EMCC European Monitoring Centre on Change

Bulgaria: Young people and temporary employment in Europe

  • Observatory: EMCC
  • Topic:
  • Published on: 08 December 2013



About
Country:
Bulgaria
Author:
Nadezhda Daskalova
Institution:

Disclaimer: This information is made available as a service to the public but has not been edited by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. The content is the responsibility of the authors.

Youth activity and employment rates in Bulgaria are low compared to most EU27 countries and the growth rates of youth unemployment, increasing from 12.4% in December 2008 to over 30% in 2012, are among the highest in Europe. Alarmingly high is the percentage of long-term unemployment, with one in six persons over the age of 20 never havingstarted work. Bulgaria has one of the lowest shares of young people employed on fixed-term contracts in EU27. However, the proportion of young people who take up temporary jobs is much higher than that of adult age groups. The transitions from school or from unemployment and temporary employment to permanent employment are hindered. The contributions-based social security system makes young entrants in the labour market more vulnerable in case of unemployment or sickness.

Introduction

Youth unemployment has been a persistent problem in many parts of Europe for many years. Over the past 3-4 years, however, since the onset of the financial crisis and the economic recession which followed, it has become an even greater and more widespread problem and one which, given the on-going depressed state of the European economies, is likely to remain for some time to come. The latest monthly figures (for September 2012) show the unemployment rate of those aged 15-24 averaging 22.8% in the EU – just over 1 percentage point higher than at the time a year earlier. In Spain, the figure was over 54% and in Greece, 57%, in both cases, much higher than a year earlier. In the worst affected countries, therefore, as in most Member States, there is very little sign of any easing of the youth unemployment problem. There are, however, a few exceptions. In Germany, in particular, youth unemployment has declined since the global recession hit in 2009 and now stands at only 8%, well below the level it was before the recession. In Norway too, the rate is only 8%, though this is slightly above the level in 2007 before the crisis. Germany, apart, there are two other countries in the EU with youth unemployment below 10% according to the latest monthly figures - the Netherlands (9.4%) and Austria (9.9%). As in Norway, in both cases, the rate is above the pre-crisis level.

Moreover, young people who do manage to find jobs often have to settle for a temporary one, defined as one with a fixed-term contract of employment. According to the European Labour Force Survey (LFS), in 2011, just under 43% of employees under 25 were in temporary jobs in the EU and well over half in Germany (56%), France (55%), Portugal, (57%), Sweden (57%), Spain (63%), Poland (66%) and Slovenia (75%). (In Norway, the figure was much lower than in most EU countries, at around 24 %.) While around 40% of the young people concerned on average were in temporary jobs because they had a fixed-term training contract and another 9% were on probationary contracts, a substantial proportion (37% on average) were in temporary jobs because they were unable to find permanent ones. In the Czech Republic, Cyprus and Portugal, this figure was over 75% and in Spain and Slovakia, well over 80%.

Among young people making the transition from education or initial vocational training into employment, the proportion who take up temporary rather than permanent jobs is much higher than for the age group as a whole. In 2011, 57% of those aged 15-24 in employment who were in education the previous year were in temporary jobs in the EU and 86-87% in Spain, Portugal and Poland. For those moving from unemployment into employment, the proportion who take up temporary jobs is even higher on average in the EU (61%) as well as in Spain (90%).

The fact that a relatively large proportion of young people in employment are in temporary jobs may be a reason why they have been hit disproportionately hard by the crisis. In the economic downturn in 2009, many of the people who lost their jobs first were on fixed-term contracts since not renewing these contracts represented the easiest way for employers to reduce their work forces. In 2009, therefore, there was some decline across Europe in the proportion of young people in work employed in temporary jobs (see the Tables attached to the questionnaire). Since then, there has been some tendency for the proportion to increase again, in part perhaps because employers are reluctant to take on people on permanent - or standard – contracts given the uncertainty about future economic prospects.

Given the above, it is understandable that there is growing public interest, and some concern, over the nature of the jobs that young people are taking up. This concern is mirrored at EU-level where a ‘flexicurity’ approach to labour market policy has increasingly been advocated, which, in practice, means that while flexibility is an important objective, it needs to be accompanied by protection of workers’ interests if it is not to lead to a growth of precarious employment in low quality jobs. Accordingly, there is a need to obtain a better understanding of the terms and conditions applying to temporary jobs, the extent to which they are a stepping stone to permanent jobs and a working career in line with a person’s qualifications and capabilities, the access to social protection which comes with them and the measures in place to encourage employers to convert them into more stable jobs. These issues form the focus of the present study.

