Serial entrepreneurs are discussed in studies on growth, where the background and business experiences of serial entrepreneurs is examined to assess whether they are more experienced and growth-oriented than other entrepreneurs, as in some French studies. In some cases, the link between innovation and entrepreneurship is analysed, as in Germany.

Studies on business transfers and successions often focus on family businesses, on attitudes towards the process of business transfer, and the potential for growth and development after a transfer of ownership. Some studies also look at the risk of failure and present some policy recommendations, as in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, and Sweden.

National correspondents have reported limited evidence of discussion of serial entrepreneurs and parallel entrepreneurs. Additional desk research finds that parallel entrepreneurs are not a key research topic; however, the focus does fall on serial entrepreneurs when considered in relation to business transfers and successions.

The research on serial entrepreneurs in relation to business transfers and successions tends to focuses on the personal characteristics of the serial entrepreneur. A study of first- and second-generation entrepreneurs published in 1990 (Fraboni M and Saltstone, R) revealed that first-generation entrepreneurs are more innovative in business and the second generation’s characteristics are often more consistent with the role of an administrator. A 2005 study (Westhead, P et al, 2005) compared an inexperienced novice entrepreneur and an experienced serial entrepreneur. It found that serial entrepreneurs were more likely to demonstrate entrepreneurial behaviour, be more cautious and respond more quickly and appropriately to changing market demands. Studies have also observed differences among serial entrepreneurs. Two studies find that one out of four business closures was followed by the start up of a new business, and that young entrepreneurs who worked full time in their last business are more likely to restart (Schutjens, V et al., 2006 and Hyytiene, A. and Ilmakunnas, P., 2007).

The international discussions

International discussions take place in parallel to the national discussions in the European Commission (EC), in the OECD, and in various research environments. A point of departure for the European discussion is a 2004 comparative study between Europe and the USA carried out by Flash Eurobarometer that concludes that Europeans would rather be employees than self-employed.

Furthermore, a 2005 EC report and the Flash Eurobarometer in 2004 shows that one out of every two one-person enterprises did not want to hire staff due to the limited market reach of the company. One out of four reported that they preferred to work alone and that delegation of work to employees is difficult due to their lack of specialist knowledge or because they could not find suitably qualified employees. A third of the enterprises studied stressed that increasing labour costs were a barrier to employing people, as was the administrative burden of recruitment and employment.

The EC reported in 2010 that for years, European policies have supported self-employment and small and mediumsized enterprises (SME) in labour market issues.

It was noted by the EC in 2008 that an EU-wide discussion, similar to many national discussions, had addressed the promotion of entrepreneurship, and start-up and administrative procedures. This report pointed to a number of potential improvements that would support entrepreneurs and small businesses, including emerging forms of entrepreneurship. These improvements include:

  • simplifying the administrative procedures in connection with starting and running a business and easing the administrative burden;
  • counselling and training entrepreneurs through, for instance, one-stop-shop advice and information services, and encouraging entrepreneurial spirit through education and training at all levels;
  • encouraging special target groups such as young people, women and immigrants to start new businesses by providing support spefically to these groups;
  • improving access to finance, including risk capital, micro-credit or mezzanine finance, to the start-up phases of new businesses and offering them favourable tax and VAT rates. For instance in 2009, as a part of the European Recovery Plan, a special credit facility supported by the European Investment Bank was offered to workers who had lost oror were at risk of losing their jobs, to help them start up their own businesses.

The international discussion implicitly – and sometimes more explicitly – addresses the category of one-person enterprises and self-employment. The June 2010 Directive on self-employed workers and assisted self-employed workers introduces better social protection, such as giving them the right to state-supported maternity leave for the first time. The Europe 2020 strategy also encourages entrepreneurship by, for instance, removing measures that discourage self-employment.

Another issue discussed at European level is the transfer of businesses and business successions. In 2008, the EC estimated that about six million small business owners would retire in the next decade, with the associated risk of businesses closing and jobs being lost. To meet this challenge, the discussion has focused on, for instance, a more favourable tax regime that will not hamper business transfers or damage their finances, particularly when they are passed to other members of the same family.

