EMCC European Monitoring Centre on Change

France: ERM comparative analytical report on emerging forms of entrepreneurship

  • Observatory: EMCC
  • Topic:
  • Published on: 21 March 2011



About
Country:
France
Author:
Sebastian Schulze-Marmeling
Institution:

Disclaimer: This information is made available as a service to the public but has not been edited or approved by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. The content is the responsibility of the authors.

Public debates as well as policy measures on new forms of entrepreneurship in France have focused on the creation of one-person enterprises. In the course of this debate, there have been attempts to facilitate transition towards self-employment via being a part-time entrepreneur or taking over an existing business.Data available are generally of two different kinds. Business statistics allow the analysis of structural characteristics of enterprises whereas surveys among entrepreneurs provide information about entrepreneurial profiles.Finally, research on new forms of entrepreneurship is limited to one-person enterprises and business transfers whereas there is very little on serial entrepreneurs and no study on part-time or parallel entrepreneurs could be identified.

The questionnaire

Part I: Public/policy discussion

General policy discussions and policy approach

Do the public/policy discussions specifically deal with the different forms of business activities, since when and for how long?

Table 1: Presence of the different emerging forms of entrepreneurship in the public debate
 

Yes, continuously since xx year? (Please indicate year)

Yes, on and off in the last 10 years

(Please indicate yes where it applies)

Yes, has been on the public agenda, but since xx year it is no longer part of the agenda (Please indicate year)

No, it has never been part of the public agenda

(Please indicate X where it applies)

One-person enterprises /self-employed  

yes

   
Part-time entrepreneurs  

yes

   
Parallel entrepreneurs      

X

Serial entrepreneurs      

X

Business transfers and successions  

yes

   

For each of the entrepreneurship/business activities covered by policy discussions, which policy domains are they covered in? Please indicate with an ’X‘ where relevant.

Table 2: Policy domains engaged in the policy discussion of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Labour policies

Educational policies

Economic/Industrial policies

Innovation policies

Regional policies

Other (please specify)

One-person enterprises /self-employed    

X

     
Part-time entrepreneurs    

X

     
Parallel entrepreneurs          

N/A

Serial entrepreneurs          

N/A

Business transfers and successions    

X

     

In which media and forum do the public debate and policy discussions about the different types of entrepreneurship take place?

Please indicate whether they are implicitly (e.g. publications are covering entrepreneurs in general with implicit implications for the different forms of entrepreneurs/business activities) covered and/or explicitly mentioned (for instance parallel entrepreneurs are explicitly mentioned in publications) in these publications

Table 3: Media and forums discussing the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Public media such as newspapers and magazines incl. electronic media

Policy documents and analysis

Proposed legislation and/or business support schemes

Others, please specify

One-person enterprises/self-employed

Explicit

Explicit

Explicit

 
Part-time entrepreneurs

Explicit

Explicit

Explicit

Explicit: The French Business start-up agency (Agence pour la création d'entreprises, APCE) provides detailed information on part-time entrepreneurship (see below).

Parallel entrepreneurs

N/A

N/A

N/A

 
Serial entrepreneurs

N/A

N/A

N/A

 
Business transfers and successions

Explicit (see CRA website for a press review)

Implicit

Explicit

 

Specific topics to describe the different types of entrepreneurship

What has motivated the public debate?

Examples of motivation to assist you in answering question 4:

Have policy debates or research identified market or system failures that require public intervention?

Have policy/public debates or research identified dysfunctionalities that call for improvement or new business legislation?

Please specify for each of the five forms of entrepreneurship:

Table 4: What has motivated the public debate of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

Type of Entrepreneurship

Motivator

One-person enterprises/self-employed

The reform of self entrepreneurship was part of a reform package to modernise the French economy (Loi de modernisation de l'économie). According to official government sources, the law aims at fostering economic growth and employment and has four main goals:

-- to encourage entrepreneurs

-- to reflate competition

-- to reinforce the attractiveness of the French economy

-- to improve its funding

According to the French Council of Ministers (Conseil des ministres), there is a general deficit of small- and medium enterprises (SMEs) in France. According to government data, 97.3% of all enterprises in France were SMEs and 49.3% were one person enterprises in 2007 (pme.gouv.fr). The motivation to boost SMEs, in general, and one-person enterprises, in particular, also stems from their role in fostering economic growth and creating employment (Council of Ministres).

