EMCC European Monitoring Centre on Change

Austria: ERM comparative analytical report on emerging forms of entrepreneurship

  • Observatory: EMCC
  • Topic:
  • Published on: 21 March 2011



About
Country:
Austria
Author:
Bernadette Allinger
Institution:

Disclaimer: This information is made available as a service to the public but has not been edited or approved by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. The content is the responsibility of the authors.

Only three of the five analysed emerging forms of entrepreneurship are of importance and part of the public and policy debate in Austria: the one-person enterprises, the part-time entrepreneurs and business transfers and successions. Of those, the one-person enterprises have received most attention recently due to their increase in the course of the last few years. They now make up almost 55% of all enterprises. Data on them is scarce, though. While the discussion on business transfers and successions has been going on for over ten years, a specific debate on part-time entrepreneurs has not caught up yet, even though in practice a third of one-person enterprises is already run on a part-time basis. Part-time entrepreneurs are most often discussed implicitly as part of a general entrepreneurship debate.

In Austria, only three of the five analysed emerging forms of entrepreneurship are of importance. Those are one-person enterprises, part-time entrepreneurs and business transfers / successions. The other two kinds have not received much attention (yet) and are not part of the public or policy discussion. With regard to self-employed workers, three distinct forms can be distinguished (see AT0801019Q), the so-called ‘free service contract workers’ (Freie Dienstnehmer), the ‘new self-employed’ (Neue Selbständige) and the ‘traditional self-employed’ or one-person enterprises. For the first two kinds, which are often associated with atypical employment and whose working situation rather resembles that of dependent employees than entrepreneurs, no trade licence is needed. For the purpose of this study, all three types will be considered as falling in the category of 'one-person enterprise / self-employed’; however, the third kind is being most focused on as it represents ‘traditional self-employment’ with the need to hold a business licence. Only members of this group represent self-employed persons to which the domain description above which includes 'running a business' applies. For this analytical report, the term 'one-person enterprise' is being used for this third kind of self-employment and the other two groups are referred to only when it is specifically denoted.

QUESTIONNAIRE

Part I: Public/policy discussion

General policy discussions and policy approach

Do the public/policy discussions specifically deal with the different forms of business activities, since when and for how long?

One-person enterprises first came up in the public and policy discussion around 2000. Five years later, the Federal Economic Chamber (WKO) made an issue of it during their election campaign. Since 2005, the discussion on one-person enterprises has gradually increased with their rising share of start-up companies. At the same time, there has been increased awareness that the share of OPEs is quite high also among well-established, long-lasting businesses. Data collected by Austria’s national statistical office Statistics Austria (Statistik Austria) from 2009 show that overall, 39% of all employers are self-employed and have no dependent employees. Among the industry and trade sectors, the share of OPEs lies at 54.5%, according to WKO data. Part-time entrepreneurs have become a topic within the last 10 years, but not very intensively. According to experts, this is a neglected field that should be much more discussed because for many potential entrepreneurs, this would be a highly appropriate entry into entrepreneurship; while being dependently employed and earning a secure income, the business can be run on the side and the business risks are limited because the employment relationship provides somewhat of a safety net. There are big overlaps between part-time entrepreneurs and one-person enterprises because a large number of one-person enterprises earn less than 50% of their income from being self-employed. Part-time entrepreneurship has not been a topic for economic policy and funding has been rather scarce in the past for both OPEs and part-time entrepreneurs. There is no public and/or policy debate on parallel and serial entrepreneurship. Business transfers and successions have been a topic for a longer period of time. Especially the WKO, but also the (now) Federal Ministry of Economy, Family and Youth (BMWFJ, or formerly the Federal Ministry of Economy and Labour BMWA) have focused on them, monitoring the success of transfers and successions, but also providing support.

Table 1: Presence of the different emerging forms of entrepreneurship in the public debate
 

Yes, continuously since xx year? (Please indicate year)

Yes, on and off in the last 10 years

(Please indicate yes where it applies)

Yes, has been on the public agenda, but since xx year it is no longer part of the agenda (Please indicate year)

No, it has never been part of the public agenda

(Please indicate X where it applies)

One-person enterprises /self-employed

Ca. 2000

     
Part-time entrepreneurs  

Yes, but not much

   
Parallel entrepreneurs      

X

Serial entrepreneurs      

X

Business transfers and successions

More than 10 years

     

For each of the entrepreneurship/business activities covered by policy discussions, which policy domains are they covered in? Please indicate with an ’X‘ where relevant.

