EMCC European Monitoring Centre on Change

Denmark: ERM comparable analytical report on young people Not in Employment, Education and Training (NEETs)

  • Observatory: EMCC
  • Topic:
  • Published on: 06 February 2012



About
Country:
Denmark
Author:
Carsten Jørgensen
Institution:

Disclaimer: This information is made available as a service to the public but has not been edited by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. The content is the responsibility of the authors.

In Denmark, the interest in the issue of NEETs is considerably high judged from the involvement of politicians, the social partners and the media.The overall responsibility regarding the problem of NEETs and how to tackle it lies with the government, who ‘plays the first violin’ in relation to the social partners regarding ALMP. NEETs are mainly considered part of the ALMP. The approach to solve the problem of NEETs is laid down in three so-called ‘youth packages’, which have been passed in the Parliament. The main aim of the youth packages is to get young people under 30 years of age into education and/or employment. The measures are faster reaction to youth unemployment in terms of evaluating the single young person’s preparedness for education or work. The incentives are economic subsidies to local job centres and in some cases also to employers. The first of the three youth packages came in November 2009, the second in April 2010 and the third in June 2011. It is still too early to estimate what needs to be done differently. What needs to done is to implement the initiatives mentioned below. This requires that the young people get interested; that the job centres are able to carry out the (considerable) task and that the employers show the needed initiative for the measures to be successful.

1. Introduction

1.1 What is the level of interest among the different stakeholders in your country (policy makers, the media, employers and trade unions) in the issue of NEETs? What are their reasons for having a high/ low level of interest in the topic? (Expected length 100 words)

In general, there is a high level of interest in the issue of NEETs in Denmark among the stakeholders. Denmark faces increasing youth unemployment (September 2011 7%) even though not as drastic as in other EU countries. The main concern is that too many young people will not have completed other education than primary level, i.e. nine years. The economic crisis has influenced the youth employment and education negatively. Therefore special measures are taken to bring young people back either in education or in employment. Focus is on an early and active involvement of young people and that ordinary education is a priority for young people without education on public assistance. An ordinary education is clearly one of the main goals of the effort. Education also helps to prevent unemployment later in working life (Source: The Ministry of Employment: Særlige ungeregler).

It should be noted that, in Denmark, the policy area of NEETs, mostly being a part of an active labour market policy, is the responsibility of the government rather than the social partners. In all, the youth packages contain initiatives in the areas of the Ministry of Employment and the Ministry of Education.

1.2 Using the following table, please identify which sub-groups of NEETs are of particular concern to the different stakeholders in your country. Please indicate the relative importance of each group to the different stakeholders; for each group please state whether they are felt to be of ‘significant concern’, ‘some concern’, or ‘no concern’ to the different stakeholders.

Table 1 – NEETs sub-groups
 

Public/media debate

e.g. the extent to which the issue is discussed within the news media

Mainstream Policy

e.g. the range of policy documents tackling the issue, the amount of investment committed to tackling the problem

Employers

e.g. the extent to which this issue is raised as a concern, e.g. through lobbying / pressure on the government, involvement in the design and/or implementation of relevant policies

Trade unions

e.g. the extent to which this issue is raised as a concern, e.g. through lobbying / pressure on the government, involvement in the design and/or implementation of relevant policies

Young people who are unemployed

Significant concern

Significant concern

Significant/some concern

Significant concern

Young people who are in ‘precarious’ or unsuitable employment (e.g. temporary contracts, forced self-employment, part-time work, or jobs which are not commensurate with their level of qualifications)

Some concern

Some concern

Some concern

Significant concern

Early school leavers – young people who have dropped out of education before obtaining an upper secondary level qualification

Significant concern

Significant concern

Significant concern

Significant concern

Young people with qualifications which do not meet labour market needs        
Teenage/ single parents

Some concern

Some concern

Some concern

Some concern

Migrants and minority groups

Some concern

Significant/Some concern

Some concern

Significant concern

Young people with disabilities

Some concern

Some concern

Some concern

Some concern

Young people from workless families

Some concern

Some concern

Some concern

Some concern

Young people from disadvantaged areas

Some concern

Some concern

Some concern

Some concern

Young people with tertiary education who have been unsuccessful in accessing the labour market

Some concern

Significant concern

Significant concern

Significant concern

Other (please specify):        

1.3 Are there any policy measures in your country targeted at those NEETs with tertiary education? If yes please describe these briefly (expected length 100 words).