Part-time entrepreneurs

Beside the general motivation to foster entrepreneurship described above, part-time entrepreneur schemes are designed to motivate employees to start a business without giving up their current job. This should minimise the risks and costs for new entrepreneurs as they have the right to go back to full-time employment in case of business failure (see below for more information).

Parallel entrepreneurs

N/A

Serial entrepreneurs

N/A

Business transfers and successions

Although there is no lively public debate about business transfers in France, the current regulation gives similar rights to those overtaking an existing enterprise as to those who set up a new business (see below). Moreover, APCE promotes business succession as the possibly safer way as 73% of businesses being taken over still exist after a period of three years whereas only 62% of newly created businesses survive their first 36 months .

What has been the focus of the policy discussion?

To help you answer question 5, we list some examples of key issues that could be addressed in the policy discussion:

Regulation of business conditions or preventing illegal activities and deception e.g.:

Ease the administrative burden of establishing (registration) a new company, running a company or closing/winding down a company due to bankruptcy or transferring ownership to a new owner, etc.

Special tax or VAT schemes that give preferential treatment to start-ups and entrepreneurs including special conditions for R&D investments

Precarious work/social security – unemployment schemes, pension schemes, health and safety giving preferential treatment to entrepreneurs

Regulating illegal business activities (e.g. some serial entrepreneurs transfer their illegal activities from one firm to another when their illegal activities are discovered)

Promoting entrepreneurship

Access to finance – improving access to finance through grants, loans or equity capital

Financial incentives for business creation by unemployed people

Education – awareness raising and training to improve business skills and competences

Research and development such as supporting commercialisation of R&D through spinoffs partnerships, proof of concepts, IPR, etc.

Counselling and information dissemination, e.g. business planning, information campaigns

Provision of business facilities - easy access to office space and services

Raising entrepreneurial spirit among certain population groups, e.g. women, youth, migrants

Facilitate business creation through administrative simplification

Please specify for each of the five forms of entrepreneurship:

Table 5: The policy focus in the public debate within each of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

Type of Entrepreneurship

Policy focus

One-person enterprises/self-employed

French policy makers have focused on cutting red tape by simplifying the payment of taxes and social contributions. For specific measures, please refer to the outcome section below.

Part-time entrepreneurs

The French legislator seems to focus on facilitating the transition between employment and self-employment by different measures described below by granting special leave of absence and part-time working schemes.

Parallel entrepreneurs

N/A

Serial entrepreneurs

N/A

Business transfers and successions

The focus for business transfers is closely linked to those for employees creating an enterprise. The focus is on facilitating the transition and minimising the individual risks. Most information and recommendations available focus on entrepreneurs who have been employed or unemployed before and to a lesser extent on those who have run a business before.

Has the public discussion resulted in a concrete outcome/impact?

No:

Yes:

Both the public debate and the policy outcomes follow certain patterns:

New forms of entrepreneurship are seen as a part of French economic and industrial policies and aim at increasing employment and fostering economic growth. Hence, recent reforms were realised under the umbrella of the reform package to modernise the French economy.

Thus, one-person enterprises are the core of the policy debates as well as the outcomes (Levratto and Serverin 2009). Other policy measures should often be seen in conjunction with or as a supplement to boost self employment (e.g. part-time entrepreneurship as a mean for transition).

Most official information available has a strong focus on people who have no or very little entrepreneurial experience, which explains the focus on one-person enterprises and measures to facilitate transitions.

Given the focus on people who are not 'professional' entrepreneurs, it is not surprising that parallel and serial entrepreneurship is not mentioned in any of the official policy documents and there is no popular public debate about it.

If yes, pleased specify what outcome/impact and in relation to which of the five forms of entrepreneurships/business activities:

Examples of possible outcomes/impacts:

Attitudes towards entrepreneurship have changed and in which way?

General ‘code of conduct’ for what is acceptable business behaviour has changed

New legislation has been implemented (if relevant, please specify)

New business promotion schemes (if relevant, please specify)

Contributions to economic and regional development in terms of:Increase in number of entrepreneurs (covering different types), Increases in turnover, export achieved, Positive impact on labour market in terms of increased employment levels

Please specify for each of the five forms of entrepreneurship:

Table 6: Outcome or impact of the public debate of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

Type of Entrepreneurship

Outcome/Impact

One-person enterprises/self-employed

Since 1 January 2009, new legal regulations for self-employed are in place. They aim at simplifying the payment of taxes and social contributions and at easing the tax burden.