Table 2: Policy domains engaged in the policy discussion of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Labour policies

Educational policies

Economic/Industrial policies

Innovation policies

Regional policies

Other (please specify)

One-person enterprises /self-employed

X

X

X

A bit

Not much

-

Part-time entrepreneurs

-

-

-

-

-

-

Parallel entrepreneurs

-

-

-

-

-

-

Serial entrepreneurs

-

-

-

-

-

-

Business transfers and successions

X

-

X

-

X

-

With regards to the policy discussion, most can be said about one-person enterprises. The discussion mostly focuses on labour policies and economic policies (i.e. funding of one-person enterprises, support to hire the first employee, etc.). The policy discussion on this group has been focused to a great deal on the goal of job creation: Successful, growing OPEs create jobs by being able to hire employees later on. Furthermore, educational policies have been discussed with regard to funding further training because otherwise it is largely inaffordable for one-person enterprises. The educational policies in place are not appropriate for them because funding programmes are generally limited to employees and do not include entrepreneurs. Currently, a strategy on life-long learning for one-person enterprises is being worked on. One-person enterprises also form part of a (very limited) discussion on innovation policies as many innovative ideas stem from them. Before the Austrian parliamentary elections in 2008, the non-profit organisation FO.FO.S (Forum Supporting Self-Employment) asked the political parties about their concepts for one-person enterprises. Even though they all brought forward ideas to support them, one-person enterprises or micro-enterprises are currently not part of the government's work programme. Part-time entrepreneurship is not considered to be a specific topic for the public and policy discussion. FO.FO.S reports to have taken up this issue by organising a discussion event on it in 2008, as they are numerous and make up about a third of one-person enterprises. However, part-time entrepreneurs are usually not treated specifically, but as part of the one-person enterprise discussion. Business transfers and successions have for a long time played an important role in the public and policy discussion, mainly because of a rising awareness among politicians that the relatively high number of (potential) transfers has huge effects on the labour market (i.e. one transfer saves four jobs on average, while a start-up initially often only creates one job). The succession discussion often focuses on family-run businesses transferring from one generation to the next.

In which media and forum do the public debate and policy discussions about the different types of entrepreneurship take place?

Please indicate whether they are implicitly (e.g. publications are covering entrepreneurs in general with implicit implications for the different forms of entrepreneurs/business activities) covered and/or explicitly mentioned (for instance parallel entrepreneurs are explicitly mentioned in publications) in these publications

Table 3: Media and forums discussing the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Public media such as newspapers and magazines incl. electronic media

Policy documents and analysis

Proposed legislation and/or business support schemes

Others, please specify

One-person enterprises/self-employed

explicitly

explicitly

explicitly

-

Part-time entrepreneurs

more implicitly, partly explicitly

explicitly

-

-

Parallel entrepreneurs

-

-

-

-

Serial entrepreneurs

-

(only e.g. in newspapers announcing interviews ‘with a serial entrepreneur’)

-

-

-

Business transfers and successions

explicitly

explicitly

explicitly

-

The only two kinds of entrepreneurship that are explicitly covered in different forms of media are one-person enterprises and business transfers and successions. They are both explicitly covered in public media and in various informational websites or online forums. As mentioned above, part-time entrepreneurship is always implicitly linked to the one-person enterprise discussion due to the fact that about a third of the one-person enterprises are part-time entrepreneurs. Business transfers and successions have long been on the public media agenda. All three kinds have been explicitly mentioned in policy documents and analysis. As far as proposed legislation and business support schemes are concerned, there is explicit legislation and support schemes like funding programmes for one-person enterprises and business transfers/successions, as well as implicit ones (eligibility for SMEs and micro-enterprises including one-person enterprises). Parallel and serial entrepreneurship is not covered in the media.

Specific topics to describe the different types of entrepreneurship

What has motivated the public debate?

Examples of motivation to assist you in answering question 4:

Have policy debates or research identified market or system failures that require public intervention?

Have policy/public debates or research identified dysfunctionalities that call for improvement or new business legislation?

