EMCC European Monitoring Centre on Change

Belgium: ERM comparative analytical report on emerging forms of entrepreneurship

  • Observatory: EMCC
  • Topic:
  • Published on: 21 March 2011



About
Country:
Belgium
Author:
Van den broeck Marie
Institution:

Disclaimer: This information is made available as a service to the public but has not been edited or approved by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. The content is the responsibility of the authors.

Serial and parallel entrepreneurs are neither part of the public debates nor policy discussions. Those particular forms of entrepreneurship are not recognised as such. Therefore no publication on issues concerning them exists. Part-time entrepreneurs as well as self-employed workers are, since many years, part of the public debates. The issues are about improving their status (access to social security benefits, supporting entrepreneurship, etc.).More recently, transfers of a company is part of the public debate and there exist some national studies on this phenomenon.

QUESTIONNAIRE

Part I: Public/policy discussion

General policy discussions and policy approach

Do the public/policy discussions specifically deal with the different forms of business activities, since when and for how long?

Table 1: Presence of the different emerging forms of entrepreneurship in the public debate
 

Yes, continuously since xx year? (Please indicate year)

Yes, on and off in the last 10 years

(Please indicate yes where it applies)

Yes, has been on the public agenda, but since xx year it is no longer part of the agenda (Please indicate year)

No, it has never been part of the public agenda

(Please indicate X where it applies)

One-person enterprises /self-employed

X

     
Part-time entrepreneurs

X

     
Parallel entrepreneurs      

X

Serial entrepreneurs      

X

Business transfers and successions  

X

   

For each of the entrepreneurship/business activities covered by policy discussions, which policy domains are they covered in? Please indicate with an ’X‘ where relevant.

Table 2: Policy domains engaged in the policy discussion of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Labour policies

Educational policies

Economic/Industrial policies

Innovation policies

Regional policies

Other (please specify)

One-person enterprises /self-employed

X

X

   

X

 
Part-time entrepreneurs

X

     

X

 
Parallel entrepreneurs            
Serial entrepreneurs            
Business transfers and successions  

X

   

X

X

In which media and forum do the public debate and policy discussions about the different types of entrepreneurship take place?

Please indicate whether they are implicitly (e.g. publications are covering entrepreneurs in general with implicit implications for the different forms of entrepreneurs/business activities) covered and/or explicitly mentioned (for instance parallel entrepreneurs are explicitly mentioned in publications) in these publications

Interprofessional medias for independent entrepreneurs and SMEs :

  • Z.O. magazine – Het zakenblad voor de zelfstandige ondernemer (UNIZO, the organisation for self-employed & SMEs is a non-profit making and interprofessional employers’ organisation and social partner)
  • Union & Action - (UCM, the ‘Union des Classes Moyennes’ is the counterpart of UNIZO for the Walloon self-employed)

Official professional forums:

  • Conseil Supérieur des Indépendants et des PME –CSIPME (Federal level)
  • Union Wallonne des Entreprises (Wallonia)
  • Union des Entreprises de Bruxelles (Brussels-Capital Region)
  • Vlaams Economisch Verbond-VOKA (Flemish Region)

Political debates and ‘ad hoc’ legislative acts:

  • Federal Ministers for self-employed and SMEs  Federal parliament
  • Regional Ministers and regional parliament
Table 3: Media and forums discussing the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Public media such as newspapers and magazines incl. electronic media

Policy documents and analysis

Proposed legislation and/or business support schemes

Others, please specify

One-person enterprises/self-employed

X

X

X

 
Part-time entrepreneurs

X

X

X

 
Parallel entrepreneurs        
Serial entrepreneurs        
Business transfers and successions

X

X

   

Specific topics to describe the different types of entrepreneurship

What has motivated the public debate?

Please specify for each of the five forms of entrepreneurship:

Table 4: What has motivated the public debate of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

Type of Entrepreneurship

Motivator

One-person enterprises/self-employed

- Balancing the attractiveness of the self-employed workers’ social security with regard to that of employees

- Improving training in management for entrepreneurs (business skills and competences)

- Separating the entrepreneur/family holdings and assets from that of the company

- Promoting women entrepreneurship

- Improving part-time entrepreneurs’ social security

- Allowing lucrative activities for the pensioned-off entrepreneurs

/

/

- Compensating for the demographic effects of the post-war years baby boomers

- Insuring companies’ longevity/durability by a successful transmission

What has been the focus of the policy discussion?

