EMCC European Monitoring Centre on Change

Denmark: ERM comparative analytical report on emerging forms of entrepreneurship

  • Observatory: EMCC
  • Topic:
  • Published on: 21 March 2011



About
Country:
Denmark
Author:
Ingvill Stuvøy
Institution:

Disclaimer: This information is made available as a service to the public but has not been edited by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. The content is the responsibility of the authors.

In Denmark, different emerging forms of entrepreneurship have received increasing attention the last 10 to 15 years. The public debate is embracive of different forms of entrepreneurship, except with regard to the part-time entrepreneur, who is missing in the debate. The main focus however has been on entrepreneurship and growth, and how to inspire to growth-oriented entrepreneurship. The government aspires to make Denmark among the best in the world on entrepreneurship; including growth-oriented entrepreneurship. Efforts have been made to reach this goal, but with the financial crisis, the entrepreneurship activity has decreased more in Denmark than elsewhere.

Questionnaire

Part I: Public/policy discussion

General policy discussions and policy approach


Do the public/policy discussions specifically deal with the different forms of business activities, since when and for how long?

The public debate deals specifically with all but one of these different forms of business activities or entrepreneurships, and has been doing so the last 10 and maybe up to 15 years (some later). The only one more or less left out of the debate is the part-time entrepreneur.

Until the mid 1990’s, entrepreneurship was mainly seen as a means of reducing unemployment, for instance through income support given to people starting their own business (Neergaard et.al 2006). However, from the mid 90’s the focus shifted and was directed towards a further development of entrepreneurship through education and counselling, and ensuring that those businesses that start up will survive (Ibid.). Subsequently, the debate on different forms of emerging entrepreneurship has been more vivid.

However, the main and most visible distinction made between different forms of entrepreneurships, is made between growth-oriented entrepreneurs and not growth-oriented entrepreneurs. The focus on growth-oriented entrepreneurs becomes visible in the late 90’s, but even more so in the new millennium, and is also central for the way the different emerging forms of entrepreneurship are discussed.

As there the last 15 years has been a lot of focus on the need of more entrepreneurs in Denmark, the one-person enterprise or self-employed entrepreneur is often in the centre of attention. In particular the one-person enterprise that is oriented towards growth is discussed and wanted. The serial entrepreneur is also often mentioned the type of character that is needed in the Danish economy. The parallel entrepreneur – or the already established companies who desires to expand – is frequently dealt with.

One type of emerging entrepreneurship receiving increasing amount of attention recently, is the business transfers or successions that do not follow the traditional pattern of generational change. A report issued by the government in 2008 deals with the topic of business transfers, and focus on the less traditional forms. Moreover, in March this year, the government announced specific new initiatives regarding transfer of ownership, including a network for buyers and sellers, and more specific counselling on the official websites.

The only one receiving little to no attention in the current debate is part-time entrepreneurship. To the extent that the part-time entrepreneur is mentioned in the public debate, it is often through portrayals in the newspapers of students, who start up and run a company while still studying. This lack of focus on the part-time entrepreneur can according to Neergaard et.al be linked to the focus on growth in the Danish debate on entrepreneurship. Neergaard et.al claim that as the definition of the entrepreneur in the Danish public debate often include the term growth, it works to exclude those forms of entrepreneurship where growth is not as central – and as such, works to exclude some entrepreneurs, in particular women (Neergaard et.al. 2006).

Table 1: Presence of the different emerging forms of entrepreneurship in the public debate
 

Yes, continuously since xx year? (Please indicate year)

Yes, on and off in the last 10 years

(Please indicate yes where it applies)

Yes, has been on the public agenda, but since xx year it is no longer part of the agenda (Please indicate year)

No, it has never been part of the public agenda

(Please indicate X where it applies)

One-person enterprises /self-employed

Yes, continuously since the 1980’s, but change of focus from mid 90’s

     
Part-time entrepreneurs    

Yes, has been on the public agenda, but since mid 90’s it is no longer part of the agenda

 
Parallel entrepreneurs  

Yes

   
Serial entrepreneurs  

Yes

   
Business transfers and successions  

Yes (in particular the last few years)

   


For each of the entrepreneurship/business activities covered by policy discussions, which policy domains are they covered in? Please indicate with an ’X‘ where relevant.