Please specify for each of the five forms of entrepreneurship:

Table 4: What has motivated the public debate of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

Type of Entrepreneurship

Motivator

One-person enterprises/self-employed

Increasing numbers of one-person enterprises; goal to increase number of start-ups and increase spirit of innovation; regarding the 'new self-employed' and 'free service contract workers', the discussion has also been motivated by their atypical and precarious employment relationship

Part-time entrepreneurs

The fact that a third of all one-person enterprises are run on a part-time basis has implicitly become part of the debate.

Parallel entrepreneurs

---

Serial entrepreneurs

---

Business transfers and successions

The public debate has always been there, especially in the context of the transfer and succession of family run businesses transferring from one generation to the next

What has been the focus of the policy discussion?

To help you answer question 5, we list some examples of key issues that could be addressed in the policy discussion:

Regulation of business conditions or preventing illegal activities and deception e.g.:

Ease the administrative burden of establishing (registration) a new company, running a company or closing/winding down a company due to bankruptcy or transferring ownership to a new owner, etc.

Special tax or VAT schemes that give preferential treatment to start-ups and entrepreneurs including special conditions for R&D investments

Precarious work/social security – unemployment schemes, pension schemes, health and safety giving preferential treatment to entrepreneurs

Regulating illegal business activities (e.g. some serial entrepreneurs transfer their illegal activities from one firm to another when their illegal activities are discovered)

Promoting entrepreneurship

Access to finance – improving access to finance through grants, loans or equity capital

Financial incentives for business creation by unemployed people

Education – awareness raising and training to improve business skills and competences

Research and development such as supporting commercialisation of R&D through spinoffs partnerships, proof of concepts, IPR, etc.

Counselling and information dissemination, e.g. business planning, information campaigns

Provision of business facilities - easy access to office space and services

Raising entrepreneurial spirit among certain population groups, e.g. women, youth, migrants

Facilitate business creation through administrative simplification

Please specify for each of the five forms of entrepreneurship:

Table 5: The policy focus in the public debate within each of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

Type of Entrepreneurship

Policy focus

One-person enterprises/self-employed

Job creation; raising entrepreneurial spirit; finances; funding; social security

Part-time entrepreneurs

Implicitly included in one-person enterprise policy discussion

Parallel entrepreneurs

---

Serial entrepreneurs

---

Business transfers and successions

Secure employment; sustain economically viable businesses, getting financial aid (e.g. government funding through AWS (Austria Economy Service), partly EU funding)

Has the public discussion resulted in a concrete outcome/impact?

No: n/a

Yes: The public discussion has resulted in concrete outcomes.

If yes, pleased specify what outcome/impact and in relation to which of the five forms of entrepreneurships/business activities:

Examples of possible outcomes/impacts:

Attitudes towards entrepreneurship have changed and in which way?

General ‘code of conduct’ for what is acceptable business behaviour has changed

New legislation has been implemented (if relevant, please specify)

New business promotion schemes (if relevant, please specify)

Contributions to economic and regional development in terms of: Increase in number of entrepreneurs (covering different types), Increases in turnover, export achieved, Positive impact on labour market in terms of increased employment levels

The public discussion has led to some outcomes especially for one-person enterprises. In order to create jobs, a new funding instrument was implemented in 2009, sponsoring part of the first hired employee's income. More specifically, the one-person entrepreneur needs to employ a person who has been unemployed for at least a month and is under 30 years of age. A quarter of this employee's gross income is being paid by the Labour Market Service (AMS) for the duration of one year. This measure was part of the second labour market package that the Austrian federal government implemented, after close collaboration with the social partners, in order to cushion the negative impact of the economic crisis on the labour market and runs from 1 September 2009 until 31 December 2013. Furthermore, since 2006, several micro-credit schemes (mostly run by governments or government-related agencies like the AWS or AMS which take on extended liability) have been implemented which have strongly improved the availability of funds for smaller companies (including one-person enterprises), or, more precisely, for employed or unemployed persons planning on starting a company. The Austrian Federal Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection (BMASK) just started a new micro-credit programme in cooperation with the AMS in June 2010 which is currently available in Vienna and Styria. The access to these credits has had a big impact on one-person enterprises and start-ups as most often they did not have a credit history and were therefore excluded from obtaining a credit easily. Runtimes of individual credits are limited to a maximum of five years; no information is provided by the BMASK on the runtime of the measure itself. Also, various laws were being implemented focusing mostly on SMEs including one-person enterprises in order to promote entrepreneurship: e.g. the remission of different dues for start-ups (Promotion Act for Start-Ups NeuFÖG); deduction of accrued losses for SMEs for three years when calculating incomes and losses (SME Promotion Act, KMU Förderungsgesetz). With regard to social security, unemployment insurance has been extended to 'free service contract workers' in 2008, marking an important improvement to their precarious working situation. More support programmes for entrepreneurship include financial aid for young entrepreneurs (Jungunternehmerförderung), bonus payments for start-ups and business transfers/successions or sponsorship of innovative business ideas. However, according to expert opinion, more and especially more customised funding instruments need to be implemented especially for one-person enterprises as they have a share of around 80% of total start-ups, but also represent 70% of business closures. The partial sponsorship of the first employee's income, for example, neglects that for the great majority of one-person enterprises, employing somebody is just not realistic or economically feasible.