In its 2008 report, the EC paid articular attention to both a ‘new start‘ (for serial entrepreneurs who have failed in one of their ventures) and transfer of business and successions, promising to:

  • promote a more positive attitude in society towards giving failed entrepreneurs a fresh start;
  • shorten bankruptcy procedures, and ensure that re-starters are treated equally.

An expert group formed by the EC in 2006 stressed the need for more efficient business transfer processes. It identified success factors and gave recommendations for developing special market places for business transfers such as databases and trading platforms. Another initiative, ‘Mentoring Business Transfers‘, was launched in 2007 and Eurochambers, the Europe-wide confederation of chambers of commerce and industry, said in 2009 that the first results of this scheme suggested that the initiative should be continued.

In the European debate it is often emphasised that new enterprises and SMEs have a potential for growth, job creation and innovation, but that monitoring new enterprise development is a challenge. A reason for the lack of readily available data is that there is little information at the micro-level that would offer personal information about the owners of the enterprises and would therefore help to identify part-time, parallel and serial entrepreneurship, and business transfers and successions. Studies that do gather this kind of information are commonly based on unique datasets gathered either through special enterprise surveys, such as the Flash Eurobarometer, or through complex business register analysis.

The EU and OECD discussion is very closely linked by mutual efforts to develop common entrepreneurial indicators. The aim is to establish an international and European database of harmonised statistical figures based on standard definitions and concepts. European business demography statistics draw on national registers to establish annual start-up, growth and survival rates, up to five years after start-up, for micro-enterprise size businesses, defined in accordance with the joint OECD-Eurostat Entrepreneurship Indicators Programme. More information about this programme is available at www.entrepreneurship-indicators.net.

This effort focuses on entrepreneurship in general, and identifies factors such as the number of employees, business size and growth, but without paying special attention to which of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship they belong to. However, the category covering one-person enterprises and self-employment is regularly identified in European business data, typically defined as either enterprises without any registered employees or those set up with the legal identity of a sole proprietorship. Even though part-time entrepreneurs are not explicitly discussed, data such as turnover or added value could be interpreted to show whether or not businesses were generating the equivalent of a full time income for their proprietors. Those that do not provide a full time income could then be assumed to be part-time entrepreneurships.

One consistent source of information that directly addresses occurrences of serial entrepreneurship and part-time entrepreneurship is the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM). Each year its research programme assesses national levels of entrepreneurial activity in 56 countries. At the time of writing, data from the programme for the period 1999–2006 are in the public domain, covering 18 European countries in 2006. Data after that date are only available in to GEM’s national teams, who may share their own national data as they see fit. GEM surveys report on enterprises that have no employees, part-time entrepreneurs and serial entrepreneurs, but GEM definitions are quite different from those used elsewhere. This limits the possibilities of comparison with other official statistics.

Another relevant European source to which many national correspondents refer is the European Labour Force Survey (ELFS), which includes the EU27 (except Malta) and Norway, and is compiled quarterly. The ELFS includes the category ‘self-employed’ and collects some demographic indicators about self-employed people, such as age, sex, education, occupation and nationality.

Commentary

As this report is about emerging forms of entrepreneurship, it could have been of more value if more research focused on the trends in society and in business that call for new forms of entrepreneurship, and if the research actually studied these forms of entrepreneurship. Only a few do.

Differing collection methods and no common agreement on which variables should be monitored make it impossible to compare European national statistics except in a very limited way. A first step to improve this situation could be initiate some kind of statistical development project in selected countries, with the specific intention of examining current developments in emerging forms of entrepreneurship in, for instance, Denmark or Sweden.

This kind of highly focused research and development of statistical rigour could have a dramatic effect on public and policy discussions, highlighting the way in which emerging forms of entrepreneurship have enormous economic potential. Such business-incubating forms of entrepreneurship could add another dimension to the labour market and job creation policies. As the emerging forms of entrepreneurship increasingly have an impact on both industrial and labour market policies, they may be a challenge for developing relevant policy initiatives.