Definition of temporary jobs

The interest in the study is in all young people employed in temporary jobs of whatever kind, in the sense of all jobs that they are not subject to a standard contract of employment which is normally one of indeterminate length, or at least one for which no specific length is specified. Such temporary jobs can be for a period of training (i.e. traineeships or apprenticeships) or probation, intended to enable employers to check the suitability or aptitude of people for the jobs concerned. They might also be to replace someone on maternity leave or on a training programme or they might relate to a specific project of fixed duration.

All such jobs and others which are of fixed duration should be covered, whether they are part-time or full-time and irrespective of whether they are specifically for young people (such as perhaps in the case of traineeships or apprenticeships) or for people of all ages which young people happen to be doing. In some cases, it should be noted, it is relevant to include, in addition, to temporary employees, the ‘bogus’ self-employed – i.e. those people who have self-employment status but who are contracted to work for a single employer and who are effectively similar to employees who have a fixed-term contract of employment. (The cases in question relate to instances where employers use self-employment contracts as a means of employing young people without bearing the costs, and obligations, of a standard contract of employment.)

Outline of study

The study is divided in three sections. The first is concerned with the main types of job in which young people who are employed under temporary contracts work and the reasons why employers choose to use temporary contracts of employment instead of standard ones when they take on young people, as well as with the link, if any, with labour market conditions (i.e. with the extent to which the crisis has led to an increase in temporary employment). The starting point is the data summarised above, derived from the LFS, which indicate the relative number of young people employed on temporary contracts in the different European countries and the way that this has changed over the recent past (these data, as noted, are set out in the tables attached to the questionnaire). Correspondents are asked to check these data against any national data on temporary employment and to indicate where these show a different picture from the LFS data, perhaps because a different definition is adopted of temporary jobs.

Any description or commentary on national statistics should, however, remain brief, since the main task of the first section, is to review and summarise relevant sources of information on the different kinds of temporary contract under which young people are employed in each of the countries, the circumstances and areas (the types of job and the sectors of activity) in which they tend to be used and the main reasons why employers adopt them.

The second section is concerned with the access to social benefits which temporary jobs provide, distinguishing between the various kinds of benefit, and with the extent to which entitlement to benefit differs for young people employed in temporary jobs from that for those employed under standard contracts of employment. It should be emphasised that the concern is not only with the formal regulations which apply, which in many if not most countries do not make a formal distinction between temporary jobs and others, but also with de facto entitlement which stems from the nature of temporary employment. In particular, young people in temporary jobs may have difficulty in complying with the need to have a continuous period in employment, or a continuous record of paying social contributions, in order to be eligible for unemployment benefit.

The third section is concerned with the measures in place to regulate the use of temporary contracts of employment (such as specifying the number of times they can be renewed), with the attitudes of government and the social partners towards their use and with the incentives which exist to encourage the wider use of standard contracts of employment and the conversion of temporary jobs into permanent ones. A particular point of interest is the extent to which regulations and attitudes as regards temporary jobs have changed over the crisis period as the number of jobs available for young people to take up has diminished and as expanding these has become a policy priority.

A final point to note is that while it is customary to define youth employment (and unemployment) in terms of those aged 15-24, it is also the case that many of those aged 25-29 are also employed in temporary jobs, as indicated in the attached tables. Correspondents are therefore asked to extend the coverage of the study to this age group where relevant. It is recognised that in some countries the statistics available may not relate precisely to the age groups specified here, in which case correspondents should report on the age groups nearest to these.

Questionnaire

1. Importance of temporary employment for young people

1.1. Do the figures shown in the attached tables (on the number of temporary employed as a % of total employees based on Eurostat LFS data) give a reliable indication of the scale of temporary employment among the young in your country and the way that it has changed over recent years? Are there young people employed in temporary jobs who do not show up in the Eurostat figures? Are there national statistics which show a different picture from the Eurostat data? If so, please indicate what they show and give the source of the data.

