EMCC European Monitoring Centre on Change

Germany: Comparative Analytical Report (ERM) on Recent Policy Development related to those Not in Employment, Education and Training (NEET)

  • Observatory: EMCC
  • Topic:
  • Published on: 06 February 2012



About
Country:
Germany
Author:
Sandra Vogel
Institution:

Disclaimer: This information is made available as a service to the public but has not been edited by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. The content is the responsibility of the authors.

In October 2008, the Federal Government and the state governments issued the Dresden Declaration promoting education and training in Germany. The declaration states that the number of school leavers without any schooling leaving certificate is to be lowered from 8% to 4% by 2015. The share of young adults who have not successfully completed any vocational or similar training is also to be lowered from 17% to 8.5% in the same period. In connection with this Declaration, certain new programmes and initiatives were introduced at the national level. These are complemented by already existing measures at the local and regional levels.

1. Introduction

1.1 What is the level of interest among the different stakeholders in your country (policy makers, the media, employers and trade unions) in the issue of NEETs? What are their reasons for having a high/ low level of interest in the topic? (Expected length 100 words)

The different stakeholders have shown a high interest in NEETs in recent years. Very broadly speaking, the German government and other policy makers, together with employer and business organisations, are most concerned about the future supply of skilled labour (DE0707039I, DE1009019I). To satisfy future labour demand, not only NEETS but also other groups, such as women and migrants, need to be drawn into the labour market and supported in their educational and training efforts. For the other side of industry, the vice-chair of the Confederation of German Trade Unions (Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund, DGB), Ms. Ingrid Sehrbrock, has on several occasions highlighted the fact that 1.5 million people aged from 20 to 29 years have not completed a vocational training course or similar programme qualifying them for a profession (DE0911019I). In the light of this, the Confederation has often called on employers to take a greater number of youngsters into vocational training and also to consider applicants with no school leaving certificates or only low levels of schooling.

1.2 Using the following table, please identify which sub-groups of NEETs are of particular concern to the different stakeholders in your country. Please indicate the relative importance of each group to the different stakeholders; for each group please state whether they are felt to be of ‘significant concern’, ‘some concern’, or ‘no concern’ to the different stakeholders.


Table 1 – NEETs sub-groups
 

Public/media debate

e.g. the extent to which the issue is discussed within the news media

Mainstream Policy

e.g. the range of policy documents tackling the issue, the amount of investment committed to tackling the problem

Employers

e.g. the extent to which this issue is raised as a concern, e.g. through lobbying / pressure on the government, involvement in the design and/or implementation of relevant policies

Trade unions

e.g. the extent to which this issue is raised as a concern, e.g. through lobbying / pressure on the government, involvement in the design and/or implementation of relevant policies

Young people who are unemployed

Some concern

Some concern

Some concern

Some concern

Young people who are in ‘precarious’ or unsuitable employment (e.g. temporary contracts, forced self-employment, part-time work, or jobs which are not commensurate with their level of qualifications)

Significant concern

Significant concern

Significant concern

Significant concern

Early school leavers – young people who have dropped out of education before obtaining an upper secondary level qualification

Some concern

Significant concern

Significant concern

Significant concern

Young people with qualifications which do not meet labour market needs

Some concern

Significant concern

Significant concern

Significant concern

Teenage/ single parents

No concern

No concern

No concern

No concern

Migrants and minority groups

Significant concern

Significant concern

Significant concern

Significant concern

Young people with disabilities

Some concern

Some concern

Some concern

Some concern

Young people from workless families

Some concern

Some concern

Some concern

Some concern

Young people from disadvantaged areas

Some concern

Some concern

Some concern

Some concern

Young people with tertiary education who have been unsuccessful in accessing the labour market

Some concern

Some concern

Some concern

Some concern

Other (please specify):

.

-

-

-

-

1.3 Are there any policy measures in your country targeted at those NEETs with tertiary education? If yes please describe these briefly (expected length 100 words).

In the Dresden Declaration of 2008, the federal government and the states’ governments also stated to support and introduce policy measures related to tertiary education. However, these measures are more concerned with the increase of university enrolments, fostering excellence and better conditions at universities for academic studies. Concerning NEETs, most policy measures are however targeted at young adults who did not graduate from school, have not successfully completed a (vocational training) or suffer from other disadvantages that hamper their integration on the labour market.

2. NEET Policies and Measures

Caveat: Educational matters are also the responsibility of the 16 German states (Länder). They run their own programmes and a comprehensive overview of all measures on the regional and national levels is not available. This study therefore captures the broad developments of recent years, also providing information on newly initiated programmes. Older and longstanding programmes have also been taken into account, especially if they are important and if they have already been evaluated by scientific studies and information on their effectiveness are therefore available.