To help you answer question 5, we list some examples of key issues that could be addressed in the policy discussion:

Please specify for each of the five forms of entrepreneurship:

Table 5: The policy focus in the public debate within each of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

Part-time entrepreneurs
Parallel entrepreneurs
Serial entrepreneurs
Business transfers and successions

Type of Entrepreneurship

Policy focus

One-person enterprises/self-employed

- Improving self-employed workers’ social security

- Reducing administrative formalities for new business start-ups

- Improving access to finance for SMEs

- Proposing simplified form for legal entities

- Protecting the entrepreneurs’ family house

- Providing indisposed entrepreneurs (sick people or people with disabilities) external assistance- Responding to women entrepreneurship specificities

/

/

Has the public discussion resulted in a concrete outcome/impact?

Yes

Please specify for each of the five forms of entrepreneurship:

Table 6: Outcome or impact of the public debate of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

Part-time entrepreneurs
Parallel entrepreneurs
Serial entrepreneurs
Business transfers and successions

- Raising entrepreneurs’awarness before retirement

- Reducing inheritance taxes

- Providing specific financial tools to finance business transfers

Type of Entrepreneurship

Outcome/Impact

One-person enterprises/self-employed

- Creation of the ‘Banque-carrefour des Entreprises’, an electronic register resuming identification data on for-profit and non-profit companies as well as on liberal professions practicing on the Belgian territory. The European Central Bank supports this Belgian State initiative which aims at simplifying the administrative procedures for companies as well as to contribute to a more effective organisation of the public services.- Creation of the ‘Guichets uniques’ to help new business start-ups (information, relay and support in their obligations) and to simplify the administrative procedures.- Law on ‘SPRL starter’: In force since the 1st June 2010, this new legal form of company allows to create a company with a limited capital from € 1 to 18,550. The aim of this initiative is to encourage the entrepreneurs to cross the step. - Law on the protection of the family house - Programming increase of self-employed retirement benefit

- The reform of the law on the access to the regulated professions

- Law on the status of the ‘substitute entrepreneur’: when a self-employed worker is confronted with circumstances preventing him from pursuing its activity, he can be replaced by another independent from the register of substitute entrepreneurs

/

/

Overall assessment

Within the last couple of years, to which extent has the public and policy discussion been more focused on the following different types of entrepreneurship compared to the business policy/entrepreneurship debate in general?

Table 7: Increased focus at the emerging forms of entrepreneurship?

Part-time entrepreneurs

- Improvement of the legislation on the maternity leave for women entrepreneurs

Parallel entrepreneurs
Serial entrepreneurs
Business transfers and successions

- Decrease of the inheritance taxes

- Creation of electronic platforms of exchanges

- Creation of specific financial vehicles (business angels, investment funds, etc.) to finance the transfer of a company.

- Laws on companies transfers and on the principle of ‘excusabilité’ (=excuse, that is, offloading part of one’s debts and releasing part of responsibilities) in case of bankrupt.

 

To a low degree To a high degree

 

1

2

3

4

5

A. One-person enterprises/self-employed  

X

     
B. Part-time entrepreneurs  

X

     
C. Parallel entrepreneurs

X

       
D. Serial entrepreneurs

X

       
E. Business transfers and successions

X

       

Please list the main sources of information in the search for the above

Part II: Standardised structural data

Which standardised business statistics are available covering the different forms of entrepreneurship/business activities (explicitly or implicitly, i.e. also data that could be used to describe these forms of entrepreneurship without being published with this specific objective/heading)?

Table 8: Availability of business statistics about the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Type of data available

Indicate access to data by an ‘X’ in the first column

First published

Indicate year

Time series of data

(Biannually, annually, quarterly, monthly, once only, other)

Data source for the data

One-person enterprises/ self-employed

Number of enterprises

X

Long-standing time series

Annually

INASTI*: Self -employed

INS : one-person enterprises/TVA

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

X (all branches)

(4digits)

 

Annually

INS/TVA

Availability of regional data (The 3 Belgian Regions (Brussels, Flanders, Wallonia))

X

 

Annually

INASTI & INS/TVA

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

X

 

Annually

INS/TVA

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

X

 

Annually

INS/TVA

Exports

-

-

-

-

Employment

X

 

Annually

INS/TVA

Others: ___________

X

 

Annually

INS/TVA

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

X

 

Annually

INS & INASTI

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

X

 

Annually

INS/TVA

survival rate of enterprises

X

 

Annually

INS/TVA

Others, specify:

-

-

-

-

Part-time entrepreneurs

Number of enterprises

X

Long-standing time series

Annually

INASTI

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

X

 

Annually

INASTI

Availability of regional data (The 3 Belgian Regions (Brussels, Flanders, Wallonia))

X

 

Annually

INASTI

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

-

-

-

-

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

-

-

-

-

Exports

-

-

-

-

Employment

-

-

-

-

Others: ___________

-

-

-

-

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

X

 

Annually

INASTI

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

X

 