The presented Eurostat (temporary youth employees as percentage of the total number of employees) data give a reliable picture of the temporary youth employment and of the trends of it’s decreasing in times of crisis. However an in-depth analysis (Table 1) of the employment of different age groups shows that fixed-term contracts (temporary employees as a share of all employees in the given age group) are typical for young employees under the age of 24 years (especially for those aged 15 to 19 years). (Labour market 2010 and Labour market 2011, surveys conducted under joint project of the Confederation of Independent Trade Unions (CIITUB) and the Bulgarian Industrial Association (BIA) ‘Security through the law, flexibility through the collective agreements’, co-funded by the ESF under the HRD OP.) The surveys are based on secondary analysis of the National Statistical Institute Labour Force Survey data.

Table 1: Employees by age group and type of contract (%)

Age group

2010–Q2

2011 –Q2

 

Indefinite

Fix-term

Indefinite

Fix-term

15-19

63.1

36.9

69,0

31,0

20-24

91.6

8.4

94,0

6,0

25-29

94.4

5.6

95,5

4,5

30-34

94.8

5.2

96,3

3,7

Total

95.1

4.9

95,9

4,1

Source: Dulevski, L., Labour market -2011, CITUB, 2012 (Unpublished report)

1.2. Is there any evidence that other forms of employment are used as a substitute for temporary contracts, such as bogus self-employment where young people are contracted to provide services to a single work provider in a continuous manner so acting de facto as employees? If so, please give the source of the evidence and indicate the scale of the phenomenon in terms of the number of people concerned.

There is no data available on bogus self-employment. However it is worth mentioning, that the share of young people working in informal economy without any contract is large and increasing. Jobs there should be considered temporary as they can be lost in any time. There employment and social security rights of young people are undermined or even lacking. According to the already cited CITUB studies the share of young people (15-19) working without contract increased from 17,2 % (2010-Q2) to 19,6 % (2011-Q2) compared to significantly lower and decreasing figures for the age group 20-24 (4% and 1,9% respectively). The average figures for all employees are 2,2% and 1,7% respectively.

1.3. Please list (and give summary details, i.e. purpose and duration of the contract) the most common contract types or contractual arrangements under which young people are employed on a temporary basis (such as for traineeships, apprenticeships, probationary periods, replacement of workers on leave or projects of a fixed duration). What is the relative importance of each type of contract or arrangement in terms of the number of young people employed under them?

According to the Labour code provisions (LC, art. 68), an employment contract for a fixed term shall be concluded:

  • for a definite period which shall not be longer than 3 years;
  • until completion of some specified work;
  • for substitution for an employee who is absent from work;
  • for working at a job which is to be taken through a competitive examination, for the time until it is taken on the basis of the competitive examination.
  • for a certain mandate, where such has been specified for the respective body.
  • for execution of temporary, seasonal or short-term works and activities.
  • for probation period – which is concluded in the event that the work requires the ability of the employee who will perform it to be tested, his final appointment may be preceded by a contract providing for a trial period of up to 6 months.

As an exception, a fixed term employment contract may be concluded for a period of not less than one year and for works and activities that are not of temporary, seasonal or short-term nature. Such an employment contract may also be concluded for a shorter period upon request in writing by the employee.

The Promotion of Employment Act also provides for subsidised temporary employment for young people up to 29 years old for six months, nine months or 1 year.

The new provisions to be discussed at the first meeting of the National Council for Tripartite Cooperation in 2013 will provide for the first time for obligatory signing of labour contract for apprenticeships from 3 to 12 month.

There is no data available on the number of young people employed under different types of temporary contracts.

Most common are contacts of short duration - from 4 months to 1 year especially in the age group 20-24 years. In general, fixed-term contracts of up to three months are the most typical of the youngest (15 to 24 years). The relatively high proportion of employees on fixed-term contracts lasting from four months to one year was observed in the age group 20 to 24 years.