There are specific initiatives aimed at university graduates (academics) less than 30 years of age. The mentioned initiatives are part of an agreement between the government and a part of the opposition in the Parliament in June 2011. The agreement is also called ‘Youth Package 3’. For the ‘youth packages’, see also further below.

Subsidies to vocational competence development of academics.

Limited vocational competencies are a barrier for hiring newly graduated academics in SMEs. DKK five million (€ 270,000) is therefore allocated yearly in 2011 and 2012 in a pool to be used for upgrading of skills of newly recruited academics in ordinary employment or in wage subsidy jobs in SMEs. SMEs are in a Danish context companies with between 2-100 employees.

Promotion of academics directed at SMEs, the so-called Academics Campaign.

The actors are the Ministry of Employment and the Danish Confederation of Professional Associations (AC). The campaign aims at making the SMEs aware of the potential profit that an academic can bring to the company and hereby create new jobs. DKK two million (€ 270,000) is set aside during 2011 and 2012. AC will direct the campaign that ends in December 2012.

Strengthening of the knowledge pilot programme (da: videnpilotordningen)

The measure aims at strengthening innovation in the small companies. Funds earmarked for SMEs to hire a university graduate in the company – a so-called ‘knowledge pilot’ who must implement a specific innovation and development project for the company. It is a very popular arrangement among SMEs that started in 2005. During the first five months of 2011 approx 150 Danish SMEs received funds earmarked for hiring a university graduate, which means that all funds for the year have been spent. Continuous evaluation of the scheme shows that 69% of completed projects have resulted in increased revenue, 64% have led to an expansion of the market area and 81% have resulted in the development of new products and / or business processes. Status report June 2011. The knowledge pilot programme is strengthened with DKK 30 million in the period 2011 – 2013.

2. NEET Policies and Measures

2.1 Measures to tackle early school leaving

Preventive Measures to tackle early school leaving

2.1.1 Please provide a short overview of your country’s approach to preventing early school leaving. Where does the focus of policies and measures to prevent early school leaving lie?

In November 2009 the government and the opposition in the Parliament agreed to introduce a number of initiatives together called the ‘Youth Package’ seen in the light of an seriously increasing youth unemployment of people under 30 years of age partly caused by drop-outs from a started education. Part of these packages is concerned with early school leaving: Special efforts towards 15-17 school leavers not in employment. Till now the ‘Youth Package‘ has been revised or amended three times, therefore they are called Youth Packages 1-2-3 respectively.

2.1.2 Please complete the table below with a brief description of up to three policies/ measures to prevent early school leaving in your country. Where possible you should use only one word or Yes/No (e.g. how is the measure funded? answer: regional; is this measure a NEET specific measure? answer: Yes).

Table 2 - Early School Leaving: Preventive measures
Early School Leaving: Preventive measures
Name of measure

Description of the measure: aims and objectives

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local)

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?

How the measure is funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?

Measure 1:

Description of the measure: aims and objectives

Youth Package 2: Special offers to the 15-17 years of age.

Aims at catching the 15-17 years of age that leave school after the ninth year (or tenth year) with no concrete plans of further education or finding employment. Earlier young people were first contacted when they got 18 years of age. Education, training, employment or internship will be obligatory for the 15-17 years and the aim is to contact them the first week after they report to the job centre.

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local)

National

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?

Unilateral. The effort is laid down in legislation.

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?

National state funding, administered by the municipalities.

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?

It is a special NEET measure

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?

No

Measure 2:

None

Measure 3:

None

2.1.3 Please provide a more detailed description of the preventive early school leaving measure which you think is the most effective measure in your country (this measure should be additional to those included in the table above). In addition to the questions raised in the table above, your description should include the details outlined below:

There are no additional preventive early school leaving measures than the one mentioned in the table.

Measure 1: Special offers to the 15-17 years of age

  • When was it introduced and why? How long will it run for?

Introduced in September 2009 as part of a programme with the aim to support NEETS. The programme will so far run until 2013.

  • Is it a mainstream or pilot project?

Mainstream

  • What is the scale of the initiative and how much funding has been allocated to it?

DKK 10 million (€ 1.4 million) extra at national level in the period 2010 – 2013

  • Who runs the initiative (is it a public, private or third sector initiative)?

It is a public sector initiative in practice run by the municipalities.

  • What is the target group? How many young people benefit from it?

Target group NEETs of 15-17 years of age. Approximately 10.000 young people between 15-17 years are without education and job (2011).