Leif Jakobsen, Danish Technological Institute

Bibliography

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Annex of tables






Annex A: To what extent public and policy discussions have increased focus on the emerging forms of entrepreneurship within the last couple of years, on a scale from 1 (to a low degree) to 5 (to a high degree)
 

One-person enterprises/

self-employment

Part-time entrepreneurs

Parallel entrepreneurs

Serial entrepreneurs

Business transfers and successions

Austria

3

2

   

2

Belgium

2

2

1

1

1

Bulgaria

3

2

2

2

1

Cyprus

4

1

1

1

1

Czech Rep.

4

4

1

1

1

Denmark

4

1

4

3

3

Estonia

3

1

1

1

1

France

4

3

1

1

2

Germany

3

2

1

1

3

Greece

3

1

1

1

2

Hungary

5

4

1

1

4

Ireland

         

Italy

4

2

1

1

2

Lithuania

4

2

1

1

1

Luxembourg

         

Malta

5

2

1

1

1

Netherlands

5

2

1

1

2

Norway

         

Poland

5

1

1

1

1

Portugal

2

       

Romania

4

4

2

2

2

Slovakia

3

2

1

1

3

Slovenia

         

Spain

5

1

1

1

0

Sweden

3

4

1

4

4

UK

4

2

2

3

4





Table B1: Presence of the entrepreneurial category ‘one-person enterprise/self-employed’ in the public debate
 

Yes, continuously since

Yes, on and off in the last 10 years

Yes, has been on the public agenda, but since xx year it is no longer part of the agenda

No, it has never been part of the public agenda

Austria

Ca. 2000

     

Belgium

X

     

Bulgaria

1990

     

Cyprus

 

X

   

Czech Rep.

1990

     

Denmark

1980

     

Estonia

 

X

   

France

 

X

   

Germany

 

X

   

Greece

 

X

   

Hungary

1992

     

Ireland

       

Italy

1990s

     

Lithuania

 

X

   

Luxembourg

X

     

Malta

 

X

   

Netherlands

Early 1990s

     

Norway

X

     

Poland

 

X

   

Portugal

1998

     

Romania

1990

     

Slovakia

X

     

Slovenia

     

X

Spain

 

2000s

   

Sweden

   

X (2005/2006)

 

UK

1979

     




Table B2: Presence of the entrepreneurial category ‘part-time entrepreneurs’ in the public debate
 

Yes, continuously since

Yes, on and off in the last 10 years

Yes, has been on the public agenda, but since xx year it is no longer part of the agenda

No, it has never been part of the public agenda

Austria

 

X

   

Belgium

X

     

Bulgaria

 

X

   

Cyprus

     

X

Czech Rep.

1990

     

Denmark

   

Until mid 1990s

 

Estonia

     

X

France

 

X

   

Germany

 

X

   

Greece

     

X

Hungary

2001

     

Ireland

       

Italy

 

X

   

Lithuania

 

X

   

Luxembourg

     

X

Malta

 

X

   

Netherlands

 

X

   

Norway

 

(X)

   

Poland

     

X

Portugal

     

X

Romania

1990

     

Slovakia

 

X

   

Slovenia

     

X

Spain

     

X

Sweden

 

X (2006)

   

UK

 

1997

   




Table B3: Presence of the entrepreneurial category ‘parallel entrepreneurs’ in the public debate
 

Yes, continuously since

Yes, on and off in the last 10 years

Yes, has been on the public agenda, but since xx year it is no longer part of the agenda

No, it has never been part of the public agenda

Austria

     

X

Belgium

     

X

Bulgaria

 

X

   

Cyprus

     

X

Czech Rep.

     

X

Denmark

 

X

   

Estonia

     

X

France

     

X

Germany

     

X

Greece

     

X

Hungary

     

X

Ireland

       

Italy

 

X

   

Lithuania

     

X

Luxembourg

     

X

Malta

     

X

Netherlands

     

X

Norway

(X)

     

Poland

     

X

Portugal

     

X

Romania

 

1995

   

Slovakia

     

X

Slovenia

     

X

Spain

     

X

Sweden

     

X

UK

 

1997

   




Table B4: Presence of the entrepreneurial category ‘serial entrepreneurs’ in the public debate
 

Yes, continuously since

Yes, on and off in the last 10 years

Yes, has been on the public agenda, but since xx year it is no longer part of the agenda

No, it has never been part of the public agenda

Austria

     

X

Belgium

     

X

Bulgaria

 

X

   

Cyprus

     

X

Czech Rep.