Please specify for each of the five forms of entrepreneurship:

Table 6: Outcome or impact of the public debate of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

Type of Entrepreneurship

Outcome/Impact

One-person enterprises/self-employed

New legislation has been implemented (refers to the atypical type of self-employment); financial support programmes

Part-time entrepreneurs

--

Parallel entrepreneurs

--

Serial entrepreneurs

--

Business transfers and successions

Financial support programmes, counselling and advisory services, ‘succession bourse’ (Nachfolgebörse)

Overall assessment

Within the last couple of years, to which extent has the public and policy discussion been more focused on the following different types of entrepreneurship compared to the business policy/entrepreneurship debate in general?

Table 7: Increased focus at the emerging forms of entrepreneurship?
 

To a low degree To a high degree

 

1

2

3

4

5

One-person enterprises/self-employed  

X

X

   
Part-time entrepreneurs

X

X

     
Parallel entrepreneurs          
Serial entrepreneurs          
Business transfers and successions

X

X

     

By and large, none of the analysed types of entrepreneurship have been specifically focused on with a partial exception of one-person enterprises. The public and policy discussion has been of a more general nature focusing on economic policy and the general entrepreneurship debate.

Please list the main sources of information in the search for the above

Examples of sources:

Research publications and papers

Government and policy publications (background reports and studies)

Government programmes and initiatives (websites, brochures and leaflets)

Public (national/regional) entrepreneurship information services

Legislation proposed or passed

Press releases by ministries and other authorities

Review of the policy debate in electronic and printed media

Policy reviews and proposals from trade and branch organisations

Research publication and papers: various research papers and research reports by FO.FO.S, KMU Forschung Austria (Austrian Institute for SME Research), L&R Social Research

Government and policy publications: laws, legislative reports

Government programmes and initiatives: websites by various ministries and business promoting government-affiliated agencies

Public entrepreneurship information services: information provided by Federal Economic Chamber WKO, Chamber of Labour AK

Press releases and newspaper articles

Policy/Legislative reviews by AK

Expert interview

Part II: Standardised structural data

Which standardised business statistics are available covering the different forms of entrepreneurship/business activities (explicitly or implicitly, i.e. also data that could be used to describe these forms of entrepreneurship without being published with this specific objective/heading)?

Possible sources to explore:

National statistical offices

Data from social security

Chambers of commerce and branch organisations

Data from tax and customs administration offices (on national and foreign entrepreneurs registered as owing VAT)

Regular indexes provided by national ministries of enterprise and or innovation (such as the annual Danish Entrepreneurship Index)

There is a lack of statistical data on all differentiated forms of entrepreneurship in Austria; however, for one-person companies, some information from Statistics Austria is available:

  • Firstly, Statistics Austria conducts a count of workplaces (Arbeitsstättenzählung) every ten years (the last one taking place in 2001). This is a complete inventory count of workplaces in Austria and includes all sectors except for agriculture and forestry (Nace Rev. 1, C-O) and differentiates according to the 6-digit NACE code. This is the only data compilation in which the number of companies by type of ownership is given. It provides data on companies without employees. As this is not equal with one-person enterprises, only estimates can be derived from that source.
  • Secondly, some data on entrepreneurship can be found in Statistics Austria's Labour Force Survey (Arbeitskräfteerhebung) which is based on a sample census (Mikrozensus) and conducted annually. Statistics Austria data always include self-employed people with a trade licence and those with a 'contract of work'. 'Freelance contractors' are not included; however, self-employed persons with employees working in agriculture and forestry are included. Within the category of self-employed persons, absolute numbers and the share of those without employees is given.
  • Thirdly, the structural business statistics ('Leistungs- und Strukturerhebung’) provides some relevant information, too. This count is based on a sample and is being conducted annually (since 1997). It includes all sectors of the market-oriented economy, but does not specifically differentiate one-person enterprises.