  • What activities are involved?

In general all young people are to be evaluated with respect to education and training readiness.

A tenth grade course that creates a connection/bridge between primary school and vocational training.

Job centres will be able to offer internships as a motivation factor for joining a vocational education.

Extra writing-reading course

Mentor support to the 15-17 years that needs to help to complete an education or an internship. The mentor scheme is extended to encompass young people in the ninth and tenth school year. The idea is to make the mentor scheme more flexible.

It is a demand that the 15-17 years of age to keep their education plans. Unless the economic support is taken away. The economic support is a part of the so-called ‘children’s check’ that is normally paid to the parents of children under 18 years off age.

  • What are the success factors?

Overall aim: 95% of all young people are in either education or work by 2015.

  • Is there any formal evidence of its success (both quantitative and qualitative)?

No municipality has yet reached the goal 95%.

Reintegration measures to tackle early school leaving

2.1.4 Please provide a short overview of your country’s approach to the reintegration of early school leavers. Where does the focus of policies and measures lie?

Part of Youth Package 1 aims at reintegration of early school leavers. Reading and writing courses for those who fall within this group with the aim to motivate them to take up basic vocational training. A higher profile measure is the ‘Immediate offers to the 18-19 years of age’.

2.1.5 Please complete the table below with a brief description of up to three policies/ measures to reintegrate early school leavers in your country. Where possible you should use only one word or Yes/No (e.g. how is the measure funded? answer: regional; is this measure a NEET specific measure? answer: Yes).

Table 2 - Early School Leaving: reintegration measures
Early School Leaving: Reintegration measures
Name of measure

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local)

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?

Measure 1:

Description of the measure: aims and objectives

Youth Package 1: Immediate offers to the 18-19 years of age. (da: Strakstilbud til de 18-19 årige)

The aim is to bring 18-19-year-old social assistance recipients into activation or training within four weeks after reporting unemployed to the job centre. Currently this period is within three months. The measure runs over a trial period of two years. The objective is to keep the young people active and to bring them faster into training or work.

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local)

National

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?

Unilateral.

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?

National state funding, administered by the municipalities.

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?

It is a specific NEET measure

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?

No

Measure 2:

Description of the measure: aims and objectives

Youth package 1: Reading and writing courses

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local)

National

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?

Unilateral

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?

National state funding administered by the municipalities

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?

It is a specific NEET measure. However, there is a similar programme for reintegrating adults over 30 years of age.

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?

No

Measure 3:

None

2.1.6 Please provide a more detailed description of the reintegration early school leaving measure which you think is the most effective measure in your country (this measure should be additional to those included in the table above). In addition to the questions raised in the table above, your description should include the details outlined below:

There are no additional measures to the two included in the table.

Measure 1:Youth package 1: Immediate offers to the 18-19 years of age. (da: Strakstilbud til de 18-19 årige)

  • When was it introduced and why? How long will it run for?

Introduced in September 2009 as part of a programme with the aim to support NEETS which are growing in number. It runs from 1 May 2010 until the end of 2011

  • Is it a mainstream or pilot project?

Pilot

  • What is the scale of the initiative and how much funding has been allocated to it?

Aprrox € 2.8 million extra at national level in the period 2010 – 2011

  • Who runs the initiative (is it a public, private or third sector initiative)?

It is a public sector initiative in practice run by the municipalities

  • What is the target group? How many young people benefit from it?

Target group young people (NEETs) of 18 – 19 years of age that receives unemployment benefit or social security benefit

  • What activities are involved?

Early and continuous contact. Individual job interview at the job centre in the first week after reporting unemployed. The aim is to bring 18-19-year-old social assistance recipients into activation or training within four weeks after reporting unemployed to the job centre

  • What are the success factors?

Goal 1: That 85% of the target group has an individual job interview at the jobcentre within the first week after reporting to the job centre for the first time (according to the present law the period is within one month)

Goal 2: That 85% of the target group has an individual job interview minimum every month (present law prescribes every three month).

Goal 3: That 70% of the target group is offered an active job or training programme within the two first weeks (according to present law the period is three months). This goal is first and foremost directed at young people without an education.

  • Is there any formal evidence of its success (both quantitative and qualitative)?

The National Labour Market Authority makes statistics on the basis of reports from the municipalities. The National Labour Market Authority is part of the Ministry of Employment. So far only a few municipalities have achieved the goals and no municipalities has yet achieved all three goals. The Municipality of Copenhagen (the largest in DK) has an average around 80% in relation to the first two goals and had achieved the third goal in the 1st quarter of 2011. The municipalities that have achieved the first and second goals have in general only few young people from the target group.