     

X

Denmark

 

X

   

Estonia

     

X

France

     

X

Germany

     

X

Greece

     

X

Hungary

     

X

Ireland

       

Italy

 

X

   

Lithuania

     

X

Luxembourg

     

X

Malta

     

X

Netherlands

     

X

Norway

       

Poland

     

X

Portugal

     

X

Romania

 

1995

   

Slovakia

     

X

Slovenia

     

X

Spain

     

X

Sweden

 

X

   

UK

 

1997

   




Table B4: Presence of the entrepreneurial category ‘business transfers and successions’ in the public debate
 

Yes, continuously since

Yes, on and off in the last 10 years

Yes, has been on the public agenda, but since xx year it is no longer part of the agenda

No, it has never been part of the public agenda

Austria

More than 10 year

     

Belgium

 

X

   

Bulgaria

   

2000

 

Cyprus

     

X

Czech Rep.

     

X

Denmark

 

X

   

Estonia

   

2008

 

France

 

X

   

Germany

 

X

   

Greece

 

X

   

Hungary

1998

     

Ireland

       

Italy

1990’ies

     

Lithuania

     

X

Luxembourg

 

X

   

Malta

     

X

Netherlands

 

X

   

Norway

 

(X)

   

Poland

     

X

Portugal

     

X

Romania

 

1995

   

Slovakia

   

2003

 

Slovenia

     

X

Spain

     

X

Sweden

X (last 10 years)

     

UK

1979

     






Annex C1: Policy domains engaged in discussion about the emerging form of entrepreneurship ‘one-person enterprises/self-employed’
 

Labour policies

Educational policies

Economic/Industrial policies

Innovation policies

Regional policy

Others

Austria

X

X

X

A bit

Not much

 

Belgium

X

X

   

X

 

Bulgaria

X

 

X

     

Cyprus

X

X

X

 

X

X

Czech Rep.

X

X

X

 

X

 

Denmark

X

X

X

X

X

X

Estonia

X

 

X

     

France

   

X

     

Germany

X

         

Greece

 

X

X

     

Hungary

X

X

X

     

Ireland

X

X

X

X

X

 

Italy

X

 

X

 

X

 

Lithuania

X

       

X

Luxembourg

X

X

X

X

X

X

Malta

X

X

X

X

X

 

Netherlands

X

 

X

   

X

Norway

(X)

X

(X)

X

X

X

Poland

X

X

X

X

X

X

Portugal

X

X

X

X

X

X

Romania

X

X

X

X

X

 

Slovakia

X

X

X

X

X

 

Slovenia

           

Spain

X

 

X

 

X

X

Sweden

X

X

     

X

UK

X

X

X

X

X

X







Annex C2: Policy domains engaged in the policy discussion of the emerging form of entrepreneurship ‘part-time entrepreneurs’
 

Labour policies

Educational policies

Economic/Industrial policies

Innovation policies

Regional policy

Others

Austria

           

Belgium

X

     

X

 

Bulgaria

 

X

 

X

   

Cyprus

           

Czech Rep.

X

X

X

 

X

 

Denmark

           

Estonia

           

France

   

X

     

Germany

X

         

Greece

           

Hungary

X

X

X

     

Ireland

X

X

X

X

X

 

Italy

X

 

X

 

X

 

Lithuania

X

       

X

Luxembourg

           

Malta

X

X

X

X

X

 

Netherlands

           

Norway

(X)

 

(X)

     

Poland

           

Portugal

           

Romania

X

X

X

X

X

 

Slovakia

X

 

X

 

X

 

Slovenia

           

Spain

           

Sweden

         

X

UK

X

X

X

X

X

 






Annex C3: Policy domains engaged in the policy discussion of the emerging form of entrepreneurship ‘parallel entrepreneurs’
 

Labour policies

Educational policies

Economic/Industrial policies

Innovation policies

Regional policy

Others

Austria

           

Belgium

           

Bulgaria

   

X

 

X

 

Cyprus

           

Czech Rep.

