EMCC European Monitoring Centre on Change

Czech Republic: Young people and temporary employment in Europe

  • Observatory: EMCC
  • Topic:
  • Published on: 08 December 2013



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Soňa Veverková
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The unemployment rate in the age group of 15–24 is significantly higher in Czech Republic than in the other age groups and this unemployment rate has been growing during the years of the crisis. Unemployment of this age category is therefore a problem which the government, research institutions and social partners are trying to deal with. Nevertheless, the topic under review, temporary jobs of young people, is a topic of marginal importance. There is no survey dealing with the position of the 15–24 age group in the labour market with regard to temporary jobs. There are several forms of temporary jobs in the Czech Republic, but the legally prescribed requirements of these forms are identical for all employees regardless of their age (except for retired persons in some cases).

Introduction

Youth unemployment has been a persistent problem in many parts of Europe for many years. Over the past 3-4 years, however, since the onset of the financial crisis and the economic recession which followed, it has become an even greater and more widespread problem and one which, given the on-going depressed state of the European economies, is likely to remain for some time to come. The latest monthly figures (for September 2012) show the unemployment rate of those aged 15-24 averaging 22.8% in the EU – just over 1 percentage point higher than at the time a year earlier. In Spain, the figure was over 54% and in Greece, 57%, in both cases, much higher than a year earlier. In the worst affected countries, therefore, as in most Member States, there is very little sign of any easing of the youth unemployment problem. There are, however, a few exceptions. In Germany, in particular, youth unemployment has declined since the global recession hit in 2009 and now stands at only 8%, well below the level it was before the recession. In Norway too, the rate is only 8%, though this is slightly above the level in 2007 before the crisis. Germany, apart, there are two other countries in the EU with youth unemployment below 10% according to the latest monthly figures - the Netherlands (9.4%) and Austria (9.9%). As in Norway, in both cases, the rate is above the pre-crisis level.

Moreover, young people who do manage to find jobs often have to settle for a temporary one, defined as one with a fixed-term contract of employment. According to the European Labour Force Survey (LFS), in 2011, just under 43% of employees under 25 were in temporary jobs in the EU and well over half in Germany (56%), France (55%), Portugal, (57%), Sweden (57%), Spain (63%), Poland (66%) and Slovenia (75%). (In Norway, the figure was much lower than in most EU countries, at around 24%.) While around 40% of the young people concerned on average were in temporary jobs because they had a fixed-term training contract and another 9% were on probationary contracts, a substantial proportion (37% on average) were in temporary jobs because they were unable to find permanent ones. In the Czech Republic, Cyprus and Portugal, this figure was over 75% and in Spain and Slovakia, well over 80%.

Among young people making the transition from education or initial vocational training into employment, the proportion who take up temporary rather than permanent jobs is much higher than for the age group as a whole. In 2011, 57% of those aged 15-24 in employment who were in education the previous year were in temporary jobs in the EU and 86-87% in Spain, Portugal and Poland. For those moving from unemployment into employment, the proportion who take up temporary jobs is even higher on average in the EU (61%) as well as in Spain (90%).

The fact that a relatively large proportion of young people in employment are in temporary jobs may be a reason why they have been hit disproportionately hard by the crisis. In the economic downturn in 2009, many of the people who lost their jobs first were on fixed-term contracts since not renewing these contracts represented the easiest way for employers to reduce their work forces. In 2009, therefore, there was some decline across Europe in the proportion of young people in work employed in temporary jobs (see the Tables attached to the questionnaire). Since then, there has been some tendency for the proportion to increase again, in part perhaps because employers are reluctant to take on people on permanent - or standard – contracts given the uncertainty about future economic prospects.

Given the above, it is understandable that there is growing public interest, and some concern, over the nature of the jobs that young people are taking up. This concern is mirrored at EU-level where a ‘flexicurity’ approach to labour market policy has increasingly been advocated, which, in practice, means that while flexibility is an important objective, it needs to be accompanied by protection of workers’ interests if it is not to lead to a growth of precarious employment in low quality jobs. Accordingly, there is a need to obtain a better understanding of the terms and conditions applying to temporary jobs, the extent to which they are a stepping stone to permanent jobs and a working career in line with a person’s qualifications and capabilities, the access to social protection which comes with them and the measures in place to encourage employers to convert them into more stable jobs. These issues form the focus of the present study.