National average 1st quarter of 2011:

Goal 1: 70%

Goal 2: 65%

Goal 3: 55%

Measure 2: Reading, writing and math courses

  • When was it introduced and why? How long will it run for?

Introduced 2010. Runs until 2013

  • Is it a mainstream or pilot project?

Mainstream

  • What is the scale of the initiative and how much funding has been allocated to it?

National. Allocated extra funding DKK 25 million (€ 3.4 million). The pools are administered by the four Danish employment regions. The funding is allocated on a first come, first served basis

  • Who runs the initiative (is it a public, private or third sector initiative)?

It is a public sector initiative in practice run by the municipalities

  • What is the target group? How many young people benefit from it?

Young people under 30 years of age only having primary school as highest education. If the job centre estimates that unemployed within this age group needs a reading and writing test, it is obligatory for the unemployed. It is not possible to estimate the number of young people to be involved in these activities.

  • What activities are involved?

The mentioned test will establish the need for enhancing the reading and writing qualifications of young people less than 30 years.

  • What are the success factors?

That a majority of the young people with reading and math disabilities will be motivated to take up basic training.

  • Is there any formal evidence of its success (both quantitative and qualitative)?

Too early to estimate.

2.2Measures to facilitate access to employment

Facilitating the transition from school to work

2.2.1 Please provide an overview of your country’s approach to facilitating school to work transitions. Where does the focus of policies and measures to facilitate transitions lie?

As part of Youth Package 1 there is one overall programme that aims at facilitating school to work transition. It is called ‘A new opportunity for young people’

2.2.2 Please complete the table below with a brief description of up to three policies/ measures to facilitate school to work transitions in your country. Where possible you should use only one word or Yes/No (e.g. how is the measure funded? answer: regional; is this measure a NEET specific measure? answer: Yes).

Table 4 - Access to employment: Measures to facilitate school to work transitions
Access to employment: Measures to facilitate school to work transitions
Name of measure

Description of the measure: aims and objectives

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local)

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?

How the measure is funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education?

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?

Measure 1:

Description of the measure: aims and objectives

Youth package 1: A new opportunity for young people

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local)

National

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?

Unilateral

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?

State funding

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?

It is a NEET-specific measure

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education?

No

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?

No

Measure 2:

None

Measure 3:

None

2.2.3 Please provide a more detailed description of the school-to-work transition measure which you think is the most effective measure in your country (this measure should be additional to those included in the table above). In addition to the questions raised in the table above, your description should include the details outlined below:

There are no additional measures to the one included in the table.

Measure 1: A new opportunity for young people

  • When was it introduced and why? How long will it run for?

2010-2012. It was introduced as part of an overall attempt to tackle youth unemployment through introducing specific measures. See also 2.1.1. for more about the youth packages.

  • Is it a mainstream or pilot project?

Mainstream

  • What is the scale of the initiative and how much funding has been allocated to it?

Additional appropriation DKK 70 million (almost € 10 million). To qualify for a part of the additional appropriation the jobcentres must get more young people from the target group into an active process with a company. That is, an internship or a wage subsidy job in a public or private company. National scale.

  • Who runs the initiative (is it a public, private or third sector initiative)?

Public sector. The jobcentres run the initiative.

  • What is the target group? How many young people benefit from it?

The target group for the initiative ‘A new opportunity for young people is young people under 30 years receiving unemployment benefit, social assistance benefit or start-help benefits and that has more than 12 months continuous unemployment.

  • What activities are involved?

In order to get a part of the extra subsidy from the state the jobcentres have to get more young people than normally into active participation in a ‘real’ workplace. Specifically this means placed in an internship or in a wage subsidy job.

  • What are the success factors?

Goal 1: That 9,000 social-security benefit and start-help benefit recipients in match group 2 are in internship or wage subsidy job on a monthly basis. (There are three match groups and they relate to the degree of employability of the unemployed as estimated by the jobcentre. Match group 3 consists of long-term unemployed with a low employability)

Goal 2: That 20% of the social security benefit and start help benefit recipients in match group 2, who has participated in company activation, is self-supporting (independent) after four weeks in cooperation with a company centre (A company centre is a new concept, where job centres and companies cooperate in order to get the weakest unemployedinto a ‘real’ workplace. In a company centre programmethe unemployed is motivated to a job or training through an internship where the special problems of the unemployed are also dealt with in a parallel process)

Both goals have to be achieved by June 2011.