           

Denmark

X

X

X

X

X

X

Estonia

           

France

           

Germany

           

Greece

           

Hungary

           

Ireland

X

X

X

X

X

 

Italy

   

X

     

Lithuania

           

Luxembourg

           

Malta

           

Netherlands

           

Norway

(X)

 

(X)

     

Poland

           

Portugal

           

Romania

   

X

X

X

 

Slovakia

           

Slovenia

           

Spain

           

Sweden

           

UK

X

X

X

X

X

 






Annex C4: Policy domains engaged in the policy discussion of the emerging form of entrepreneurship ‘serial entrepreneurs’
 

Labour policies

Educational policies

Economic/Industrial policies

Innovation policies

Regional policy

Others

Austria

           

Belgium

           

Bulgaria

     

X

   

Cyprus

           

Czech Rep.

           

Denmark

 

X

X

X

   

Estonia

           

France

           

Germany

           

Greece

           

Hungary

           

Ireland

X

X

X

X

X

 

Italy

   

X

X

   

Lithuania

           

Luxembourg

           

Malta

           

Netherlands

           

Norway

           

Poland

           

Portugal

           

Romania

   

X

X

X

 

Slovakia

           

Slovenia

           

Spain

           

Sweden

     

X

 

X

UK

X

X

X

X

X

 






Annex C5: Policy domains engaged in the policy discussion of the emerging form of entrepreneurship ‘business transfers and successions’
 

Labour policies

Educational policies

Economic/Industrial policies

Innovation policies

Regional policy

Others

Austria

X

 

X

 

X

 

Belgium

 

X

   

X

X

Bulgaria

   

X

     

Cyprus

           

Czech Rep.

           

Denmark

 

X

X

X

   

Estonia

X

 

X

     

France

   

X

     

Germany

   

X

     

Greece

         

X

Hungary

X

X

X

     

Ireland

X

X

X

X

X

 

Italy

X

 

X

 

X

 

Lithuania

           

Luxembourg

     

X

X

 

Malta

           

Netherlands

   

X

     

Norway

         

X

Poland

           

Portugal

           

Romania

   

X

X

X

 

Slovakia

X

 

X

X

X

 

Slovenia

           

Spain

           

Sweden

X

         

UK

   

X

   

X





Table D1: Media and forums discussing the emerging form of entrepreneurship ‘one-person enterprises/self-employment’
 

Public media such as newspapers and magazines incl. electronic media

Policy documents and analysis

Proposed legislation and/or business support schemes

Others

Austria

X

X

X

 

Belgium

X

X

X

 

Bulgaria

X

 

X

 

Cyprus

X

X

X

 

Czech Rep.

X

X

X

 

Denmark

X

X

X

X

Estonia

X

X

X

 

France

X

X

X

 

Germany

X

X

X

 

Greece

 

X

X

 

Hungary

X

X

X

 

Ireland

X

X

X

 

Italy

X

X

X

 

Lithuania

X

X

X

 

Luxembourg

 

X

X

X

Malta

X

X

X

 

Netherlands

X

X

X

 

Norway

X

X

X

X

Poland

X

X

X

X

Portugal

X

X

X

 

Romania

X

X

X

 

Slovakia

X

X

X

 

Slovenia

       

Spain

X

X

X

 

Sweden

X

     

UK

X

X

X

 




Table D2: Media and forums discussing the emerging form of entrepreneurship ‘part-time entrepreneurs’
 

Public media such as newspapers and magazines incl. electronic media

Policy documents and analysis

Proposed legislation and/or business support schemes

Others

Austria

X

X

   

Belgium

X

X

X

 

Bulgaria

X

   

X

Cyprus

       

Czech Rep.

X

X

X

 

Denmark

X

     

Estonia

       

France

X

X

X

 

Germany

X

     

Greece

       

Hungary

X

X

X

 

Ireland

X

X

X

 

Italy

X

X

X

 

Lithuania

X

X

X

 

Luxembourg

       

Malta

X

     

Netherlands

X

X

   

Norway

       

Poland

       

Portugal

       

Romania

X

X

X

 

Slovakia

X

X

X

 

Slovenia

       

Spain

       

Sweden

X

   

x

UK

X

X

X

 




Table D3: Media and forums discussing the emerging form of entrepreneurship: Parallel entrepreneurs
 

Public media such as newspapers and magazines incl. electronic media

Policy documents and analysis

Proposed legislation and/or business support schemes

Others

Austria

       

Belgium

       

Bulgaria

X

     

Cyprus

     

X

Czech Rep.