2.1 Measures to tackle early school leaving

Preventive Measures to tackle early school leaving


2.1.1 Please provide a short overview of your country’s approach to preventing early school leaving. Where does the focus of policies and measures to prevent early school leaving lie?

With the Dresden Declaration of October 2008, the Federal Government and the state governments declared their intention to promote education and training. Successful schooling is deemed crucial for the integration of youngsters into the vocational training and labour markets. There are several programmes that seek to prevent early school leaving, mainly by introducing pupils to more practical and positive learning experiences.


2.1.2 Please complete the table below with a brief description of up to three policies/ measures to prevent early school leaving in your country. Where possible you should use only one word or Yes/No (e.g. how is the measure funded? answer: regional; is this measure a NEET specific measure? answer: Yes).


Table 2 - Early School Leaving: Preventive measures
Early School Leaving: Preventive measures
Name of measure

Description of the measure: aims and objectives

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local)

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?

Rejecting school - The second chance (Schulverweigerung - Die 2. Chance):

Description of the measure: aims and objectives: The aim of the measure is to lower the number of pupils leaving school without a schooling certificate and to increase their prospects of obtaining a vocational training position.

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local): National.

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?: Ministry for the Family (Bundesministerium für Familie, Senioren, Frauen und Jugend, BMFSFJ), carried out at the regional level by different partners.

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?: ESF.

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?: A more general measure.

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?: Targeted at youngsters with educational deficits.

Pfiffigunde

(measure by the Craftswomen’s House Cologne)

Description of the measure: aims and objectives: The Craftswomen’s House Cologne offers courses to girls who are likely to drop out of school (grades 6 to 10). Courses in skilled manual work are intended to give these girls positive learning experiences and career prospects in order to lower the school drop-out rate.

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local): Local.

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?: Unilateral.

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?: Private.

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?: More general measure

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?: Targeted at youngsters with educational deficits.

Career entry support (Berufseinstiegsbegleitung):

Description of the measure: aims and objectives: The programme seeks to help juveniles to successfully complete their secondary education and make the transition to vocational training, and to lower drop-out rates from vocational training courses.

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local): National.

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?: Administered by the Federal Employment Agency (Bundesagentur für Arbeit, BA).

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?: National funding.

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?: More general measure.

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?: Targeted at pupils and trainees with learning difficulties.

2.1.3 Please provide a more detailed description of the preventive early school leaving measure which you think is the most effective measure in your country (this measure should be additional to those included in the table above). In addition to the questions raised in the table above, your description should include the details outlined below:


  • When was it introduced and why? How long will it run for?
  • Is it a mainstream or pilot project?
  • What is the scale of the initiative and how much funding has been allocated to it?
  • Who runs the initiative (is it a public, private or third sector initiative)?
  • What is the target group? How many young people benefit from it?
  • What activities are involved?
  • What are the success factors?
  • Is there any formal evidence of its success (both quantitative and qualitative)?

Due to a lack in comparable and comprehensive evaluation data, I can only describe the latest developments: The Federal and state governments have set up a new initiative called ‘School leaving certificate and the next step – continuing up the educational ladder to a certificate of vocational training’ (Abschluss und Anschluss – Bildungsketten bis zum Ausbildungsabschluss). There are three steps towards the overall goal of lowering the number of pupils leaving school without a qualification:


  1. Analysing the potentials of pupils in grade 7 or 8.
  2. Occupational orientation in grade 7 or 8.
  3. Supervision of pupils from their penultimate school year until the completion of their first year in vocational training.

Initiated in 2010, the programme involves over 1,000 basic secondary schools (Hauptschulen) and special schools. In these schools, some 60,000 pupils are expected to take part in an analysis of their potential in 2011, and around 30,000 are expected to need support during the programme period (until 2014). The initiative is funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, BMBF). The programme is carried out by the BA. Around € 362 million is available for the period up to 2014. In November 2010 around 500 experts took up their job as mentors, a number which is to be raised to 1,000.

Reintegration measures to tackle early school leaving


2.1.4 Please provide a short overview of your country’s approach to the reintegration of early school leavers. Where does the focus of policies and measures lie?

In 2009, a legal entitlement to support in obtaining a certificate of secondary education at a later stage was introduced in Germany. This entitlement can be redeemed in courses providing preparation for an occupation (berufsvorbereitende Maßnahmen) and for adults in continuous training courses. However, there are also many longstanding measures at the local level which seek to reintegrate early school leavers by different means.