Since the new legislation is in place, self-employed can submit a simple tax return (monthly or quarterly) without registering to the trade and company register (registre du commerce et des sociétés). Moreover, self-employed are not subject to VAT and do not have to pay trade tax for three years. There is also a simplified online application process, which suffers, however, from severe technical difficulties.

Part-time entrepreneurs

It is possible to be self-employed and employed at the same time. In fact, the French system foresees two different kinds of transition between permanent employment and self-employment.

The employee might keep on working for their organisation while starting their own business. They must, however, make sure that this does not conflict with their employment contract, which might contain an 'exclusivity' or 'non-concurrence' clause.

It is also possible to ask for temporary leave of absence or to work part-time only while being self-employed. This requires, however, the employer's agreement. Again, the employment contract might include an 'exclusivity' or 'non-concurrence' clause that might conflict with the self-employment activities (APCE).

If an employee has been employed for at least two years with their current employer, they have the right to be granted part-time work or leave of absence by their employer if they prove to use the time to start or resume an entrepreneurial activity. The employer is obligated, if the employee wants so, to re-employ them after the agreed period has ended (Ministry for Employment, Solidarity and the Public Service [1] [2]). Those entrepreneurs are also exempt from social contributions for one year (APCE).

Parallel entrepreneurs

N/A

Serial entrepreneurs

N/A

Business transfers and successions

As mentioned earlier on, the French legislator has an interest in increasing self employment. Consequently, the debate emphasises the 'way to self employment' for those who have not been self employed before. For this reason, the provisions for part-time entrepreneurs discussed above concerning the right for leave of absence and part-time work also apply to those who take over an existing enterprise (APCE).

Overall assessment

Within the last couple of years, to which extent has the public and policy discussion been more focused on the following different types of entrepreneurship compared to the business policy/entrepreneurship debate in general?

Table 7: Increased focus at the emerging forms of entrepreneurship?
 

To a low degree To a high degree

 

1

2

3

4

5

One-person enterprises/self-employed      

X

 
Part-time entrepreneurs    

X

   
Parallel entrepreneurs

X

       
Serial entrepreneurs

X

       
Business transfers and successions  

X

     

Please list the main sources of information in the search for the above

Examples of sources:

Research publications and papers

Government and policy publications (background reports and studies)

Government programmes and initiatives (websites, brochures and leaflets)

Public (national/regional) entrepreneurship information services

Legislation proposed or passed

Press releases by ministries and other authorities

Review of the policy debate in electronic and printed media

Policy reviews and proposals from trade and branch organisations

The French Business start-up agency (Agence pour la création d'entreprises, APCE) has very comprehensive information about setting up or taking over an enterprise, about one-person enterprises and business takeovers.

Other information about policy developments are taken from official governmental websites like http://www.gouvernement.fr/ or http://www.pme.gouv.fr/.

Some legal information was taken from the Ministry for Employment, Solidarity and the Public Service website.

Several online newspapers

Part II: Standardised structural data

Which standardised business statistics are available covering the different forms of entrepreneurship/business activities (explicitly or implicitly, i.e. also data that could be used to describe these forms of entrepreneurship without being published with this specific objective/heading)?

Data available are generally of two different kinds. First, some data contain information on enterprises. This allows to identify one-person enterprises (i.e. enterprises without employees) only but do not ask any questions about the profile of the entrepreneur. Business statistics are thus only available for one-person enterprises (see table 8). Second, there are surveys that allow to analyse the founder/owner of a company but these studies usually focus on enterprises that have just been set up and do not include comprehensive information on business performance indicators. Although these surveys are a rich source of information for some kinds of forms of entrepreneurship, they do not give any information about the stock of existing companies (see table 9).