  • Is there any formal evidence of its success (both quantitative and qualitative)?

See http://www.virksomhedscenter.dk/

Goal 1: The goal was reached for the first time at national level in April 2011 that showed more than 9,000 in internship and wage subsidy job.

Goal: 2. The national level has so far been lower. It is expected that the 20% will be reached in June 2011.

Measures to foster employability

2.2.4 Please provide an overview of your country’s approach to fostering employability among NEETs. Where does the focus of policies and measures lie?

This measure is also part of the youth packages mentioned in 2.1.1. It is focussed on internships (workplace practice) and training and subsequently on apprenticeship.

2.2.5 Please complete the table below with a brief description of up to three policies/ measures to foster employability of NEETs in your country. Where possible you should use only one word or Yes/No (e.g. how is the measure funded? answer: regional; is this measure a NEET specific measure? answer: Yes).

Table 5 - Access to employment: Measures to foster employability (to include apprenticeships)
Access to employment: Measures to foster employability (to include apprenticeships).
Name of measure

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local)

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education?

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?

Measure 1:

Youth Package 1: DKK 1 billion to 5.000 young people more in internship and traineeships.

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local)

National

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?

Unilateral/Bipartite

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?

State funding

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?

The measure is aimed at young people in vocational training and NEETs

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education?

No

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?

No

Measure 2:

None

Measure 3:

None

2.2.6 Please provide a more detailed description of the measure which you think is the most effective measure in your country to foster the employability of NEETs (this measure should be additional to those included in the table above). In addition to the questions raised in the table above, your description should include the details outlined below:

There are no additional measures to the one included in the table.

Measure 1: 1 DKK billion to 5000 young people more in internship

  • When was it introduced and why? How long will it run for?

Introduced September 2009. The economic crisis resulted in a decrease in the number of internships. At the same time the number of young people applying for an internship in a company increased. Therefore, the government and the parties behind the ‘youth agreement’ have put extraordinary focus on improving this situation. The extra pool was earmarked for 2010 and followed up by a new agreement in June 2001. The project is still running.

  • Is it a mainstream or pilot project?

Mainstream

  • What is the scale of the initiative and how much funding has been allocated to it?

Scale is national. DKK 1 billion was allocated for 2010 and the funds were taken from the so-called ‘globalisation pool’ that closed in 2009. In 2011 the agreement was renewed.

  • Who runs the initiative (is it a public, private or third sector initiative)?

The Ministry of Education is running the campaign.

  • What is the target group? How many young people benefit from it?

The target group is young people under 30 in vocational training and the employers that do not offer training places in the company. Part of the vocational training is internship in a company. The aim is to bring 5,000 young people in internship. There is no exact time limit.

  • What activities are involved?

The companies receive a wage subsidy and a reward for introducing training places/internships in the company. The activities is the responsibility of the Ministry of Education, which through campaigns and a home page www.praktikpladsen.dk aims at bringing the target groups (companies and young people in vocational training) in contact with each other.

In 2011 a new initiative was added to the programme of increasing the number of internships. The initiative now also encompasses NEETs. The new initiative aims at bringing NEETs into a traineeship in a company in order to let young people ‘taste’ a little of the work and life in a company and support them to take up vocational training or another youth education. The social partners, the Youth Education Guidance (Ungdommens Uddannelsesvejledning) and the municipalities are involved in this initiative.

  • What are the success factors?

No precise factors have been published, but the aim is that the number of young people in internship and traineeship will help reducing the unemployment among young people. Even those who are in vocational training risk to be unemployed because they still lack an internship after the period nominated for the training.

  • Is there any formal evidence of its success (both quantitative and qualitative)?

No quantitative evidence yet. But the social partners have expressed dissatisfaction with lacking implementation and unnecessary red tape. They claim that the number of young people in apprenticeship is still falling because the drop out rate is too high because of too few companies offering internship. Also the large employer organisation, the Confederation of Danish Industry, DI, has expressed concern with the lacking intake of apprentices.

Removing practical and logistical barriers

2.2.7 Please provide an overview of your country’s approach to removing practical and logistical barriers for NEETs. Where does the focus of policies and measures lie?

Actually the focus of this measure is not precisely identical with the suggested measures mentioned directly above. Most of the measures mentioned are covered by special provisions in different laws; for instance language courses, provision of childcare, transport subsidies and services for people with disabilities. However, these measures are not only targeted at NEETs but part of a broader target group.