       

Denmark

X

X

X

 

Estonia

       

France

       

Germany

       

Greece

       

Hungary

       

Ireland

X

X

X

 

Italy

X

X

   

Lithuania

       

Luxembourg

       

Malta

       

Netherlands

       

Norway

       

Poland

       

Portugal

       

Romania

X

X

X

 

Slovakia

X

     

Slovenia

       

Spain

       

Sweden

       

UK

X

X

X

 




Table D4: Media and forums discussing the emerging form of entrepreneurship: Serial entrepreneurs
 

Public media such as newspapers and magazines incl. electronic media

Policy documents and analysis

Proposed legislation and/or business support schemes

Others

Austria

(X)

     

Belgium

       

Bulgaria

X

     

Cyprus

       

Czech Rep.

       

Denmark

X

X

X

 

Estonia

       

France

       

Germany

       

Greece

       

Hungary

       

Ireland

X

X

X

 

Italy

 

X

   

Lithuania

       

Luxembourg

 

X

   

Malta

       

Netherlands

       

Norway

       

Poland

       

Portugal

       

Romania

X

X

X

 

Slovakia

       

Slovenia

       

Spain

       

Sweden

 

X

X

X

UK

X

X

X

 




Table D5: Media and forums discussing the emerging form of entrepreneurship: Business transfers and successions
 

Public media such as newspapers and magazines incl. electronic media

Policy documents and analysis

Proposed legislation and/or business support schemes

Others

Austria

X

X

X

 

Belgium

X

X

   

Bulgaria

X

X

X

 

Cyprus

       

Czech Rep.

       

Denmark

X

X

X

 

Estonia

 

X

X

 

France

X

X

X

 

Germany

X

X

X

 

Greece

 

X

X

 

Hungary

X

X

X

 

Ireland

X

X

X

 

Italy

X

X

   

Lithuania

       

Luxembourg

X

X

X

 

Malta

       

Netherlands

X

     

Norway

     

X

Poland

       

Portugal

       

Romania

X

X

X

 

Slovakia

       

Slovenia

       

Spain

       

Sweden

X

   

X

UK

X

X

X

 


Table E: The level of breakdown of the statistical variables ‘enterprises by ‘branch‘ and ‘regional data‘ for the emerging entrepreneurial form one-person enterprises/self-employment
 

NACE code – digit level

Regional data

Austria

Nace 6-digit

Municipality level

Belgium

Nace 4-digit

Regional level – three regions in Belgium

Bulgaria

NA

Urban/rural

Cyprus

Nace 5-digit

District level

Czech Rep.

Nace 4-digit

Municipality level

Denmark

Nace 6-digit

Regional and municipality level

Estonia

Nace 4-digit

Bases on the registered address of the company

France

Nace 2-digit

Regions, departments and municipalities

Germany

NA

NA

Greece

NA

NA

Hungary

Nace 4-digit

NUTS 3

Ireland

NA

Regional level

Italy

Nace 2-digit

Province

Lithuania

Nace 2-digit

Regional level (counties)

Luxembourg

Nace 1-digit

NA

Malta

Nace 2-digit

NA

Netherlands

Nace 4-digit

Not specified

Norway

NA

NA

Poland

Nace 4-digit

NUTS 2

Portugal

Similar to Nace 1-digit

Metaregions (Portugal, Mainland, Azores and Madeira)

Romania

Nace 2-digit/4 digit

Regional level (counties)

Slovakia

Nace 5-digit

District level (aggregate data available at county level)

Slovenia

Nace 1/2-digit

Address of the individual company

Spain

Nace 2-digit

Regional level/province

Sweden

Nace 5-digit

Regional and municipality level

UK

All NACE digit levels

Geographical region of the UK in which relevant firms operate

Note: In the case there is statistical data for the other emerging categories of entrepreneurship, the data will typically represent the same level of statistical breakdown on branches and regional level.

