Annually

INASTI

Survival rate of enterprises

-

-

-

-

Others, specify:

-

-

-

-

Parallel entrepreneurs

Number of enterprises

       

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

       

Availability of regional data (please specify)

       

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

       

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

       

Exports

       

Employment

       

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

       

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

       

survival rate of enterprises

       

Others, specify:

       
Serial entrepreneurs

Number of enterprises

       

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

       

Availability of regional data (please specify)

       

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

       

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

       

Exports

       

Employment

       

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

       

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

       

survival rate of enterprises

       

Others, specify:

       
Business transfers and successions

Number of enterprises

       

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

       

Availability of regional data (please specify)

       

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

       

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

       

Exports

       

Employment

       

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

       

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

       

survival rate of enterprises

       

Others, specify:

       

*INASTI: National Institute for the Social Security of the Self-employed (Institut national d'assurances sociales pour travailleurs indépendants/Rijksinstituut voor de Sociale Verzekeringen der Zelfstandigen, INASTI, RSVZ)

**INS: National Institute for Statistics (Institut national de statistique/ Nationaal Instituut voor de Statistiek, INS/NIS)

***TVA

Is it possible to crosstab or merge the demographic data identifying the individual persons running any of the five forms of entrepreneurships/business activities with the company data specified in question 9 in a common database for analytical purpose?

No

Table 9: Availability of demographic statistics about the entrepreneur within the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Type of data available

Indicated access to data by an ‘X’ in the first column

First published

Indicate year

Time series of data

(Biannually, annually, quarterly, monthly, once only, other)

Data source for the data

One-person enterprises/ self-employed Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner

X

   

INASTI

Gender        
Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age

X

   

INASTI

Geographical location

X

   

INASTI

Educational background (last registered education)

       
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

X

   

INASTI

Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur

X

   

INASTI

Other types of data (Specify):        
Part-time entrepreneurs Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner        
Gender

X

   

INASTI

Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age

X

   

INASTI

Geographical location

X

   

INASTI

Educational background (last registered education)

       
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

X

   

INASTI

Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur

X

   

INASTI

Other types of data (Specify):        
Parallel entrepreneurs Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner        
Gender        
Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age        
Geographical location        

Educational background (last registered education)

       
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

       
Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur        
Other types of data (Specify):        
Serial entrepreneurs Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner        
Gender        
Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age        
Geographical location        

Educational background (last registered education)

       
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

       
Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur        
Other types of data (Specify):        
Business transfers and successions Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner        
Gender        
Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age        
Geographical location        

Educational background (last registered education)

       
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

       
Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur        
Other types of data (Specify):        

Is the data freely accessible or does it require registration, payment and/or a special effort to access the data? Please explain the accessibility for each of the forms of entrepreneurs/business activities and datasets referred to above.

Table 10: List of statistical sources about the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

List data source/dataset

Explain the accessibility

INASTI

http://www.inasti.be/

DGSIE

http://statbel.fgov.be/

Kbo-bce

http://www.kbo-bce.be/

Part III: Research

Please describe studies and research available nationally for each of the forms of entrepreneurs/business activities.

Table 11: List of studies and research about the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

List the references (author’s name, title of publication etc, year of publication, organisation)

A short summary of the contents (e.g. topic covered, methodology applied)

One-person enterprises/self-employed

-

Part-time entrepreneurs

1. Union des classes moyennes (mars 2010), Enquête sur les indépendants à titre complémentaire

-

Parallel entrepreneurs

-

-

Serial entrepreneurs

-

-

Business transfers and successions

1. CEFIP : WPC 07/1: Transmissions des PME belges: le financement (août 07) - En collaboration avec BKCP, CP Banque, le Fonds Bruxellois de Garantie et le Fonds de participation

2. COLOT, Olivier (2006), La transmission des PME familiales non cotées :approche de la transmission en Wallonie et impact sur les performances des entreprises, Thèse, UMH

3. GUYOT, Jean-Luc et VAN CUTSEM Michaël (mars 2010), La Transmission d’entreprise en Wallonie : discours et Enjeux, discussion paper n°1002, Institut wallon de l’évaluation, de la prospective et de la statistique (IWEPS)

4. LAMBRECHT, Johan, PIRNAY, Fabrice, (2008) Transmission du pouvoir dans les entreprises familiales, Rapport de recherche, Institut de l’entreprise Familiale

5. LAMBRECHT, Johan, NAUDTS, Wim (2007), Transmission et reprise en Belgique, Centres d’Etudes pour l’Entrepreneuriat, EHSAL, Bruxelles, Etude commandée par SPF Economie

 

Van den broeck Marie, Institute for Labour Studies, Université Catholique de LouvainInstitute for Labour Studies, Université catholique de Louvain

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