Possible sources to explore:

National statistical offices

Data from social security

Chambers of commerce and branch organisations

Data from tax and customs administration offices (on national and foreign entrepreneurs registered as owing VAT)

Regular indexes provided by national ministries of enterprise and or innovation (such as the annual Danish Entrepreneurship Index)

Table 8: Availability of business statistics about the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Type of data available

Indicate access to data by an ‘X’ in the first column

First published

Indicate year

Time series of data

(Biannually, annually, quarterly, monthly, once only, other)

Data source for the data

One-person enterprises/ self-employed

Number of enterprises

X

2000-2006 and 2007-present (data gap due to changing branch classifications from NAF Rev. 1 to NAF Rev. 2, see below)

annually

There is no data on the number of existing one-person enterprises under the new legislation. Self-employed in this terms only differ from 'normal' entrepreneurs in the way that they chose a particular fiscal and social regime (INSEE-SIRENE). There is, however, a database on the stock of enterprises and establishments (Répertoire des Entreprises et des Etablissements, REE/SIRENE) that covers one-person-enterprises regardless of if they have applied for the new self-employment scheme or not. The DG for Competitiveness, Industry and Services of the French Ministry of the Economy, Industry and Employment provides some aggregated data on all enterprises with 0 employees regardless of their social and fiscal regime that is partly taken from REE/SIRENE (pme.gouv.fr).

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

X

There are detailed monthly data on the application for self-employment under the new regulation since January 2009. The existence of all one-person enterprises since since 2000 can be found in REE/SIRENE (see right column).

Monthly data on creation by sector available in the INSEE database on business demography (category “Créations d'entreprises - Auto-entrepreneurs (séries brutes)”) on NAF Rev.2 A10 level; yearly data from REE/SIRENE.

INSEE

Data are available by NAF Rev. 2 on two levels: Level A21, which is equivalent to NACE Rev. 2 (first level, i.e. 21 alphabetical codes (sections)), and A10, which are collapsed levels associated with ISIC Rev. 4 and NACE Rev. 2 (INSEE, document in English). Data on A10 level are available by region and department. A21 level data by region only.REE/SIRENE also contains branch information but does not allow to differentiate between 'normal' one-person enterprises and those that are covered by the new self-employment scheme. REE/SIRENE data are available on A10 and A21 level.

Availability of regional data (please specify)

X

2000

annually

REE/SIRENE covers the region, department and municipality of the organisation for metropolitan France and its overseas departments and territories. Some information can be found in this APCE report.

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

X

2000 (1993)

annually

REE/SIRENE contains detailed information on the legal status as well as on the number of branches of the enterprise.

INSEE also provides data on the creation of corporations (sociétés) and sole proprietorships (entreprises individuelles). Although sole proprietorships are not congruent with one-person enterprises under the new self-employment legislation, the strong increase in the creation of sole proprietorships and, at the same time, the decline of corporations is explained by the new legislation (INSEE Première: 2-3 and APCE).

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

-

     

Exports

-

     

Employment

N/A

   

Not applicable to one-person enterprises

Others: ___________

X

   

See table 9 below for more information.

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

X

1993

Yearly, monthly

A detailed summary of new enterprises can be found here. Annual reports on the topic are available on the APCE website. The evolution of the creation of one-person enterprises between 1993 and 2008 has been published in an APCE report.

More recent data (since January 2009, the introduction of the new self employment legislation) are also available on a monthly basis but only cover applications to the new one-person enterprises regime without taking into account if the application has been accepted or if any economic activity has been taken up yet (INSEE).

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

X

1993

Yearly

It is possible to obtain extracts of the Official Bulletin of Civil and Commercial Notices (Bulletin Officiel d'Annonces Civiles et Commerciales, BODACC) that covers discontinued enterprises and contains information on principal activity of the organisation (NAF Rev. 2), legal status, region, department and municipality, creation date, liquidation date, employees concerned.

survival rate of enterprises

X

2002

yearly

INSEE

Data available for one-person enterprises by region and year for those enterprises that have been set-up in 2002.

Others, specify:

X

 

Yearly

A full list of the data files on the stock of enterprises/establishments and new creations by year can be found here.

Part-time entrepreneurs

Number of enterprises

-

     

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

-

     

Availability of regional data (please specify)

-

     

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

-

     

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

-

     

Exports

-

     

Employment

-

     

Others: ___________

-

     

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

X

1994

quadrennial

The SINE survey (see below) claims to be representative for all newly created enterprises and includes information about the proportion of part-time entrepreneurs among all newly set up businesses. In conjunction with the total number of newly created businesses it would be possible to roughly estimate the number of part-time start-ups.