Definition of temporary jobs

The interest in the study is in all young people employed in temporary jobs of whatever kind, in the sense of all jobs that they are not subject to a standard contract of employment which is normally one of indeterminate length, or at least one for which no specific length is specified. Such temporary jobs can be for a period of training (i.e. traineeships or apprenticeships) or probation, intended to enable employers to check the suitability or aptitude of people for the jobs concerned. They might also be to replace someone on maternity leave or on a training programme or they might relate to a specific project of fixed duration.

All such jobs and others which are of fixed duration should be covered, whether they are part-time or full-time and irrespective of whether they are specifically for young people (such as perhaps in the case of traineeships or apprenticeships) or for people of all ages which young people happen to be doing. In some cases, it should be noted, it is relevant to include, in addition, to temporary employees, the ‘bogus’ self-employed – i.e. those people who have self-employment status but who are contracted to work for a single employer and who are effectively similar to employees who have a fixed-term contract of employment. (The cases in question relate to instances where employers use self-employment contracts as a means of employing young people without bearing the costs, and obligations, of a standard contract of employment.)

Outline of study

The study is divided in three sections. The first is concerned with the main types of job in which young people who are employed under temporary contracts work and the reasons why employers choose to use temporary contracts of employment instead of standard ones when they take on young people, as well as with the link, if any, with labour market conditions (i.e. with the extent to which the crisis has led to an increase in temporary employment). The starting point is the data summarised above, derived from the LFS, which indicate the relative number of young people employed on temporary contracts in the different European countries and the way that this has changed over the recent past (these data, as noted, are set out in the tables attached to the questionnaire). Correspondents are asked to check these data against any national data on temporary employment and to indicate where these show a different picture from the LFS data, perhaps because a different definition is adopted of temporary jobs.

Any description or commentary on national statistics should, however, remain brief, since the main task of the first section, is to review and summarise relevant sources of information on the different kinds of temporary contract under which young people are employed in each of the countries, the circumstances and areas (the types of job and the sectors of activity) in which they tend to be used and the main reasons why employers adopt them.

The second section is concerned with the access to social benefits which temporary jobs provide, distinguishing between the various kinds of benefit, and with the extent to which entitlement to benefit differs for young people employed in temporary jobs from that for those employed under standard contracts of employment. It should be emphasised that the concern is not only with the formal regulations which apply, which in many if not most countries do not make a formal distinction between temporary jobs and others, but also with de facto entitlement which stems from the nature of temporary employment. In particular, young people in temporary jobs may have difficulty in complying with the need to have a continuous period in employment, or a continuous record of paying social contributions, in order to be eligible for unemployment benefit.

The third section is concerned with the measures in place to regulate the use of temporary contracts of employment (such as specifying the number of times they can be renewed), with the attitudes of government and the social partners towards their use and with the incentives which exist to encourage the wider use of standard contracts of employment and the conversion of temporary jobs into permanent ones. A particular point of interest is the extent to which regulations and attitudes as regards temporary jobs have changed over the crisis period as the number of jobs available for young people to take up has diminished and as expanding these has become a policy priority.

A final point to note is that while it is customary to define youth employment (and unemployment) in terms of those aged 15-24, it is also the case that many of those aged 25-29 are also employed in temporary jobs, as indicated in the attached tables. Correspondents are therefore asked to extend the coverage of the study to this age group where relevant. It is recognised that in some countries the statistics available may not relate precisely to the age groups specified here, in which case correspondents should report on the age groups nearest to these.

Questionnaire

1. Importance of temporary employment for young people

1.1. Do the figures shown in the attached tables (on the number of temporary employed as a % of total employees based on Eurostat LFS data) give a reliable indication of the scale of temporary employment among the young in your country and the way that it has changed over recent years? Are there young people employed in temporary jobs who do not show up in the Eurostat figures? Are there national statistics which show a different picture from the Eurostat data? If so, please indicate what they show and give the source of the data.

Data in the table give a relatively reliable indication of the scale of temporary employment among the young in Czech Republic. However, the data do not cover people working based on ‘outside-employment contracts’ (see below) any statistics of which does not exist.

1.2. Is there any evidence that other forms of employment are used as a substitute for temporary contracts, such as bogus self-employment where young people are contracted to provide services to a single work provider in a continuous manner so acting de facto as employees? If so, please give the source of the evidence and indicate the scale of the phenomenon in terms of the number of people concerned.