The different emerging forms of entrepreneurship activities are all covered by several policy domains, and are covered in a general manner and more specifically.

Economical and industrial policies are often involved when the topic of entrepreneurship is on the agenda in the public debate. Economical obstacles and incentives to start one’s own company are often debated with reference to the one-person enterprise/self-employed, and also the serial entrepreneur. The serial entrepreneur is also often mentioned in discussions on rules on bankruptcy. Parallel entrepreneurs and business transfers come up in discussions on tax regulation and the level of company- and capital tax.

Education is a policy domain that has received a lot of attention in the Danish public debate on entrepreneurship. One part of this focus on education policy is related to the wish to create an entrepreneurship culture in Denmark, which is done mainly through focus on innovation and entrepreneurship in the school system, but also through public campaigns. This focus on education includes entrepreneurship in general, but perhaps mainly the self-employed or serial entrepreneur. However, a change in attitude towards innovation and entrepreneurship among leaders in the business community is also frequently discussed.

Counselling of entrepreneurs is another topic which falls under education policies. Counselling is in particular directed towards the self-employed entrepreneur, and recently also towards those considering taking part in a business transfer. Education policies are also relevant as the integration of knowledge and knowledge institutions is emphasized as crucial to the process of innovation. This is in particular discussed with reference to parallel entrepreneurs and established businesses, as they are encouraged to think innovatively.

In relation to growth-oriented entrepreneurs and parallel entrepreneurs, the importance of flexibility in the labour market is frequently discussed. The preoccupation is to make labour market regulations that enable companies to commit to investments that imply a certain risk. Labour market regulations are also discussed in relation to the self-employed, and how to make sure that entrepreneurs have equal social benefits to ordinary employees.

Innovation is a buzzword in much talk on entrepreneurship, and is often mentioned specifically while talking of one-person enterprises, serial and parallel entrepreneurs. Furthermore, the regional level is a relevant domain with regard to entrepreneurship. The regional level plays an important role as the provider of service and counselling for entrepreneurs in the initial phase, but also so called soft areas like for instance childcare are important for entrepreneurship companies to attract the right type of manpower.

There is little specific mentioning of the part-time entrepreneur, but many of the policies made will still be relevant for this type of entrepreneurship.

Additionally, it can be mentioned that the public debate has focused a lot on women and entrepreneurship the last few years, which might be seen as a sort of gender equality policy.

Lastly, the importance of lessening the administrative burden for entrepreneurs is often emphasized, and the use of modern technology and internet to ensure this has been on the agenda.

Table 2: Policy domains engaged in the policy discussion of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Labour policies

Educational policies

Economic/Industrial policies

Innovation policies

Regional policies

Other (please specify)

One-person enterprises /self-employed

X

X

X

X

X

Gender equality, administrative/technology

Part-time entrepreneurs          

Gender equality

Parallel entrepreneurs

X

X

X

X

X

Administrative/technology

Serial entrepreneurs  

X

X

X

 

Administrative/technology

Business transfers and successions  

X

X

X

 

Administrative/technology


In which media and forum do the public debate and policy discussions about the different types of entrepreneurship take place?

Please indicate whether they are implicitly (e.g. publications are covering entrepreneurs in general with implicit implications for the different forms of entrepreneurs/business activities) covered and/or explicitly mentioned (for instance parallel entrepreneurs are explicitly mentioned in publications) in these publications

The public debate and policy discussions about the different types of entrepreneurship take place in research publications, official documents, and political debates, and also in the general media coverage. It varies whether there is an explicit mentioning of the specific forms of entrepreneurship, or whether the focus is more general with more implicit implications for the different forms of entrepreneurs.