Table 2: Employees on fixed- tem contract by age and duration of contract (%)

Age group

2010–Q2

2011 –Q2

 

Up to 3 months

From 4 months to 1 year

From 1 year to 3 years

Over 3 years

Up to 3 months

From 4 months to 1 year

From 1 year to 3 years

Over 3 years

15-19

28,6

71,4

0,0

0,0

26,8

73,2

0,0

0,0

20-24

19,0

81,0

0,0

0,0

13,5

82,6

3,8

0,0

25-29

16,5

77,2

6,3

0,0

22,5

72,2

1,9

3,3

30-34

20,9

72,7

6,3

0,0

6,2

92,0

1,8

0,0

Total all employees

16,6

78,5

3,3

1,6

17,4

79,1

1,3

2,2

Source: Dulevski, L., Labour market -2011, CITUB, 2012 (Unpublished report)

1.4. Please indicate the main reasons for the emergence and development of the different types of temporary contract which you have listed in response to question 1.3. To what extent are they linked to particular conditions in the labour market or employment protection legislation/regulation in your country? What is the main attraction of such contracts to employers? What effect has the crisis had on the use of such contracts?

The temporary employment is not yet widespread in the country and is largely associated with state-subsidised employment for disadvantaged groups without education and training offered by labour market programmes and measures. The low use of fixed term according to employers is linked to the strict labour legislation regulations.

Taking up a fix-term contract in most cases is due to the vulnerable position of young people on the labour market, namely in times of crisis with high and increasing unemployment. Temporary employment in most of the cases is due to the lack of opportunities for permanent employment. Despite the uncertainty of temporary contracts many young people see this as the only way to enter the labour market.

Table 3: Employees by cause for temporary job (%)

Age group

2010–Q2

2011 –Q2

 

Voluntary (apprenticeship, probation, other)

Involuntary (no permanent job could be found)

Voluntary (apprenticeship, probation, other)

Involuntary (no permanent job could be found)

15-29

25,9

74,1

38,1

61,9

Total

20,5

79,5

29,1

70,9

Source: Dulevski, L., Labour market -2011, CITUB, 2012 (Unpublished report)

As shown in the Table 3 in 2011 compared to 2010 there is a decrease of involuntary temporary work and increase of voluntary temporary work. The main reasons are related to the fact that the young people on temporary contracts have been the first to be dismissed and the active labour market policy measures providing for more subsidised apprenticeship and temporary employment under the National action plan for employment and OP HRD.

1.5. To what extent are temporary contracts a ‘stepping stone’ to ‘permanent’ jobs (or those with standard contracts of employment of undefined duration)? Are apprentices and trainees typically taken on by the companies or other organisations concerned on standard permanent contracts once they complete their training? Has the situation changed over the crisis period? Please summarise any relevant studies which have been carried out in your country or other evidence at the national level which exists and give the reference to them.

There are no surveys and information that support the view that temporary contracts are a ‘stepping stone’ to permanent jobs. On contrary, most authors stress that there is a risk that part of the young workforce becomes trapped in a succession of short-term, low-quality jobs with inadequate social protection and risk of segmentation. According to a survey conducted in the framework of the Project of the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy ‘Flexibility and security in Bulgaria - supporting the implementation of the national pathway’ under the PROGRESS programme, main flows of mobility of young people with a temporary contract in 2007-2009 are as follows: 45% retained their status of temporary employees, 31% moved to a permanent contract, 2% became unemployed, and 22% – inactive. (Beleva, Iskra (2010): Flexicurity in Labour Contract and Work-Time Arrangements in Bulgaria and Risk Segments. Published in: Flexicurity on the Labour Market in Bulgaria – Situation and Prospects, MPRA_paper, p.28, available at: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/id/eprint/28709).

2. Access to social benefits

2.1. Does entitlement of young people to (contributory) unemployment insurance benefits and (non-contributory) unemployment assistance (i.e. benefits, usually means-tested, which provide a minimum level of income) differ if they are employed on temporary contracts as opposed to permanent ones? If so, please indicate briefly the differences in eligibility conditions and any differences between types of temporary contract (including those working as self-employed for a single employer). Have there been any changes over the period of the crisis?

There is no difference concerning unemployment benefits both for young and old employees and for permanent and fixed term contracts.

The basic condition for unemployment benefit entitlement is insurance contribution to the unemployment insurance fund. However, due to the relation between unemployment benefits entitlement and the length of social security contributions, the young people without or short previous employment history can register in unemployment offices but are not entitled to unemployment benefits.

The requirement for receiving unemployment benefit is to have contributions at least 9 months during the last 15 months before the termination of employment.