In Czech Republic bogus self-employment is a relatively widespread phenomenon, especially in some sectors – building industry, delivery services, hairdressers’ and cosmetic services, etc. (CZ0801019Q, CZ0702089I). Bogus self-employment is used as an alternative of a standard employment (no matter whether for a definite or indefinite period) – it is advantageous for an employer who does not need to do the payroll-related paperwork and to pay social security and health contributions as well as partially for the self-employed person, since he can better optimise his tax burden. At the same time, however, he is not under the legal protection provided by the Labour Code. Efforts made by the government and social partners so far to fight bogus self-employment (through inspections and sanctions) failed to succeed. No statistics exist that would describe this phenomenon, since in practise it is very hard to tell whether it really is bogus self-employment. For this reason it is also hard to find out to what extent bogus self-employment concerns the age bracket of 15–24 under review. Generally speaking, bogus self-employment does exist and definitely concerns the endangered category aged 15–24, but we can hardly find out whether this age category is more endangered than the other age categories in the labour market.

1.3. Please list (and give summary details, i.e. purpose and duration of the contract) the most common contract types or contractual arrangements under which young people are employed on a temporary basis (such as for traineeships, apprenticeships, probationary periods, replacement of workers on leave or projects of a fixed duration). What is the relative importance of each type of contract or arrangement in terms of the number of young people employed under them?

In general, most frequently it is a fixed-term contract, which is governed by the Act no. 262/2006 Coll., Labour Code (§ 39). The duration of the fixed-term employment between the same parties may not exceed 3 years and can repeat not more than twice from the first start date of the fixed-term employment (this legal regulation should be changed in the amendment to the Labour Code that will allow certain groups of employees, especially seasonal employees in the agricultural and building sectors, to conclude fixed-term contracts repeatedly without any time limitation). Another option is offered by ‘agreements on work performed outside employment’ (dohody o pracích konaných mimo pracovní poměr), which are also governed by the Act no. 262/2006 Coll., Labour Code (§ 74–77). These are ‘agreement on work performance’ (dohoda o provedení práce) and ‘agrement on working activity’ (dohoda o pracovní činnosti). The agreement on work performance is limited to 300 hours a year, i. e. the worker employed under the agreement on work performance can work for one employer for not more than 300 hours a year (until 2011 it was 150 hours a year only). This kind of agreement is not subject to social and health insurance if the income from the employer does not exceed CZK 10,000 (approx. € 390) per month. If the employee does not have another income than that from the agreement on work performance in the given month, this income is lower than the said CZK 10,000 per month and the insurance on behalf of him is not paid by the state (student), he must register with a health insurance company as a self-payer within 8 days. (However, the insurance amount is not dependent on the pay from the agreement and is relatively low.)

The agreement on working activity is again governed by the Act no. 262/2006 Coll., Labour Code – based on the agreement on working activity work can be performed in the average extent of not more than a half of the stipulated weekly working hours (usually 40 hours a week, i. e. not more than 20 hours a week). By definition, the agreement on work performance is a contract for a definite period (max. 300 hours a year), whereas the agreement on working activity can be for both a definite and indefinite period.

No data on agreements on work performed outside employment are available, as the Czech Statistical Office does not survey them. However, unofficial estimates (Nekolová, 2010) say that significance of these contracts is growing. The following table illustrates significance of fixed-term employment contracts in different age groups.

Table 1: Number of employees with a fixed-term contract by age groups (in thousands employees)

Age grooup

15–29

30–44

45–59

60+

Total

2009 (annual average)

101.5

85.2

67.0

89.6

343.3

2010 (annual average)

115.6

97.3

70.1

70.3

353.2

Quarter 4 of 2011

113.9

108.8

69.9

51.6

344.1

Quarter 3 of 2012

142.1

110.2

74.1

50.4

376.8

Source: Czech Statistical Office

1.4. Please indicate the main reasons for the emergence and development of the different types of temporary contract which you have listed in response to question 1.3. To what extent are they linked to particular conditions in the labour market or employment protection legislation/regulation in your country? What is the main attraction of such contracts to employers? What effect has the crisis had on the use of such contracts?

All the above-mentioned agreements had already existed before the onset of the economic crisis and had been and are governed by the Labour Code. They provide a certain degree of flexibility in the labour market which is promoted by the present government of Petr Nečas (that is also why e. g. the number of hours worked based on the agreement on work performance has increased from original 150 to current 300 hours a year). In particular, agreements on work performed outside employment are being used by employers for one-off or rare work which does not exceed the extent stipulated by law. They are a common practise in e. g. research, development or academic sectors for work on a specific research project. They are also being used for employing students (summer temporary jobs etc.). Moreover, under certain circumstances no administrative work related to mandatory insurance payments is required for contracts for work.