The WKO has made its own one-person enterprise analysis in 2010 based on their membership numbers. However, it needs to be mentioned that the WKO sectoral demarcation does not correspond to the NACE codes. Information available includes absolute numbers in each sector, sectoral and subsectoral share of one-person enterprises of all enterprises, and differentiation with regards to age group and gender.

As far as part-time entrepreneurship is concerned, no reliable data is available. Some information can be deducted from the Labour Force Survey. However, as this is a self-reported survey, the definition of the term ‘part-time’ is somewhat fuzzy and does not account for differences in working hours. Information on the income situation of entrepreneurs on the side (which does not mean part-time entrepreneurs) can be obtained from the General Income Report (by Statistics Austria).

With regard to business transfers / succession, only scarce data are available. The WKO collects data on realised business transfers and the Austrian Institute for SME Research (KMU Forschung Austria) provides a model with which potential future transfers can be estimated.

In Statistics Austria's business demography, data on the number of start-ups, discontinuities and survival rates are provided; however, they are not listed according to size of the company. The WKO has data on survival rates, as well, but also not according to size classes.

Table 8: Availability of business statistics about the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Type of data available

Indicate access to data by an ‘X’ in the first column

First published

Indicate year

Time series of data

(Biannually, annually, quarterly, monthly, once only, other)

Data source for the data

One-person enterprises/ self-employed

Number of enterprises

X

1973

10 years (last: 2001)

Statistik Austria, Arbeitsstätten-zählung*

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

X

 

NACE 6-digit

Statistik Austria, Arbeitsstätten-zählung

Availability of regional data (please specify)

X

 

Down to municipal level

Statistik Austria, Arbeitsstätten-zählung

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

X

   

Statistik Austria, Arbeitsstätten-zählung

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

(data available: assets and liability structure; capital structure; output, costs and earnings structure; earnings and profitability ratios; asset ratios; financing and liquidity ratios; productivity ratios)

Differentiation possible by NACE codes, provinces/regions

X

1963 (electronically available from 1995 onwards)

Annually

KMU Forschung Austria, balance sheet analysis differentiates between OPEs and employer companies

Exports

       

Employment

       

Others: production value

       

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

       

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

       

survival rate of enterprises

       

Others, specify:

       
Part-time entrepreneurs

Number of enterprises

       

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

       

Availability of regional data (please specify)

       

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

       

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

       

Exports

       

Employment

       

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

       

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

       

Survival rate of enterprises

       

Others, specify:

       
Parallel entrepreneurs

Number of enterprises

       

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

       

Availability of regional data (please specify)

       

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

       

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

       

Exports

       

Employment

       

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

       

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

       

survival rate of enterprises

       

Others, specify:

       
Serial entrepreneurs

Number of enterprises

       

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

       

Availability of regional data (please specify)

       

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

       

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

       

Exports

       

Employment

       

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

       

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

       

survival rate of enterprises

       

Others, specify:

       
Business transfers and successions

Number of enterprises

X

 

annually

WKO

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

X

 

annually

WKO

Availability of regional data (by province)

X

 

annually

WKO

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

       

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

       

Exports

       

Employment

       

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

       

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

       

survival rate of enterprises

       

Others, specify:

       

* see notes above on Statistics Austria’s count of workplaces

Is it possible to crosstab or merge the demographic data identifying the individual persons running any of the five forms of entrepreneurships/business activities with the company data specified in question 9 in a common database for analytical purpose?

No: Due to the fact that there are different demarcations and definitions used, any merging activity of available data will be unprecise and fuzzy. The WKO has merged its membership data with employment statistics by Statistics Austria in order to get information on one-person enterprises and argues that despite the fuzziness, the data is still meaningful. However, as mentioned above, the WKO’s sector demarcations do not correspond to NACE codes.