The Danish research community contribute with many publications on the topic of entrepreneurship, and each year since 1999 a GEM (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor) report has been made in Denmark, carried out by a research team. Part of the government’s strategy to increase the number of entrepreneurs is related to communication and campaigns, and they have developed several websites where entrepreneurship is the topic. Additionally, there are media specializing in entrepreneurship, like the magazine called “Iværksætteren” (“The Entrepreneur”) or the more broadly oriented labour market newspaper “Erhvervsbladet”. There are also several blogs and networks on the web, initiated by entrepreneurs themselves, where topics concerning entrepreneurship are discussed and advices are given.

Several governmental publications treat only one form of entrepreneurship at the time, but many publications also have a more general scope. Many publications; official ones, research papers and newspaper articles, focus on entrepreneurship linked with growth, which has a more implicit implication for the different forms of entrepreneurship.

In official websites, offering information and counselling for entrepreneurs, the different forms are often mentioned specifically. In websites created by entrepreneurs themselves, it is often the self-employed or one-person enterprise that is in focus.

Table 3: Media and forums discussing the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Public media such as newspapers and magazines incl. electronic media

Policy documents and analysis

Proposed legislation and/or business support schemes

Others, please specify

One-person enterprises/self-employed

X

X

X

Websites for and by entrepreneurs

Part-time entrepreneurs

X

     
Parallel entrepreneurs

X

X

X

 
Serial entrepreneurs

X

X

X

 
Business transfers and successions

X

X

X

 

Specific topics to describe the different types of entrepreneurship


What has motivated the public debate?

The public debate is motivated partly by a more general understanding that entrepreneurship shall ensure that Denmark is competitive also in the future, and partly, and more specifically, by a debate in the early and mid 1990’s, where different reports stated that Denmark did poorly in the area of entrepreneurship. Additionally, different tendencies regarding the specific emerging forms of entrepreneurship has motivated the public debate, as well as the financial crisis has done it the recent years.

Associate professor Kent T. Nielsen from Aarhus University describes a more than 10 year old long constant lamenting about the status for entrepreneurship in Denmark; kick started with the report on entrepreneurship issued by the government in 1996. Nielsen argues, however, that the idea that Denmark was doing badly in entrepreneurship, was based on rather suspicious comparisons with rather randomly picked countries. Nevertheless, the idea that Denmark was doing poorly in the field of entrepreneurship did motivate the public debate – and inspired political action.

The debate in the mid 90’s caused a change of focus, with increasing attention on counselling to ensure the survival of new enterprises. This new focus on counselling did however not prevent criticism of lack of education in the field of entrepreneurship. In the GEM report of 2000, the Danish experts interviewed stated their lack of faith in the capability of the Danish education system to provide adequately for the promotion of entrepreneurship.

More recently, the public debate on entrepreneurship has been motivated by the sudden downfall in the number of new businesses in the aftermath of the financial crisis. In 2009, the number of entrepreneurs fell drastically and more than in most other developed countries.

Apart from the general factors, the change seen in choice of company forms among the newly started enterprises has lately attracted attention towards the one-person enterprise/self-employed. More entrepreneurs start companies rather than personally owned enterprises.

The new types of business transfers are recently discussed quite frequently, as many companies are about to change owner, and it is argued that the traditional generational change might not be the most growth-friendly type of transfers.

Focus directed towards the serial entrepreneur has been motivated more by talks of an ideal entrepreneur than specific tendencies, while the parallel entrepreneurs have entered the agenda specifically through increased focus on innovation among the already established companies.

Please specify for each of the five forms of entrepreneurship:

Table 4: What has motivated the public debate of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

Type of Entrepreneurship

Motivator

One-person enterprises/self-employed


General discussion + new company forms

Part-time entrepreneurs

General discussion

Parallel entrepreneurs

General discussion + established companies responsibility for innovation/entrepreneurship

Serial entrepreneurs

General discussion + role model

Business transfers and successions

General discussion + many companies changing owners + from generational transfer to professional transfers


What has been the focus of the policy discussion?

To help you answer question 5, we list some examples of key issues that could be addressed in the policy discussion:

In brief, the main focus in the policy discussions has been on promoting, educating and counselling in entrepreneurship and innovation. The importance of education and counselling has been stressed by researchers, the political field and partners in the labour market alike. Additionally, emphasis has been put on economical incentives and obstacles, and administrative burdens.