2.1.5 Please complete the table below with a brief description of up to three policies/ measures to reintegrate early school leavers in your country. Where possible you should use only one word or Yes/No (e.g. how is the measure funded? answer: regional; is this measure a NEET specific measure? answer: Yes).


Table 2 - Early School Leaving: reintegration measures

Early School Leaving: Reintegration measures

Name of measure

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local)

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?

Nipper – a measure organised by the Craftswomen’s House Cologne (Handwerkerinnenhaus Köln):

Description of the measure: aims and objectives: The measure seeks to reintegrate girls in grade 9 or 10 who do not, or only irregularly, attend school. Girls attend classes in a workshop where they are supervised by social workers, special school teachers and carpenters.

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local): Local.

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?: Unilateral.

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?: Private.

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?: A more general measure.

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?: Targeted at pupils with learning deficits.

Eibe:

Description of the measure: aims and objectives: The measure seeks to improve the vocational training and labour market integration of juveniles. It is possible to belatedly acquire a certificate of secondary education. Other measures include internships, remedial education (especially in German and mathematics), etc.

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local): Regional (State of Hesse).

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?: State of Hesse.

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?: State of Hesse and ESF.

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?: A more general measure.

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?: Yes.

Measures offering preparation for an occupation (Berufsvorbereitende Maßnahmen, BvB):

Description of the measure: aims and objectives: Since 2009 it has been possible to belatedly acquire a certificate of secondary education via this measure. However, the general aims and objectives are broader, see table 4.

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local): National.

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?: Administered by BA, implemented by various organisations.

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?: National state funding.

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?: A more general measure.

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education?: No.

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?: Partly, if NEETs with low schooling are considered as disadvantaged.

.

2.1.6 Please provide a more detailed description of the reintegration early school leaving measure which you think is the most effective measure in your country (this measure should be additional to those included in the table above). In addition to the questions raised in the table above, your description should include the details outlined below:


  • When was it introduced and why? How long will it run for?
  • Is it a mainstream or pilot project?
  • What is the scale of the initiative and how much funding has been allocated to it?
  • Who runs the initiative (is it a public, private or third sector initiative)?
  • What is the target group? How many young people benefit from it?
  • What activities are involved?
  • What are the success factors?
  • Is there any formal evidence of its success (both quantitative and qualitative)?

Due to a lack in evaluation data on existent programmes, I will introduce one example: In 2010 a study analysing the occupational preparation year (Berufsvorbereitungsjahr, BVJ) was published on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales, BMAS). The BVJ exists in different forms at the state level. The study shows that in 2008, 22,132 young adults had belatedly acquired a certificate of secondary education in training schools (berufliche Schule) at the federal state level. Of these, 15,699 did so in the BVJ. However, it should be noted that the collection of statistical data is not identical in all states.

The study gives an example of a successful programme, i.e. the preparation year for vocational training with a technical or home economics orientation in Schleswig-Holstein. The measure mainly aims at preparing participants for a vocational training position. However, the programme also offers juveniles the chance to acquire a certificate of secondary education. Using state government funding (teachers are paid by their institutions/schools), the programme supports youngsters without a job or a vocational training position and juveniles with schooling certificates from special schools. The study shows that 80% of the participants stay with the programme whilst 65% acquire their certificate of secondary education. These are comparatively high figures. The researchers conclude that programmes which combine theoretical and practical learning for participants with an already difficult learning history are more successful. The preparation year in Schleswig Holstein includes work experience, school lessons, and vocational preparation.

2.2 Measures to facilitate access to employment

Facilitating the transition from school to work


2.2.1 Please provide an overview of your country’s approach to facilitating school to work transitions. Where does the focus of policies and measures to facilitate transitions lie?

In Germany, the school-to-work transition is dealt with at several stages . I will use this section to introduce measures aiming at occupational orientation or preparation and measures designed to improve the chances of pupils becoming a vocational trainee by different approaches, such as improving their practical skills, giving them orientation courses or individual support in developing their skills.


2.2.2 Please complete the table below with a brief description of up to three policies/ measures to facilitate school to work transitions in your country. Where possible you should use only one word or Yes/No (e.g. how is the measure funded? answer: regional; is this measure a NEET specific measure? answer: Yes).


Table 4 - Access to employment: Measures to facilitate school to work transitions
Access to employment: Measures to facilitate school to work transitions
Name of measure

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local)

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education?

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?

Practical learning in Mecklenburg-West Pomerania (Produktives Lernen in Mecklenburg Vorpommern):

Description of the measure: aims and objectives: It is a measure which replaces the last school years by another learning form, i.e. practical learning. For three months, pupils go to a company, tradesman’s workshop, medical practice or other work place of their choice for three days a week. Additionally, every pupil receives an hour of individual coaching per week. The programme was set up to counter the high number of juveniles without a school leaving certificate.