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

-

     

Survival rate of enterprises

-

     

Others, specify:

-

     
Parallel entrepreneurs

Number of enterprises

-

     

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

-

     

Availability of regional data (please specify)

-

     

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

-

     

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

-

     

Exports

-

     

Employment

-

     

Others: ___________

-

     

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

-

     

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

-

     

survival rate of enterprises

-

     

Others, specify:

-

     
Serial entrepreneurs

Number of enterprises

-

     

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

-

     

Availability of regional data (please specify)

-

     

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

-

     

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

-

     

Exports

-

     

Employment

-

     

Others: ___________

-

     

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

-

     

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

-

     

survival rate of enterprises

-

     

Others, specify:

-

     
Business transfers and successions

Number of enterprises

-

     

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

-

     

Availability of regional data (please specify)

-

     

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

-

     

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

-

     

Exports

-

     

Employment

-

     

Others: ___________

-

     

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

-

     

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

-

     

survival rate of enterprises

-

     

Others, specify:

-

     

Is it possible to crosstab or merge the demographic data identifying the individual persons running any of the five forms of entrepreneurships/business activities with the company data specified in question 9 in a common database for analytical purpose?

No:

Yes: In principle, it is possible to crosstab data. There are, however, only comprehensive data on newly established enterprises and not on all existing companies.

In order to crosstab data, the Information System on New Enterprises (Système d'information sur les nouvelles entreprises, SINE) seems particularly helpful. The SINE is a survey that allows researching the profile of enterpreneurs as well as the development of new enterprises over a period of five years. A new wave of the survey is started every four years taking into account companies that have been set up recently. All companies are surveyed again after three and five years after they have taken up business. The survey contains variables that make it possible to identify three of five types of entrepreneurship included in this study – one person enterprises (number of employees), part-time entrepreneurs (other activity in another entreprise) and serial entrepreneurs (number of previous business creations). The availability of data that can be crosstabed is thus identical for all of these types. There are no such data for parallel entrepreneurs and business sucessions.

Although the sample is quite big (between 30,000 and 50,000, but no information about the response rate) it might not always be possible to really crosstab the data because of a low number of cases.

All information provided here applies to the latest SINE 2006. Previous surveys might be slightly – but not essentially - different.

The latest survey is from 2006 and contains only information about the number of employees. When referred to one-person entreprises, it is about entreprises without employees and not those that are concerned by the new legislation. The next wave of SINE will contain an additional 40,000 entreprises sample for self-employed by the new regulation.

Click on the link in the right-hand column to see more information about the question and the possible answers.

If yes, is there any limitation to access to merge these types of data? Please specify:

If, yes please describe which information is available from demographic data in your country

Possible sources to explore:

National statistical offices

Social security data

Data from tax and customs administration offices

Regular indexes provided by national ministries and authorities

Table 9: Availability of demographic statistics about the entrepreneur within the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Type of data available

Indicated access to data by an ‘X’ in the first column

First published

Indicate year

Time series of data

(Biannually, annually, quarterly, monthly, once only, other)

Data source for the data

One-person enterprises/ self-employed Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner

-

     
Gender

X

1994

quadrennial

SINE

Ethnicity

X

1994

quadrennial

SINE

It is not directly about ethnicity but about nationality (French/EU/Non-EU) of the founder.

Civic status (married, single, children)

X

1994

quadrennial

SINE

The question is about the owner/founder being in a relationship.

Age

X

1994

quadrennial

SINE

Age of the owner/founder when the enterprise was set up.

Geographical location

X

1994

quadrennial

SINE

The region where the headquarters was when the enterprise was set up.

Educational background (last registered education)

X

1994

quadrennial

SINE

Diploma of the creator when they set up the enterprise.

Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)

X

1994

quadrennial

SINE

Current activity elsewhere: corporate executive, part-time or full-time employee.

SINE

Profession before creating the enterprise.

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

X

1994

quadrennial

SINE

The survey has a question on whether the entrepreneur has exercised an activity in the same or another sector before.

Working hours of the entrepreneur

-

     
Income of the entrepreneur

-

     
Other types of data (Specify):

X

1994

quadrennial

For a full list of variables available, click here.