The Danish government has introduced five principles that are meant to guide the policy process with regard to entrepreneurship. Among the more central ones for the government, we find the focus on building down (economical and administrative) obstructions that meet the entrepreneurs. This includes different initiatives that shall ensure easier access to (market oriented) funding needed to start a new enterprise; more easily comprehensible rules; and also change of rules in the case of bankruptcy, making it easier to re-enter the game after a bankruptcy. This topic has in particular been linked to serial entrepreneurs.

Another major focus is education, starting in primary school and continuing up to university level. Here the focus has been entrepreneurship and innovation in general, but the self-employed entrepreneur has in particular been mentioned. Also counselling and information have been greatly emphasized. This has again been discussed in particular with regard to the self-employed, but lately also specifically with reference to business transfers.

The government has also introduced a principle of no discrimination of entrepreneurs in the labour market regulation; a principle meant to grant entrepreneurs equal social benefit rights as employees. Again the self-employed is often been mentioned concretely.

The last few years, much focus has also been given to female entrepreneurs and on promoting entrepreneurship among women. The government started a few years ago a project specifically aimed at women, with the intention of inspiring more women to become entrepreneurs, and the topic keeps attracting attention from different participants in the policy debate.

Please specify for each of the five forms of entrepreneurship:

Table 5: The policy focus in the public debate within each of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

Type of Entrepreneurship

Policy focus

One-person enterprises/self-employed

Education and counselling. Economical/administrative incentives/burdens. Innovation. Change in values. Women.

Part-time entrepreneurs

Women.

Parallel entrepreneurs

Innovation. Economical/administrative incentives/burdens

Serial entrepreneurs

Innovation. Economical/administrative incentives/burdens. Bankruptcy rules. Change in values.

Business transfers and successions

Economical/administrative incentives/burdens. Counselling.


Has the public discussion resulted in a concrete outcome/impact?

No:

Yes:

The public discussion has resulted in concrete outcomes, however not as effective as hoped for by the government, nor as substantive as requested by other participants in the debate.

The efforts made on education and counselling have increased since the debate started in the mid 1990’s. Also economical changes have been introduced, and attempts have been made to lessen the administrative burdens. A recent study from 2009 also suggests that the attitudes regarding entrepreneurship seem to have changed among the Danes, in particular among the younger generations (study done by The Danish Chamber of Commerce).

In their Globalization report from 2010, the The Confederation of Danish Industry (DI) praise the initiatives made by the government to ease the access to capital, to reduce administrative burden, and to change attitudes among the Danes with regard to entrepreneurship. They also express satisfaction with more efficient rules with regard to bankruptcy. DI is however not all positive, as the entrepreneur activity has neither the quantity nor the quality (in the meaning growth-oriented) desired.

The government has declared that Denmark should be world-class in starting new businesses – and in starting new businesses that aspire to growth by 2015. As Denmark has until the financial crisis been doing well on the first part of this goal, there is still a long way to go before Denmark are among the best in inspiring to growth-oriented entrepreneurship (Entrepreneurship index 2009). And with the financial crisis, the drop in the number of new businesses was quite dramatic; decreasing 42% from 2008 to 2009.

In the light of the crisis, the Danish Entrepreneur Association (Dansk Iværksætter Forening - DIF) calls for alternative capital- and financial opportunities, and requests constant monitoring of entrepreneurship to be able to meet the problems rapidly and as they come. The Confederation of Danish Industry (DI) requests lower marginal taxes and better integration of entrepreneurship in the education system. They also appeal for concrete measures to ensure access to export markets. The largest oppositional party, the Social Democrats, requests in turn a better integration of knowledge in the companies, and encourages to more cooperation between knowledge institutions and companies to ensure innovation.

Please specify for each of the five forms of entrepreneurship:

Table 6: Outcome or impact of the public debate of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

Type of Entrepreneurship

Outcome/Impact

One-person enterprises/self-employed

High level of new businesses, low level of growth-oriented businesses. Attitude change. Less administrative burdens, easier access to capital. More counselling and education.