1.5. To what extent are temporary contracts a ‘stepping stone’ to ‘permanent’ jobs (or those with standard contracts of employment of undefined duration)? Are apprentices and trainees typically taken on by the companies or other organisations concerned on standard permanent contracts once they complete their training? Has the situation changed over the crisis period? Please summarise any relevant studies which have been carried out in your country or other evidence at the national level which exists and give the reference to them.

It is not known that any studies on this topic exist. Rather than as ‘stepping stone’ to ‘permanent’ jobs, these types of contracts are used as an alternative for certain types of work (see above) and are temporary, because the nature of the performed task requires it.

2. Access to social benefits

2.1. Does entitlement of young people to (contributory) unemployment insurance benefits and (non-contributory) unemployment assistance (i.e. benefits, usually means-tested, which provide a minimum level of income) differ if they are employed on temporary contracts as opposed to permanent ones? If so, please indicate briefly the differences in eligibility conditions and any differences between types of temporary contract (including those working as self-employed for a single employer). Have there been any changes over the period of the crisis?

Directly not. The amendment to the Employment Act, in force since 1 January 2012, however, shortened the period of unemployment benefit eligibility from three to two years. Presently, the unemployment benefit can be granted to the job seeker who in recent two years before his registration in the Labour Office received, on the grounds of employment or another gainful activity, an old-age pension insurance of at least 12 month long. In this case, the agreement on work performance is disadvantageous for workers with earnings below 10,000 CZK per month, because on the basis of such contract no social or health insurance contributions are paid – in this situation the employee is not eligible for the unemployment benefit.

On the other hand, the said amendment of 1 January 2012 enables even students enrolled for a full-time study to be eligible for unemployment benefit if they meet the above-mentioned requirement (i.e. to receive an old-age pension insurance of at least 12 months in recent two years before being entered in the register). Until present days, students were not eligible to unemployment benefit.

2.2. Does entitlement of young people to sickness benefits and maternity benefits differ if they are employed on temporary contracts as opposed to permanent ones? If so, please indicate briefly the differences in eligibility conditions and any differences between types of temporary contract (including those working as self-employed for a single employer). Have there been any changes over the period of the crisis?

At the incapacity for work, the entitled to wage compensation (which is paid by the employer to the employee during the 4th and 21st day of illness) and to sickness benefit (paid by the state from the 22nd day of illness on) are all employees under employment contract (irrespective of whether the contract is for a definite or indefinite period of time) or workers under agreement on work activity (again, irrespective of whether the performance contract is for a definite or indefinite period of time).

Since 1 January 2012 wage compensation and sickness benefit also belong to workers under agreement on work performance (unlike before that day) if their earnings amount to more than CZK 10,000 per month, i. e. if social and health insurance is paid from this agreement. However, if the income earned from this kind of agreement is lower than CZK 10,000 per month, i. e. social and health insurance is not paid from this agreement, the ill person is entitled to neither wage compensation, nor sickness benefit. This disadvantages such worker slightly compared to the other types of employment contracts.

2.3. Are there any differences in the entitlement of young people to old-age pensions between those employed in temporary jobs as opposed to permanent ones? If so, please indicate what these are. Have conditions of eligibility to pensions changed over the period of the crisis (including through pension reforms introduced as part of a long-term strategy to improve the financial sustainability of the system)?

No, the pension system requirements are alike for all workers regardless the fact whether it is a temporary or permanent job. Equal approach is taken in the pension reform as well. The only exception is employees working under the contract for work from which no social and health insurance is paid (i.e. their income is lower than CZK 10,000 per month). Such a contract results in no entitlement to an old-age pension.

2.4. Are there any differences in entitlement of young people to health care between those employed in temporary jobs as opposed to permanent ones? If so, please indicate what these are. Have conditions of eligibility to health care changed over the period of the crisis?

No. Czech citizens have their healthcare guaranteed by the Czech Constitution and compliance with this constitutional right and availability of healthcare is secured via public health insurance. Since 2008, however, the insured must pay healthcare providers ‘user (regulatory) fees’ for healthcare services rendered. Some discounts on the user fees are given only to old-age pensioners or children under 18 years of age.