Part-time entrepreneurs Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner

-

     
Gender

X

1994

quadrennial

SINE

Ethnicity

X

1994

quadrennial

SINE

It is not about ethnicity but about nationality (French/EU/Non-EU) of the founder.

Civic status (married, single, children)

X

1994

quadrennial

SINE

The question is only about the owner/founder being in a relationship.

Age

X

1994

quadrennial

SINE

Age of the owner/founder when the enterprise was set up.

Geographical location

X

1994

quadrennial

SINE

The region where the headquarters was when the enterprise was set up.

Educational background (last registered education)

X

1994

quadrennial

SINE

Diploma of the creator when they set up the enterprise.

Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)

X

1994

quadrennial

SINE

Current activity elsewhere: corporate executive, part-time or full-time employee.

SINE

Profession before creating the enterprise.

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

X

1994

quadrennial

SINE

The survey has a question on whether the entrepreneur has exercised an activity in the same or another sector before.

Working hours of the entrepreneur

-

     
Income of the entrepreneur

-

     
Other types of data (Specify):

X

1994

quadrennial

For a full list of variables available, click here.

Parallel entrepreneurs Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner

-

     
Gender

-

   

Ethnicity

-

   

Civic status (married, single, children)

-

   

Age

-

   

Geographical location

-

   

Educational background (last registered education)

-

   

Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)

-

     

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

-

     
Working hours of the entrepreneur

-

     
Income of the entrepreneur

-

     
Other types of data (Specify):

-

     
Serial entrepreneurs Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner

-

     
Gender

X

1994

quadrennial

SINE

Ethnicity

X

1994

quadrennial

SINE

It is not about ethnicity but about nationality (French/EU/Non-EU) of the founder.

Civic status (married, single, children)

X

1994

quadrennial

SINE

The question is only about the owner/founder being in a relationship.

Age

X

1994

quadrennial

SINE

Age of the owner/founder when the enterprise was set up.

Geographical location

X

1994

quadrennial

SINE

The region where the headquarters was when the enterprise was set up.

Educational background (last registered education)

X

1994

quadrennial

SINE

Diploma of the creator when they set up the enterprise.

Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)

X

1994

quadrennial

SINE

Current activity elsewhere: corporate executive, part-time or full-time employee.

SINE

Profession before creating the enterprise.

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

X

1994

quadrennial

SINE

The survey has a question on whether the entrepreneur has exercised an activity in the same or another sector before.

Working hours of the entrepreneur

-

     
Income of the entrepreneur

-

     
Other types of data (Specify):

X

1994

quadrennial

For a full list of variables available, click here.

Business transfers and successions Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner

-

     
Gender

-

     
Ethnicity

-

     
Civic status (married, single, children)

-

     
Age

-

     
Geographical location

-

     

Educational background (last registered education)

-

     
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)

-

     

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

-

     
Working hours of the entrepreneur

-

     
Income of the entrepreneur

-

     
Other types of data (Specify):

-

     

Is the data freely accessible or does it require registration, payment and/or a special effort to access the data? Please explain the accessibility for each of the forms of entrepreneurs/business activities and datasets referred to above.

Table 10: List of statistical sources about the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

List data source/dataset

Explain the accessibility

Stock of enterprises and establishments (Répertoire des Entreprises et des Etablissements, REE/SIRENE)

Available free of charge for research purpose through the French Data Archive for social sciences (Réseau Quetelet).

Some data can be downloaded free of charge here.

Information System on New Enterprises (Système d'information sur les nouvelles entreprises, SINE)

Available free of charge for research purpose through the French Data Archive for social sciences (Réseau Quetelet).

Official Bulletin of Civil and Commercial Notices (Bulletin Officiel d'Annonces Civiles et Commerciales, BODACC)

Available free of charge for research purpose through the French Data Archive for social sciences (Réseau Quetelet).

pme.gouv.fr

The website is hosted by the French Ministry of the Economy, Industry and Employment (PME is the French equivalent of the English abbreviation SME) and provides some entrepreneurial data, in particular here.

APCE

Finally, the French business start-up agency has some data available in its statistics section.

Part III: Research

Please describe studies and research available nationally for each of the forms of entrepreneurs/business activities.