There is no unemployment social assistance according to the national legislation in force, but there is conditional requirement the applicants for social assistance (mean-tested) in working age (with few exceptions) to be registered unemployed.

There are also restrictions on the assistance for long-term unemployment (most of long-term unemployed are young people). Initially in 2007 the length of the period of the paid monthly aid was decreased from 30 to 12 months and in 2010 these assistance benefits were repealed.

As a result of the longlasting and difficult negotiations between the government and the social partners on the second anti-crisis package, since 1July 2010 the maximum threshold of unemployment benefits was removed. However the contribution period for calculating the size of the unemployment benefit was extended from 9 to 12 months in 2010 and once more in 2011 – to 18 months.

2.2. Does entitlement of young people to sickness benefits and maternity benefits differ if they are employed on temporary contracts as opposed to permanent ones? If so, please indicate briefly the differences in eligibility conditions and any differences between types of temporary contract (including those working as self-employed for a single employer). Have there been any changes over the period of the crisis?

There is no difference in sickness benefits depending on the type of contract. However the new entrants to the labour market are in vulnerable position because, as in the case of unemployment benefits, the access to sickness benefits is bound up with the requirement for at least 6 month contribution record.

Many of young people not in employment and not registered as unemployed are not paying their health care contributions and lost their social security rights.

There is no also difference in the entitlement to maternity leave and maternity benefits related to the type of contract. Employees on maternity leave receive indemnity payments, if they have acquired 12-month working experience recognised for social security purposes and have paid social security contributions covering this social security risk. The reference period for calculating maternity leave entitlements since 2011 is 24 months preceding the maternity leave (18 in 2010).

2.3. Are there any differences in the entitlement of young people to old-age pensions between those employed in temporary jobs as opposed to permanent ones? If so, please indicate what these are. Have conditions of eligibility to pensions changed over the period of the crisis (including through pension reforms introduced as part of a long-term strategy to improve the financial sustainability of the system)?

There is not difference. The entitlement to old pension is also contribution based.

2.4. Are there any differences in entitlement of young people to health care between those employed in temporary jobs as opposed to permanent ones? If so, please indicate what these are. Have conditions of eligibility to health care changed over the period of the crisis?

The entitlement to health care does not depend on the age and the type of contract, but on the payment of social security contributions.

3. Regulation of temporary contracts and policies to support transitions into permanent contracts

3.1. Please describe briefly the regulations applying to the main types of temporary contract in your country. Do restrictions exist on the maximum duration of the different types of temporary contract for young workers or the number of times they can be renewed? Do these regulations differ by age (i.e. between young people and older workers) and/or by type of temporary contract (as mentioned in question 1.3), by occupation, or by sector of activity? Do special regulations exist for those completing apprenticeships or traineeships? Have the regulations changed over the period of the crisis – i.e. has there been a tendency for them to have been tightened or relaxed?

The regulations related to different types of temporary contracts do not differ by age.

The Labour Code also explicitly proclaims a ban the employees on fixed-term contract to be placed at a disadvantage just because of temporary nature of their employment, compared with workers on permanent or full-time contract, who are performing the same or similar work in the establishment.

The Labour code provides limitations on the duration (up to 3 years and in case of probation – up to six months) and/or the renewals of fixed-term contracts (see answers to the question 1.3).

The fixed term employment contract may be repeatedly concluded with the same employee for the same type of work only once for a period of at least one year. An employment contract with trial period also may be concluded with one and the same employee for one and the same type of work only once.

As already mentioned, the draft amendments to the Labour code (2013) provide for obligatory conclusion of labour contract (even for a month) for apprenticeship (with young people up to 29 years after completion of secondary or tertiary education which do not have previous experience) with payment no less that the minimum wage. The duration of apprenticeship should be from 1 to 9 months.

3.2. Do incentives exists in your country to encourage employers to opt for standard rather than temporary contracts of employment, to convert temporary contracts into permanent ones or to make it easier for employees to move from temporary to permanent contracts? If so, please briefly describe the form that these incentives take. Do they apply equally to young people as well as to older workers? Are any incentives in place to encourage employers to take on young people who have completed an apprenticeship or traineeship on permanent contracts? Have there been any changes to incentives over the period of the crisis? Are any such changes being proposed or being actively discussed at present in your country?