Yes:

If yes, is there any limitation to access to merge these types of data? Please specify:

If, yes please describe which information is available from demographic data in your country

Possible sources to explore:

National statistical offices

Social security data

Data from tax and customs administration offices

Regular indexes provided by national ministries and authorities

Demographic statistics on entrepreneurs are available via the Arbeitskräfteerhebung (micro-census). For limitations of these data, see above.

Table 9: Availability of demographic statistics about the entrepreneur within the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Type of data available

Indicated access to data by an ‘X’ in the first column

First published

Indicate year

Time series of data

(Biannually, annually, quarterly, monthly, once only, other)

Data source for the data

One-person enterprises/ self-employed Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner  

1995

annually

Statistics Austria, Labour Force Survey (Arbeitskräfteerhebung, based on sample census)

Gender

X

     
Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)

X

     
Age

X

     
Geographical location

X

     

Educational background (last registered education)

X

     
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)

X

     

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

X

     
Working hours of the entrepreneur

X

     
Income of the entrepreneur        
Other types of data (Specify):        
Part-time entrepreneurs Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner

X

Since 1972

Monthly data, annual averages

Main Association of Social Security Providers (HV) data allows for identifying the number of persons with more than one job, and among those what kind of jobs these are  part-time entrepreneurs can be identified

Gender

X

     
Ethnicity      

(foreign workers are identified)

Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age

X

     
Geographical location

X

     

Educational background (last registered education)

       
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

       
Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur

X

     
Other types of data (Specify):        
Parallel entrepreneurs Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner

X

Since 1972

Monthly data, annual averages

Main Association of Social Security Providers (HV) data allows for identifying the number of persons with more than one job, and among those what kind of jobs these are  parallel entrepreneurs can be identified

Gender

X

     
Ethnicity      

(foreign workers are identified)

Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age

X

     
Geographical location

X

     

Educational background (last registered education)

       
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

       
Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur

X

     
Other types of data (Specify):        
Serial entrepreneurs Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner        
Gender        
Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age        
Geographical location        

Educational background (last registered education)

       
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

       
Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur        
Other types of data (Specify):        
Business transfers and successions Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner        
Gender        
Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age        
Geographical location        

Educational background (last registered education)

       
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

       
Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur        
Other types of data (Specify):        

Is the data freely accessible or does it require registration, payment and/or a special effort to access the data? Please explain the accessibility for each of the forms of entrepreneurs/business activities and datasets referred to above.

All data collected by Statistics Austria is only partially available for free; one can access overview data without payment, for use of the whole data set ISIS, one need to pay to get access.

Table 10: List of statistical sources about the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

List data source/dataset

Explain the accessibility

Statistics Austria data

Statistics Austria provides tables and in some cases some short pdf files on reports. For use of the whole data set, however, one must pay.

WKO data

WKO provides extensive membership data, but also structural business statistics and employment statistics for SMEs. Some information is available for WKO members only.

Main Association of Social Security Providers (Hauptverband der Sozialversicherungsträger) data

The Hauptverband (HV) collects (among other data) data on employment relationships that are subject to compulsory insurance (excluding minimally employed persons and persons with a ‘free service contract’). The data allows for the identification of the number of persons with more than one job, and among these, what types of jobs they are. Parallel and part-time entrepreneurs can thus be identified.

   

Part III: Research

Please describe studies and research available nationally for each of the forms of entrepreneurs/business activities.

The following sources of information should be included in your research:

Studies from private companies and research organisations at national level

National studies from university research institutes such as those under the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Programme (cf. http://www.gemconsortium.org/)

Studies by journals and business magazines or even commissioned research by daily newspapers or communication departments of social partner organisations

Online blogs and forums covering and researching the different forms of entrepreneurship based on their communities.

Table 11: List of studies and research about the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

List the references (author’s name, title of publication etc, year of publication, organisation)

A short summary of the contents (e.g. topic covered, methodology applied)

One-person enterprises/self-employed

KMU Forschung Austria, Ein-Personen-Unternehmen in Österreich, Status quo 2009, Vienna 2009.

Mandl, I. et al., Ein-Personen-Unternehmen in Österreich, KMU Forschung, Vienna 2007.