3. Regulation of temporary contracts and policies to support transitions into permanent contracts

3.1. Please describe briefly the regulations applying to the main types of temporary contract in your country. Do restrictions exist on the maximum duration of the different types of temporary contract for young workers or the number of times they can be renewed? Do these regulations differ by age (i.e. between young people and older workers) and/or by type of temporary contract (as mentioned in question 1.3), by occupation, or by sector of activity? Do special regulations exist for those completing apprenticeships or traineeships? Have the regulations changed over the period of the crisis – i.e. has there been a tendency for them to have been tightened or relaxed?

See 1.3.

3.2. Do incentives exists in your country to encourage employers to opt for standard rather than temporary contracts of employment, to convert temporary contracts into permanent ones or to make it easier for employees to move from temporary to permanent contracts? If so, please briefly describe the form that these incentives take. Do they apply equally to young people as well as to older workers? Are any incentives in place to encourage employers to take on young people who have completed an apprenticeship or traineeship on permanent contracts? Have there been any changes to incentives over the period of the crisis? Are any such changes being proposed or being actively discussed at present in your country?

No, neither measures nor proposals of measures that would promote standard employment contracts for an indefinite period exist or are a subject of discussions. The trend is rather to enhance labour market flexibility (see the said extension of the agreement on work performance from 150 hours to 300 hours per year, the upcoming amendment that will renew the possibility for some occupations to conclude fixed-term contracts, etc.).

Several projects were and are being carried out by various entities in the Czech Republic with a focus to generally promote employment of young people through enhancing qualifications of school-leavers or graduates (short- or long-term stints in companies in order to gather experience). Some of the visiting school-leavers or graduates may get a job in that company; however, to measure efficiency of these projects is even more difficult for many of the projects are still ongoing.

3.3. Is the employment of young people on temporary contracts an important issue of concern for the social partners? Are there strong differences in attitudes and policies between employers and trade unions towards the use of temporary contracts? Have any initiatives been taken by the social partners, either jointly or separately, to encourage the use of permanent rather than temporary contracts? Have any specific initiatives been taken in respect of young people completing apprenticeships or traineeships over the types of job they are offered when their temporary position comes to an end?

No. Social partners see unemployment of young people as a problem and think over possibilities of how to increase employment of young people and publish their own opinions regarding a solution. Nevertheless, in CZ temporary contracts of young people are not being the topic of debate among social partners either.

Temporary employees as a share of total employees aged 15-24, 2004-2011

 

% total employees

% point change

 

2004

2007

2009

2011

2004-2007

2007-2009

2009-2011

2007-2011

EU27

37.6

41.3

40.4

42.5

3.7

-0.9

2.1

1.2

BE

28.6

31.6

33.2

34.3

3.0

1.6

1.1

2.7

BG

15.3

10.3

9.3

8.3

-5.0

-1.0

-1.0

-2.0

CZ

18.0

17.4

18.7

22.3

-0.6

1.3

3.6

4.9

DK

26.9

22.5

22.8

22.1

-4.4

0.3

-0.7

-0.4

DE

55.5

57.4

57.3

56.0

1.9

-0.1

-1.3

-1.4

EE

:

:

:

13.8

 

   

 