While there are incentives to hire young employees for six months or one year subsidised employment, there are not policies and measures promoting hiring on permanent labour contract. Subsidies generally cover the remuneration and social security instalments due from the employer for a period of up to 12 months.

3.3. Is the employment of young people on temporary contracts an important issue of concern for the social partners? Are there strong differences in attitudes and policies between employers and trade unions towards the use of temporary contracts? Have any initiatives been taken by the social partners, either jointly or separately, to encourage the use of permanent rather than temporary contracts? Have any specific initiatives been taken in respect of young people completing apprenticeships or traineeships over the types of job they are offered when their temporary position comes to an end?

While due to the low incidence the youth temporary employment is not a priority of the government and social partners, high and increasing youth unemployment, young people that are neither in employment nor in education (NEETs) and those working in informal economy have become a growing concern for policy-makers and social partners.

There are not joint initiatives of social partners related especially to encourage use of permanent rather than temporary contracts. What is more is that the views of trade unions and employers diverge as far as the temporary contracts are considered. The debate about the temporary employment is conducted already from a decade in the framework of the flexicurity debate, in which flexibility and security mean rather different things for the employers and trade unions.

Trade unions are in the in the centre of the fight against an uncontrolled use of temporary contract. After a mass trade union protest-demonstration in 2000 against the existing then practice of the use of successive fixed-term employment contracts the government was forced to conclude Agreement for transposing the EU Council Directive 1999/70/EC concerning the framework agreement on fixed-term work and since 2001 its’ provisions are part of the Labour code.

m contracts for young or inexperienced workers would improve incentives for firms to hire formal workers.

Social partners supported the inclusion of provisions and measures for subsidized temporary employment in the legislation and in the NAEPs. In times of crisis these measures were enlarged. In 2012, the government and social partners signed the First Job National Agreement (in Bulgarian) which is part of a national initiative called Jobs for Young People in Bulgaria 2012–2013. The agreement aims to create new opportunities for young people in the labour market and to provide employment for at least 22,000 of them, reducing the youth unemployment rate by 5%. The agreement includes a plan for eight programmes and initiatives for young people to be funded under the national action plan for employment and the Operational Programme ‘Human Resources Development’ 2007–2013. These include the ‘New start’ (an apprenticeship programme), ‘First job’, ‘New job’, ‘Development’, and ‘Start of career’ programmes, as well as subsidised schemes encouraging employers to hire the young unemployed. All these measures and programmes provide for temporary options, however the employers are encouraged to employ the young people on permanent contract if they met the employers’ expectations. BG1206011I

Social partners supported the introduction in the Labour Code legal provisions for an apprenticeship contract as a special type of contract that supports the transition of youth from education to employment.

Temporary employees as a share of total employees aged 15-24, 2004-2011

 

% total employees

% point change

 

2004

2007

2009

2011

2004-2007

2007-2009

2009-2011

2007-2011

EU27

37.6

41.3

40.4

42.5

3.7

-0.9

2.1

1.2

BE

28.6

31.6

33.2

34.3

3.0

1.6

1.1

2.7

BG

15.3

10.3

9.3

8.3

-5.0

-1.0

-1.0

-2.0

CZ

18.0

17.4

18.7

22.3

-0.6

1.3

3.6

4.9

DK

26.9

22.5

22.8

22.1

-4.4

0.3

-0.7

-0.4

DE

55.5

57.4

57.3

56.0

1.9

-0.1

-1.3

-1.4

EE

:

:

:

13.8

 

   

 