Table F1: One-person enterprises/self employed – available business and demographic statistics

 

Business statistics

Demographic statistics of the entrepreneur

 

Background information

Economic data

Sustainability

 

 

Number of enterprises

Enterprise by branch

Regional data

Type of Ownership

Turnover

Export

Employment

Others

No. of new enterprises per year

No. of discontinued enterprises

Survival rate

Others

Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur

Gender

Ethnicity

Civic status

Age

Geographical

location

Education

Current/ previous employment

Sector familiarity

Working hours

Income

Others

Austria

X

X

X

X

 X

 

 

 

X

X

X

 

 

X

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

 

 

Belgium

X

X

X

X

X

 

X

 

X

X

X

 

X

 

 

 

X

X

 

 

X

 

X

 

Bulgaria

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cyprus

X

(X)

(X)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(X)

(X)

(X)

(X)

(X)

 

(X)

(X)

 

 

 

Czech Rep.

X

X

X

X

 

X

X

 

X

 

 

 

 

X

 

 

X

X

X

 

X

 

 

 

Denmark

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

 

X

X

X

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Estonia

X

X

X

X

X

 

X

X

 

 

 

X

 

X

X

 

 

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

France

X

X

X

X

 

 

 

X

X

 

X

X

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

 

 

X

Germany

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

(X)

 

 

 

(X)

(X)

(X)

(X)

(X)

(X)

(X)

(X)

(X)

(X)

(X)

Greece

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hungary

X

X

X

X

X

 

X

 

X

X

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ireland

(X)

(X)

(X)

 

 

 

(X

 

 

 

 

 

 

(X)

(X)

 

(X)

 

 

 

(X)

(X)

 

 

Italy

X

X

X

X

X

 

X

 

X

X

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

 

 

X

X

 

Lithuania

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

 

X

X

 

 

 

X

 

 

 

X

 

 

X

X

 

 

Luxembourg

X

X

 

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Malta

X

X

 

X

X

X

X

 

X

X

X

 

X

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Netherlands

X

X

X

X

X

 

X

 

X

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Norway

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Poland

X

X

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Portugal

X

X

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

 

 

 

X

X

X

 

X

 

 

Romania

X

X

X

X

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Slovakia

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

 

 

X

X

 

 

 

X

 

X

X

 

 

 

Slovenia

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

 

 

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Spain

X

X

X

X

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

 

 

X

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

 

Sweden

X

X

X

X

X

X

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

 

 

 

UK

X

X

X

X

X

 

X

 

X

X

X

 

 

X

X

 

X

 

X

 

X

X

X

 

























Table F2: Part-time entrepreneurs – available business and demographic statistics

 

Business statistics

Demographic statistics of the entrepreneur

 

Background information

Economic data

Sustainability

 

 

Number of enterprises

Enterprise by branch

Regional data

Type of Ownership

Turnover

Export

Employment

Others

No. of new enterprises per year

No. of discontinued enterprises

Survival rate

Others

Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur

Gender

Ethnicity

Civic status

Age

Geographical

location

Education

Current/ previous employment

Sector familiarity

Working hours

Income

Others

Austria

                       

X

X

   

X

X

       

X

 

Belgium

X

X

X

         

X

X

     

X

   

X

X

   

X

 

X

 

Bulgaria

                                               

Cyprus

X

X

                                           

Czech Rep.

                                               

Denmark

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

 

X

X

X

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

 

X

 

Estonia

X

                       

X

                   

France

               

X

       

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

   

X

Germany

               

X

X

     

(X)

(X)

(X)

(X)

(X)

(X)

(X)

(X)

(X)

(X)

 

Greece

                                               

Hungary

X

 

X

X

X

 

X

 

X

X

X

                         

Ireland

                                               

Italy

                                               

Lithuania

           

X

           

X

                   

Luxembourg

                                               

Malta

                                               

Netherlands

                                               

Norway

                                               

Poland

                                               

Portugal

                                               

Romania

X

X

                                           

Slovakia

X

             

X

X

                           

Slovenia

                                               

Spain

                                               

Sweden

X

X

X

X

X

     

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

     