Part-time entrepreneurs   Parallel entrepreneurs

Attitude change. Less administrative burdens, easier access to capital.

Serial entrepreneurs

Efficient bankruptcy rules. Attitude change. Less administrative burdens, easier access to capital.

Business transfers and successions

Less administrative burdens.

Overall assessment


Within the last couple of years, to which extent has the public and policy discussion been more focused on the following different types of entrepreneurship compared to the business policy/entrepreneurship debate in general?

The public and policy debate has mostly focused on the buzzwords growth and innovation. This includes however also specific focus on the different emerging forms of entrepreneurship. The one-person enterprise/self-employed has gotten a lot of attention, as well as the parallel entrepreneurs – or established businesses thinking innovatively. This might be seen as the most usual types of entrepreneurships, and therefore the general debate tends to be concerned with primarily these types. However, business transfers have been put on the agenda to a higher extent the last few years. The serial entrepreneur is also mentioned in the debates, often used as a good example or role model when talking of entrepreneurship in general. The part-time entrepreneur gets little attention.

Table 7: Increased focus at the emerging forms of entrepreneurship?
 

To a low degree To a high degree

 

1

2

3

4

5

One-person enterprises/self-employed      

X

 
Part-time entrepreneurs

X

       
Parallel entrepreneurs      

X

 
Serial entrepreneurs    

X

   
Business transfers and successions    

X

   


Please list the main sources of information in the search for the above

Government publications/websites:


Research publications:


  • GEM reports 1999-2009
  • Nielsen, Kent 2006: ”Region Sjælland – er der behov for flere iværksætter?”, note written for Growht House Zealand.
  • Neergaard, Helle; Nielsen, Kent, & Kjeldsen, John 2006: ”State of the art of women’s entrepreneurship, access to financing and financing strategies in Denmark”, in Candida Brush et.al (ed.): Growth-oriented women entrepreneurs and their businesses. A Global Research Perspective. Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc.

Trade and branch organizations:


Part II: Standardised structural data

Which standardised business statistics are available covering the different forms of entrepreneurship/business activities (explicitly or implicitly, i.e. also data that could be used to describe these forms of entrepreneurship without being published with this specific objective/heading)?

The main source for standardised structural data is Statistics Denmark (www.dst.dk), where one can find descriptive data regarding the business community in the General Business Statistic. Additionally, Statistics Denmark has an Entrepreneur Database, which describes more specifically who the entrepreneur is and how its company is going. Only private businesses are included in the statistics, and there is a requirement of a certain activity in the business for it to be included in the statistics. This cause part-time entrepreneurs with less activity than 0,5 full-time equivalents to be excluded from the database. It is possible to retract data on specific forms of entrepreneurs, as one can check if there are people who repeat themselves either as serial entrepreneurs or parallel entrepreneurs. Business transfers are not included in the database.

Among the registers relevant for statistics on entrepreneurship is The Central Business Register, covering both private and public companies, and also The Central Person Register, providing information on each persons age, civil status, citizenship etc.

Furthermore, the government issues each year the Entrepreneur Index, which illustrates the situation on entrepreneurship in Denmark compared to other countries. The Danish Enterprise and Construction Authority also issued in 2008 a publication on change of ownership as a type of entrepreneurship.

Table 8: Availability of business statistics about the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Type of data available

Indicate access to data by an ‘X’ in the first column

First published

Indicate year

Time series of data

(Biannually, annually, quarterly, monthly, once only, other)

Data source for the data

One-person enterprises/ self-employed

Number of enterprises

X

Not published

Annually from 1990-2001/2001

Entrepreneur Database from Statistics Denmark

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

NACE code digit level: 6

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Availability of regional data (please specify)

X; regions + municipalities

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

X

Not published

Annually from 1990-2001/2001

Entrepreneur Database from Statistics Denmark

Exports

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Employment

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

X

Not published

Annually from 1990-2001/2001

Entrepreneur Database from Statistics Denmark

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

survival rate of enterprises

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Others, specify:

       
Part-time entrepreneurs

Number of enterprises

X

Exists, but not published nor included in Entrepreneur Database

Annually

General Business Statistic - Statistics Denmark

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

X (six digits)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Availability of regional data (please specify)

X (regional and municipalities)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

X

Exists, but not published nor included in Entrepreneur Database

Annually

General Business Statistic - Statistics Denmark

Exports

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Employment

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

X

Exists, but not published nor included in Entrepreneur Database

Annually

General Business Statistic - Statistics Denmark

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Survival rate of enterprises

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Others, specify:

       
Parallel entrepreneurs

Number of enterprises

X

Not published

Annually from 1990-2001/2001-

Entrepreneur Database from Statistics Denmark

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

X (six digits)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Availability of regional data (please specify)

X (regional and municipalities)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

X

Not published

Annually from 1990-2001/2001-

Entrepreneur Database from Statistics Denmark

Exports

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Employment

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Others: ___________

 

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

X

Not published

Annually from 1990-2001/2001-

Entrepreneur Database from Statistics Denmark

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

survival rate of enterprises

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Others, specify:

       
Serial entrepreneurs

Number of enterprises

Not published

Annually from 1990-2001/2001-

Entrepreneur Database from Statistics Denmark

Not published

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

X (six digits)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Availability of regional data (please specify)

X (regional and municipalities)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

X

Not published

Annually from 1990-2001/2001-

Entrepreneur Database from Statistics Denmark

Exports

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Employment

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

X

Not published

Annually from 1990-2001/2001-

Entrepreneur Database from Statistics Denmark

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

survival rate of enterprises

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Others, specify:

       
Business transfers and successions

Number of enterprises

No data available

     

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

N.A

     

Availability of regional data (please specify)

N.A

     

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

N.A

     

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

N.A

     

Exports

N.A

     

Employment

N.A

     

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

N.A

     

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

N.A

     

survival rate of enterprises

N.A

     

Others, specify:

If buyer is family, internal or external

   

Government publication on business transfer: Transfer of ownership – the future of your business

Is it possible to crosstab or merge the demographic data identifying the individual persons running any of the five forms of entrepreneurships/business activities with the company data specified in question 9 in a common database for analytical purpose?

No:

Yes: The Entrepreneur Database provides information on the individual person running the different forms of businesses, making it possible to see who the entrepreneur is and what characterizes him/her. There is limited access to this database.

Even though many part-time entrepreneurs are excluded from the Entrepreneur Database, there exists data on these entrepreneurs. These can be obtained by contacting Statistics Denmark.

Regarding business transfers, and who the buyer of the company is, there is little information obtainable at the moment. The government has made a publication on the topic, where they have data on who takes over; a family member, an internal to the company or an external, but little more. For this they have used a combination of register data and data from Statistics Denmark. Statistics Denmark is now working on creating new statistics on this specific type of entrepreneurship.

Table 9: Availability of demographic statistics about the entrepreneur within the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Type of data available

Indicated access to data by an ‘X’ in the first column

First published

Indicate year

Time series of data

(Biannually, annually, quarterly, monthly, once only, other)

Data source for the data

One-person enterprises/ self-employed Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner

X

Not published

Annually from1990-2001/2001-

Entrepreneur Databank – Statistics Denmark

Gender

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Ethnicity

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Civic status (married, single, children)

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Age

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Geographical location

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Educational background (last registered education)

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

X

Not published

Annually from1990-2001/2001-

Entrepreneur Databank – Statistics Denmark

Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Other types of data (Specify):

Assets/property

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Part-time entrepreneurs

(less than 0,5 activity: excluded from the Entrepreneur Database, but data exists and is possible to obtain from Statistics Denmark)

Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner

X

 

Annually

Statistics Denmark

Gender

X

 

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Ethnicity

X

 

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Civic status (married, single, children)

X

 

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Age

X

 

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Geographical location

X

 

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Educational background (last registered education)

X

 

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)

X

 

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

X

 

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Working hours of the entrepreneur    