IE

11.2

20.5

25.0

34.2

9.3

4.5

9.2

13.7

EL

26.3

27.0

28.4

30.1

0.7

1.4

1.7

3.1

ES

64.8

62.8

55.9

61.4

-2.0

-6.9

5.5

-1.4

FR

46.7

53.5

52.4

55.1

6.8

-1.1

2.7

1.6

IT

34.4

42.3

44.4

49.9

7.9

2.1

5.5

7.6

CY

16.1

23.3

18.4

17.2

7.2

-4.9

-1.2

-6.1

LV

17.3

9.3

9.3

10.7

-8.0

0.0

1.4

1.4

LT

13.8

9.8

5.0

9.1

-4.0

-4.8

4.1

-0.7

LU

24.1

34.1

39.3

34.5

10.0

5.2

-4.8

0.4

HU

15.1

19.1

21.4

22.9

4.0

2.3

1.5

3.8

MT

9.2

11.0

11.3

17.7

1.8

0.3

6.4

6.7

NL

37.9

45.1

46.5

47.7

7.2

1.4

1.2

2.6

AT

32.4

34.9

35.6

37.2

2.5

0.7

1.6

2.3

PL

60.6

65.7

62.0

65.6

5.1

-3.7

3.6

-0.1

PT

47.4

52.6

53.5

57.2

5.2

0.9

3.7

4.6

RO

6.6

4.6

3.7

5.8

-2.0

-0.9

2.1

1.2

SI

63.1

68.3

66.6

74.5

5.2

-1.7

7.9

6.2

SK

9.9

13.7

12.5

18.6

3.8

-1.2

6.1

4.9

FI

49.8

42.4

39.0

43.4

-7.4

-3.4

4.4

1.0

SE

53.1

57.1

53.4

57.3

4.0

-3.7

3.9

0.2

UK

11.0

13.3

11.9

13.5

2.3

-1.4

1.6

0.2

NO

31.2

28.0

25.7

24.3

-3.2

-2.3

-1.4

-3.7

Source: Eurostat, Labour Force Survey

         
Temporary employees as a share of total employees aged 25-29, 2004-2011

 

% total employees

% point change

 

2004

2007

2009

2011

2004-2007

2007-2009

2009-2011

2007-2011

EU27

19.5

21.1

20.2

21.4

1.6

-1.0

1.2

0.2

BE

12.4

13.1

12.5

14.6

0.7

-0.5

2.0

1.5

BG

9.0

5.3

4.4

4.2

-3.8

-0.8

-0.2

-1.0

CZ

9.8

8.1

8.4

10.8

-1.7

0.2

2.5

2.7

DK

16.5

13.9

13.8

16.4

-2.6

-0.1

2.7

2.5

DE

17.2

21.2

21.2

22.0

4.0

0.0

0.8

0.8

EE

3.0

1.8

4.2

4.2

-1.2

2.4

0.0

2.3

IE

3.4

10.1

9.5

12.7

6.7

-0.6

3.2

2.6

EL

18.4

16.1

19.9

19.0

-2.3

3.8

-1.0

2.9

ES

44.0

41.2

37.5

39.8

-2.7

-3.7

2.3

-1.5

FR

18.3

20.8

20.2

22.0

2.5

-0.6

1.8

1.2

IT

17.2

22.7

23.5

26.7

5.5

0.8

3.2

4.0

CY

19.2

17.7

16.2

18.1

-1.5

-1.5

1.9

0.4

LV

11.8

3.2

4.2

5.5

-8.6

1.0

1.4

2.3

LT

5.3

4.2

2.5

3.6

-1.1

-1.7

1.1

-0.6

LU

7.6

12.5

11.2

12.7

4.9

-1.2

1.5

0.3

HU

8.1

8.9

11.3

11.0

0.8

2.5

-0.3

2.2

MT

1.1

5.6

5.0

6.3

4.6

-0.6

1.3

0.6

NL

16.8

22.9

24.2

25.8

6.1

1.2

1.7

2.9

AT

10.0

8.8

9.6

9.8

-1.1

0.8

0.2

1.0

PL

33.8

38.7

35.6

38.9

4.9

-3.1

3.3

0.2

PT

30.3

36.6

38.6

39.2

6.3

2.0

0.6

2.6

RO

3.4

2.1

1.2

2.1

-1.3

-0.9

0.9

0.0

SI

30.7

33.7

34.1

33.9

2.9

0.4

-0.2

0.3

SK

6.8

5.7

4.1

7.7

-1.2

-1.6

3.7

2.1

FI

28.7

24.5

25.5

26.0

-4.2

1.1

0.5

1.5

SE

24.0

27.4

24.0

25.0

3.4

-3.3

1.0

-2.4

UK

6.2

7.1

6.3

5.0

0.9

-0.8

-1.3

-2.1

Source: Eurostat, European Labour Force Survey

       

Nadezhda Daskalova, ISTUR

Useful? Interesting? Tell us what you think. Hide comments

Add new comment