Schubert, M./Keck, W., Österreichischer Bericht über die Befragung von Ein-Personen-Unternehmen, FO.FO.S., Vienna 2006

Schubert, M./Keck, W., Austrian Report on Needs Investigation – One-Person-Enterprises, FO.FO.S., Vienna 2006

Schubert, M./Keck, W., State of the Art Report über Ein-Personen-Unternehmen in Österreich, FO.FO.S., Vienna 2005

Kaupa, I. et al., Zufriedenheit, Einkommenssituation und Berufsperspektiven bei Neuen Erwerbsformen in Wien, L&R, abif, SORA, 2005.

Frank, H. et al., Gründungsrealisierung und Erfolg von jungen Unternehmen in Österereich, University of Economics, Vienna 2007.

WKO Forum http://www.forumepu-wkw.at/

WKO one-person enterprise website at:http://portal.wko.at/wk/startseite_dst.wk?DstID=8345

Short update of the 2007 study (below)

Report on the status quo of one-person enterprises in Austria, based on a literature and document analysis, a standardised survey of 2000 OPEs and case studies; definition, quantitative overview, characteristics of both the businesses and entrepreneurs, typologies, employment effects, available funding and support instruments

Report on survey of 337 one-person-enterprises in Austria; situation of OPEs (activities, working place, clients, work-life balance, working hours, outsourcing, income); characteristics of OPE entrepreneurs (reasons and motives, problems and advantages); support measures

English language short version of German report immediately above

State-of-the-art report on OPEs; literature and document review; focus on available data, support, funding, training

Report on new types of employment in Vienna (part-time work, minimal employment, ‘free service contracts’, temporary agency work, ‘new self employed’) and thus including information on the two atypical forms of self-employment on income situation, employment perspective, contentment/satisfaction with employment situation; literature review, secondary data analysis of longitudinal HV data, 806 telephone interviews, 8 company case studies, secondary analysis of the Vienna ‘qualification and employment monitor’ (sample of 1000)

longitudinal study on the realisation of start-ups and their success (three points in time: 1998, 2001, 2005; of the original sample of 932 persons who were willing to be repeatedly analysed in 1998, ca. 750 remained in the sample in 2001 and 663 in 2005); representative for start-up activities in Austria; additionally, (qualitative) focus group interviews with six OPEs; report includes 6 pages on focus group outcomes

Report on OPEs in the province of Tyrol; development of OPEs, status quo (2004), information on entrepreneurs (age, gender, region), distribution of OPEs according to sector; economic importance of OPEs; online survey on entrepreneurs (sample: 1037) about reasons/motives, contentment, workload, future prospects; policy recommendations

Compilation of information available on OPEs from different data sources (qualitative, quantitative); data and literature review; identification and analysis of available funding and support programmes

weblogs, information

information for one-person entrepreneurs

Part-time entrepreneurs

FO.FO.S, Nachlese zu 'Die Chancen von Teilzeit-Selbständigkeit entdecken', Vienna 2008; available athttp://www.fofos.at/downloads/48479e0316f27.pdf

Report on a discussion event on part-time entrepreneurship and its potential

Parallel entrepreneurs

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Serial entrepreneurs

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Business transfers and successions

Mandl, I./Obenaus, S., Overview of Family Business Relevant Issues – Austria, KMU Forschung Austria, Vienna 2008.

Mandl, I./Dörflinger, C./Gavac, K., Unternehmensübergaben und -nachfolgen in KMU der Gewerblichen Wirtschaft Österreichs, KMU Forschung Austria, Vienna 2008.

Gavac, K. et al., Unternehmensübergaben und -nachfolgen in Österreich, KMU Forschung Austria, Vienna 2002.

AWS, Unternehmensnachfolge, AWS white papers, Vienna 2007.

KMU Forschung Austria

Deals among other topics with transfer/succession of family businesses; importance of family businesses for Austrian economy; based on a literature review

Summary; deals with business successions and transfers, differentiates between OPEs and employer companies; potentials, estimates, realised successions/transfers; data, development after transfer/succession; data is based on a standardised survey, case studies, secondary data analyses (of WKO data), and a model to estimate future transfers;

similar to the reports from 2008 above; plus reasons for failure, and policy recommendations

support measures and instruments

provides a model/estimates on business transfers and successions; the data is published in reports which can be accessed without fees;

In addition to this, there are also research studies available which deal with the more atypical forms of one-person enterprises.

Bernadette Allinger, FORBA (Working Life Research Centre)

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