IE

11.2

20.5

25.0

34.2

9.3

4.5

9.2

13.7

EL

26.3

27.0

28.4

30.1

0.7

1.4

1.7

3.1

ES

64.8

62.8

55.9

61.4

-2.0

-6.9

5.5

-1.4

FR

46.7

53.5

52.4

55.1

6.8

-1.1

2.7

1.6

IT

34.4

42.3

44.4

49.9

7.9

2.1

5.5

7.6

CY

16.1

23.3

18.4

17.2

7.2

-4.9

-1.2

-6.1

LV

17.3

9.3

9.3

10.7

-8.0

0.0

1.4

1.4

LT

13.8

9.8

5.0

9.1

-4.0

-4.8

4.1

-0.7

LU

24.1

34.1

39.3

34.5

10.0

5.2

-4.8

0.4

HU

15.1

19.1

21.4

22.9

4.0

2.3

1.5

3.8

MT

9.2

11.0

11.3

17.7

1.8

0.3

6.4

6.7

NL

37.9

45.1

46.5

47.7

7.2

1.4

1.2

2.6

AT

32.4

34.9

35.6

37.2

2.5

0.7

1.6

2.3

PL

60.6

65.7

62.0

65.6

5.1

-3.7

3.6

-0.1

PT

47.4

52.6

53.5

57.2

5.2

0.9

3.7

4.6

RO

6.6

4.6

3.7

5.8

-2.0

-0.9

2.1

1.2

SI

63.1

68.3

66.6

74.5

5.2

-1.7

7.9

6.2

SK

9.9

13.7

12.5

18.6

3.8

-1.2

6.1

4.9

FI

49.8

42.4

39.0

43.4

-7.4

-3.4

4.4

1.0

SE

53.1

57.1

53.4

57.3

4.0

-3.7

3.9

0.2

UK

11.0

13.3

11.9

13.5

2.3

-1.4

1.6

0.2

NO

31.2

28.0

25.7

24.3

-3.2

-2.3

-1.4

-3.7

Source: Eurostat, Labour Force Survey

         
Temporary employees as a share of total employees aged 25-29, 2004-2011

 

% total employees

% point change

 

2004

2007

2009

2011

2004-2007

2007-2009

2009-2011

2007-2011

EU27

19.5

21.1

20.2

21.4

1.6

-1.0

1.2

0.2

BE

12.4

13.1

12.5

14.6

0.7

-0.5

2.0

1.5

BG

9.0

5.3

4.4

4.2

-3.8

-0.8

-0.2

-1.0

CZ

9.8

8.1

8.4

10.8

-1.7

0.2

2.5

2.7

DK

16.5

13.9

13.8

16.4

-2.6

-0.1

2.7

2.5

DE

17.2

21.2

21.2

22.0

4.0

0.0

0.8

0.8

EE

3.0

1.8

4.2

4.2

-1.2

2.4

0.0

2.3

IE

3.4

10.1

9.5

12.7

6.7

-0.6

3.2

2.6

EL

18.4

16.1

19.9

19.0

-2.3

3.8

-1.0

2.9

ES

44.0

41.2

37.5

39.8

-2.7

-3.7

2.3

-1.5

FR

18.3

20.8

20.2

22.0

2.5

-0.6

1.8

1.2

IT

17.2

22.7

23.5

26.7

5.5

0.8

3.2

4.0

CY

19.2

17.7

16.2

18.1

-1.5

-1.5

1.9

0.4

LV

11.8

3.2

4.2

5.5

-8.6

1.0

1.4

2.3

LT

5.3

4.2

2.5

3.6

-1.1

-1.7

1.1

-0.6

LU

7.6

12.5

11.2

12.7

4.9

-1.2

1.5

0.3

HU

8.1

8.9

11.3

11.0

0.8

2.5

-0.3

2.2

MT

1.1

5.6

5.0

6.3

4.6

-0.6

1.3

0.6

NL

16.8

22.9

24.2

25.8

6.1

1.2

1.7

2.9

AT

10.0

8.8

9.6

9.8

-1.1

0.8

0.2

1.0

PL

33.8

38.7

35.6

38.9

4.9

-3.1

3.3

0.2

PT

30.3

36.6

38.6

39.2

6.3

2.0

0.6

2.6

RO

3.4

2.1

1.2

2.1

-1.3

-0.9

0.9

0.0

SI

30.7

33.7

34.1

33.9

2.9

0.4

-0.2

0.3

SK

6.8

5.7

4.1

7.7

-1.2

-1.6

3.7

2.1

FI

28.7

24.5

25.5

26.0

-4.2

1.1

0.5

1.5

SE

24.0

27.4

24.0

25.0

3.4

-3.3

1.0

-2.4

UK

6.2

7.1

6.3

5.0

0.9

-0.8

-1.3

-2.1

Source: Eurostat, European Labour Force Survey

       

References:

Czech Statistical Office: Význam vzdělání pro trh práce v ČR (analýza). Praha: Czech Statistical Office, 2011. Available at: http://www.czso.cz/csu/tz.nsf/i/vyznam_vzdelani_pro_trh_prace_v_cr_analyza/$File/analyza_vzdelani.pdf (in Czech only).

Janíčko, Pavel (2012): Zaměstnanost mladých v České republic: pohled ČMKOS. Praha: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung. Available at http://fesprag.ecn.cz/img_upload/3403f47f1c75ee9d75621c7be5f8ebdd/janicko_zamestnanost_mladych_v-cr.pdf (in Czech only).

Nekolová, Markéta (2010): Vliv nových forem zaměstnávání v ČR a zemích EU na vývoj pracovního práva. [The impact of new forms of employment in the Czech Republic and the EU on labour law development]. Praha: Research Institute for Labour and Social Affairs.

Soňa Veverková, Research Institute for Labour and Social Affairs

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