The following sources of information should be included in your research:

Studies from private companies and research organisations at national level

National studies from university research institutes such as those under the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Programme (cf. http://www.gemconsortium.org/)

Studies by journals and business magazines or even commissioned research by daily newspapers or communication departments of social partner organisations

Online blogs and forums covering and researching the different forms of entrepreneurship based on their communities.

Table 11: List of studies and research about the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

List the references (author’s name, title of publication etc, year of publication, organisation)

A short summary of the contents (e.g. topic covered, methodology applied)

One-person enterprises/self-employed

Levratto, N. and Serverin, E. (2009) Être entrepreneur de soi-même après la loi du 4 août 2008: les impasses d'un modèle productif individuel. Revue internationale de droit économique, XXIII(3).

The authors analyse the new self-employment legislation from a legal and an economic perspective.

 

Novelli, H. (2009) L’auto‐entrepreneur – bilan d’étape après 6 mois de mise en oeuvre. Available at: http://www.pme.gouv.fr/essentiel/loimodernisationeco/dossier_presse_auto_20090721.pdf (Accessed 21/07/2010).

First summary of the new legislation on self-employment after six months.

 

APCE (2009) Les Français et l'auto-entreprise. Available at http://www.apce.com/cid89498/les-francais-et-l-auto-entreprise.html?pid=266 (Accessed 21/07/2010).

Study on the attitude of French people towards the new self-employment regulation.

 

Becker, R. and Becker, E. (2009) Auto Entrepreneur, chance ou piège ? ...et pour faire quoi? Books on Demand, Paris.

A detailed overview about the new self-employment regulation. The book also contains numerous advices how to successfully set up a one-person enterprise.

 

OECD (2009) Economic Survey of France, 2009. Policy Brief.

Briefly touches upon the issue.

Part-time entrepreneurs    
Parallel entrepreneurs    
Serial entrepreneurs

APCE (2010) Quand les créateurs d’entreprise ont déjà l’expérience de l’entrepreneuriat : les « multi-créateurs ». APCE Observatoire. Available at http://www.apce.com/cid99802/quand-les-createurs-entreprise-ont-deja-experience-entrepreneuriat-les-multi-createurs.html (Accessed on 16 July 2010).

The report traces the profile of entrepreneurs. Using SINE 2006 data, it is reported that 27% of those creating an enterprise have experience in setting up a company. Experienced business creators hire more employees and are more likely to have a seed capital of at least 40,000€ at the beginning.

Business transfers and successions

APCE (2007) Trois ans après, 88 % des créateurs sont satisfaits d'avoir créé ou repris une entreprise. Available at http://www.apce.com/cid52968/trois-ans-apres-88-des-createurs-sont-satisfaits-d-avoir-cree-ou-repris-une-entreprise.html?pid=266 (Accessed on 21 July 2010).

Survey about the satisfaction of people creating or taking over a business three years after.

 

Ifop (2003) La reprise et la transmission d'entreprises. Available at http://www.apce.com/cid27956/la-reprise-et-la-transmission-d-entreprises.html?pid=266 (Accessed on 21 July 2010).

Survey on entrepreneurs who have taken over a company or who are planning to sell their enterprise.

 

APCE (2003) Le marché de la transmission : cédants, repreneurs et opérateurs. Available at: http://www.apce.com/cid27953/le-marche-de-la-transmission-cedants-repreneurs-et-operateurs.html?pid=266 (Accessed on 21 July 2010).

A merely theoretical study about the “market of business transfers”.

 

CRA (undated) Observatoire de la transmission. Available at http://www.cra.asso.fr/Observatoire-de-la-transmission (Accessed on 21 July 2010).

Study on business transfers of SMEs of a value between 300,000€ and 5,000,000€, and with 5 to 100 employees. Data are taken from an internal database.

 

Direction du commerce, de l'artisanat, des services et des professions libérales (DCASPL) (2007) Etude sur les causes de la reprise ou de la non reprise des entreprises individuelles suite au départ en retraite de leur dirigeant. Available at http://www.pme.gouv.fr/essentiel/etudesstat/pdf/r4539DcasplCausesRepriseVersionJanv07.pdf (Accessed on 21 July 2010).

Study on the non-transfer of business after the previous owner has retired.

Sebastian Schulze-Marmeling, HERA.

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