The following measures is mentioned because it among other suggestions point at special support for young people coming out of prison and special focus on young people in the construction sector. Apart from the measure is more general in its focus than the ones mentioned in the other tables.

2.2.8 Please complete the table below with a brief description of up to three policies/ measures to remove practical and logistical barriers to employment for NEETs in your country. Where possible you should use only one word or Yes/No (e.g. how is the measure funded? answer: regional; is this measure a NEET specific measure? answer: Yes).

Table 6 - Access to employment: Measures to remove practical and logistical barriers
Access to employment: Measures to remove practical and logistical barriers
Name of measure

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local)

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education?

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?

Measure 1:

Youth Package 1 and 3: Improved efforts for young people under 30 years of age

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local)

National

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?

Unilateral

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?

State funding

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?

NEET specific programme

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education?

No.

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?

No.

Measure 2:

None

Measure 3:

None

Employer incentives

2.2.9 Please provide an overview of your country’s approach to incentivising employers to recruit young people (who are NEET). Where does the focus of policies and measures to incentivise employers lie?Where possible you should use only one word or Yes/No (e.g. how is the measure funded? answer: regional; is this measure a NEET specific measure? answer: Yes).

The main focus in this measure is offering subsidies to those employers who provide training to young people.

2.2.10 Please complete the table below with a brief description of up to three policies/ measures to incentivise employers in your country.

Table 7 - Access to employment: Employer incentives
Access to employment: Employer incentives
Name of measure

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local)

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education?

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?

Measure 1:

Youth Package 1: A subsidy to companies for taking in apprentices and establishing internships

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local)

National

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?

Unilateral

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?

State funding

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?

The measure is aimed at young people in vocational training not having an internship and NEETs.

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education?

No

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?

No

Measure 2:  
Measure 3:  

2.2.11 Please provide a more detailed description of the employer incentive which you think is the most effective measure in your country (this measure should be additional to those included in the table above). In addition to the questions raised in the table above, your description should include the details outlined below:

  • When was it introduced and why? How long will it run for?

The measure was introduced with the aim to motivate employers to establish internships. In its current shape it was introduced in 2009. No time limits.

  • Is it a mainstream or pilot project?

Mainstream

  • What is the scale of the initiative and how much funding has been allocated to it?

Scale is national. There has been allocated € 10 million (DKK 75 million) to the measure.

  • Who runs the initiative (is it a public, private or third sector initiative)?

The initiative is run and financed by the state and the municipalities. In practice, however, the initiative is supported actively by the social partners through campaigns. The reason for this is an interest in more growth and employment to the benefit for young people and the national economy.

  • What is the target group? How many young people benefit from it?

The target group is the companies. According to the Ministry of Education 8,881 young people are without an internship in a company. This is 40% more than in 2009.

  • What activities are involved?

Campaigns to motivate the employers. Many are not aware of the rather generous subsidy the first years.

  • What are the success factors?

The same as mentioned under table 5, measure 1.

  • Is there any formal evidence of its success (both quantitative and qualitative)?

The same as mentioned under table 5, measure 1.

3. Conclusion

There is a sufficient recognition of the problem of NEET, although it is difficult to estimate if the measures taken are ‘enough’ or ‘adequate’. However, it is central that the jobcentres are able to carry the weigth of the extra workload that the youth packages constitute, if the problem of NEETs are to be solved successfully. Consequently it is also a question if the financing is enough. Finally, it could add some ‘muscles’ to the project if the social partners were more involved.

The impact of EU level action in this field on the NEET agenda in Denmark is not significant. The main programmes tackling youth problems are not financed by EU-funding.

The social partners could be more involved. For instance through high-profiled campaigns and the problem of NEET could be addressed in the collective agreements. The social partners could also form a bipartite body to disscuss these actually very serious problems of NEET. Another serious problem closely connected to the problem of NEET is the considerable lack of internships for the young people in vocational training. This has led to several drop outs. It seems that the companies in the aftermath of the crisis still only keep their core workers and do not increase the intake of apprentices.

Furthermore, a new Danish government headed by the Socialdemocrats took office after the election on 15 September 2011. In the government programme published in early October it is mentioned that the problem of lacking internships will be taken up in tripartite negotiations and that the government will do more to press the employers. The reaction from the social partners to the invitation has been positive.

Carsten Jørgensen, FAOS, University of Copenhagen

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