Annually

Statistics Denmark

Income of the entrepreneur

X

 

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Other types of data (Specify):

Asses/property

 

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Parallel entrepreneurs Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner

X

Not published

Annually from1990-2001/2001-

Entrepreneur Databank – Statistics Denmark

Gender

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Ethnicity

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Civic status (married, single, children)

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Age

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Geographical location

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Educational background (last registered education)

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur

X

Not published

Annually from1990-2001/2001-

Entrepreneur Databank – Statistics Denmark

Other types of data (Specify):

Assets/property

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Serial entrepreneurs Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner

X

Not published

Annually from1990-2001/2001-

Entrepreneur Databank – Statistics Denmark

Gender

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Ethnicity

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Civic status (married, single, children)

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Age

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Geographical location

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Educational background (last registered education)

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

X

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur

X

Not published

Annually from1990-2001/2001-

Entrepreneur Databank – Statistics Denmark

Other types of data (Specify):

Assets/property

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

(Same as above)

Business transfers and successions Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner        
Gender        
Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age        
Geographical location        

Educational background (last registered education)

       
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

       
Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur        
Other types of data (Specify):

If buyer is family, internal or external

     

Is the data freely accessible or does it require registration, payment and/or a special effort to access the data? Please explain the accessibility for each of the forms of entrepreneurs/business activities and datasets referred to above.

Some data is freely accessible, like the General Business statistics from Statistics Denmark. Data from the Entrepreneur Database is not, and to obtain it there are two possibilities; either buying a specified analysis from Statistics Denmark, or applying for a membership of the researchers arrangement in Statistics Denmark. The latter possibility ensures access to the whole dataset, and also requires payment. It is only a possibility for a public institution, like e.g. research institutions.

Table 10: List of statistical sources about the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

List data source/dataset

Explain the accessibility

Entrepreneur Database from Statistics Denmark

1) Buy analysis ready-made, or 2) apply for membership in research arrangement (costs money)

General Business statistics from Statistics Denmark

Free access

The Central Business Register

Publicly accessible, but require payment.

Register at the Danish Commerce and Companies Agency

Can be accessed, require payment

   

Part III: Research

Please describe studies and research available nationally for each of the forms of entrepreneurs/business activities.

The main focus in research on entrepreneurship is on growth and innovation, often linked mainly to the one-person enterprise, and the serial and parallel entrepreneur. There is little to find on business transfers yet, and part-time entrepreneurship is pretty much off the agenda, except from articles linking it to a focus on female entrepreneurs.

Denmark has, as mentioned, participated in the GEM studies each year since 1999. With regard to the specific forms of entrepreneurs, the main distinctions made in these reports are between entrepreneurship and so called intrapreneurship, where the latter refers to internal corporate venturing; new opportunities are seen and exploited through the initiation of a new unit. This intrapreneur can be understood as a parallel entrepreneur.

The employer’s organization The Confederation of Danish Industry (DI) also publish reports where entrepreneurship is among the topics, like the recent Globalization report 2010 . Here entrepreneurship is treated more generally, with reference to in particular one-person enterprises, serial entrepreneurs and parallel entrepreneurs.

Copenhagen Business School and University of Southern Denmark are among the larger research institutions focusing heavily on entrepreneurship in research and in their education.

Table 11: List of studies and research about the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

List the references (author’s name, title of publication etc, year of publication, organisation)

A short summary of the contents (e.g. topic covered, methodology applied)

One-person enterprises/self-employed

- GEM reports 1999-2009

- DI’s Globalization report 2010

- Annual surveys with differing themes

- Comparison with OECD countries, using different structural data

Part-time entrepreneurs    
Parallel entrepreneurs

- GEM reports 1999-2009

- DI’s Globalization report 2010

- Annual surveys with differing themes

- Comparison with OECD countries, using different structural data

Serial entrepreneurs

- GEM reports 1999-2009

- DI’s Globalization report 2010

- Annual surveys with differing themes

- Comparison with OECD countries, using different structural data

Business transfers and successions    

Ingvill Stuvøy, FAOS, University of Copenhagen.



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