UK

X

X

X

X

X

 

X

 

X

X

X

 

X

X

X

 

X

X

X

 

X

X

X

 
























Table F3: Parallel entrepreneurs – available business and demographic statistics

 

Business statistics

Demographic statistics of the entrepreneur

 

Background information

Economic data

Sustainability

 

 

Number of enterprises

Enterprise by branch

Regional data

Type of Ownership

Turnover

Export

Employment

Others

No. of new enterprises per year

No. of discontinued enterprises

Survival rate

Others

Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur

Gender

Ethnicity

Civic status

Age

Geographical

location

Education

Current/ previous employment

Sector familiarity

Working hours

Income

Others

Austria

                       

X

X

   

X

X

       

X

 

Belgium

                                               

Bulgaria

                                               

Cyprus

                                               

Czech Rep.

                                               

Denmark

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

 

X

X

X

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

 

X

 

Estonia

X

                     

X

                     

France

                                               

Germany

                         

(X)

(X)

(X)

(X)

(X)

(X)

(X)

(X)

(X)

(X)

 

Greece

                                               

Hungary

                                               

Ireland

                                               

Italy

                                               

Lithuania

                                               

Luxembourg

                                               

Malta

                                               

Netherlands

                                               

Norway

                                               

Poland

                                               

Portugal

                                               

Romania

X

X

X

         

X

X

                           

Slovakia

                                               

Slovenia

                                               

Spain

X

X

X

         

X

X

X

                         

Sweden

                                               

UK

X

X

X

X

X

 

X

 

X

X

X

 

X

X

X

 

X

X

X

 

X

X

X

 
























Table F4: Serial entrepreneurs – available business and demographic statistics

 

Business statistics

Demographic statistics of the entrepreneur

 

Background information

Economic data

Sustainability

 

 

Number of enterprises

Enterprise by branch

Regional data

Type of Ownership

Turnover

Export

Employment

Others

No. of new enterprises per year

No. of discontinued enterprises

Survival rate

Others

Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur

Gender

Ethnicity

Civic status

Age

Geographical

location

Education

Current/ previous employment

Sector familiarity

Working hours

Income

Others

Austria

                                               

Belgium

                                               

Bulgaria

                                               

Cyprus

                                               

Czech Rep.

                                               

Denmark

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

 

X

X

X

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

 

X

 

Estonia

                                               

France

                         

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

   

X

Germany

                                               

Greece

                                               

Hungary

                                               

Ireland

(X)

                                             

Italy

                                               

Lithuania

                                               

Luxembourg

                                               

Malta

                                               

Netherlands

                                               

Norway

                                               

Poland

                                               

Portugal

                                               

Romania

                                               

Slovakia

X

X

X

         

X

X

                           

Slovenia

                                               

Spain

                                               

Sweden

                                               

UK

X

X

X

X

X

 

X

 

X

X

X

 

X

X

X

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

 
























Table F5: Business transfers and successions – available business and demographic statistics

 

Business statistics

Demographic statistics of the entrepreneur

 

Background information

Economic data

Sustainability

 

 

Number of enterprises

Enterprise by branch

Regional data

Type of Ownership

Turnover

Export

Employment

Others

No. of new enterprises per year

No. of discontinued enterprises

Survival rate

Others

Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur

Gender

Ethnicity

Civic status

Age

Geographical

location

Education

Current/ previous employment

Sector familiarity

Working hours

Income

Others

Austria

                                               

Belgium

                                               

Bulgaria

                                               

Cyprus

                                               

Czech Rep.

                                               

Denmark

                                               

Estonia

                                               

France

                                               

Germany

(X)

(X)

(X)

(X)

                                       

Greece

                                               

Hungary

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

 

X

X

X

                         

Ireland

                 

(X)

X)

                         

Italy

                                               

Lithuania

                                               

Luxembourg

                                               

Malta

                                               

Netherlands

                                               

Norway

                                               

Poland

                                               

Portugal

                                               

Romania

                                               

Slovakia

X

                                             

Slovenia

                                               

Spain

                                               

Sweden

                                               

UK

       

X

 

X

 

X

X

X

 

X

X

X

 

X

X

X

 

X

X

X

 

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