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local): Regional (Mecklenburg-West Pomerania).

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?: Unilateral.

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?: State government funding.

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?: A more general measure.

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education?: No.

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?: Targeted at young people with learning difficulties.

Extended occupational orientation (Erweiterte Berufsorientierung)

Description of the measure: aims and objectives: This is a preventive national measure for school based pupils who can take part in occupational orientation courses and occupational guidance counselling.

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local): National.

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?: Administered by BA, implemented by different organisations.

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?: National funding.

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?: A more general measure

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education?: No.

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?: No.

Measures preparing participants for an occupation (Berufsvorbereitende Maßnahmen, BvB):

Description of the measure: aims and objectives: The overall aim is to prepare youngsters for vocational training and integrate them into the labour market. Within this, there are several objectives: 1. To support participants in making a suitable career choice, 2. To enable participants to test their skills and abilities with regard to their choice of occupation, 3. To impart the skills and abilities needed for a chosen occupation or vocational training.

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local): National.

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?: Administered by BA.

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?: National funding.

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?: A more general measure.

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education?: No.

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?: Yes, partly (migrants are part of the target groups).


2.2.3 Please provide a more detailed description of the school-to-work transition measure which you think is the most effective measure in your country (this measure should be additional to those included in the table above). In addition to the questions raised in the table above, your description should include the details outlined below:


  • When was it introduced and why? How long will it run for?
  • Is it a mainstream or pilot project?
  • What is the scale of the initiative and how much funding has been allocated to it?
  • Who runs the initiative (is it a public, private or third sector initiative)?
  • What is the target group? How many young people benefit from it?
  • What activities are involved?
  • What are the success factors?
  • Is there any formal evidence of its success (both quantitative and qualitative)?

An evaluation for the following programme is available: The occupational orientation programme in inter-company or similar training centres (Berufsorientierungsprogramm) was initiated by the BMBF in 2008. The programme is administered by the Federal Institute for Vocational Training and Education (Bundesinstitut für Berufsbildung, BIBB). It started as a pilot project, but became a regular measure in 2010. It seeks to improve occupational orientation courses in the training centres and support the transition of pupils (especially from basic secondary schools) from school to working life. Participants analyse their own skills, abilities and career choices and have the chance to look at at least three different occupations during an internship.

For the period from 2008 until 2013, the BIBB has devoted more than € 72 million to this measure. An evaluation of the programme on behalf of the BMBF shows that nearly 85% of the pupils surveyed had enjoyed taking part in the programme. Nearly two thirds of the respondents stated that at the end of the programme they knew which occupation they wanted to take up. Another 80% had also learned which profession not to choose.

Measures to foster employability


2.2.4 Please provide an overview of your country’s approach to fostering employability among NEETs. Where does the focus of policies and measures lie?

There are different approaches to fostering employability among NEETs in Germany. As shown in the following section, the German system relies amongst other things on vocational training. Programmes and measures prepare youngsters for an apprenticeship or training course and help them to complete it successfully, thus providing a firm basis for long-term access to employment.


2.2.5 Please complete the table below with a brief description of up to three policies/ measures to foster employability of NEETs in your country. Where possible you should use only one word or Yes/No (e.g. how is the measure funded? answer: regional; is this measure a NEET specific measure? answer: Yes).


Table 5 - Access to employment: Measures to foster employability (to include apprenticeships)
Access to employment: Measures to foster employability (to include apprenticeships).
Name of measure

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local)

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education?

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?

“Good prospects of a vocational qualification” (“Perspektive Berufsabschluss”):

Description of the measure: aims and objectives: The programme aims to lower the share of youngsters with no vocational qualification. Two different core areas were established: 1. The ‘regional transition management’ (regionales Übergangsmanagement) harmonises already existent support measures. 2. Young un- or semiskilled adults can belatedly acquire a vocational training or similar certificate.

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local): National.

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?: BMBF, implemented by different partners.

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?: ESF and BMBF.

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs? NEETs are one of the specific target groups but there are others.

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education? No.

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group? Disadvantaged in terms of educational deficits: yes. Parts of the programme are targeted at un- or semi-skilled young people.

Jobstarter Connect

Description of the measure: aims and objectives: BMBF supports the early integration of young adults into vocational training.As a new project, training modules (Ausbildungsbausteine) for 14 recognised occupations that require formal training have been developed, e.g. painter, chemical technician or salespersons. Naturally, the contents vary with the occupation in question. However, generally speaking, the training modules take the trainee step by step from a basic to a sophisticated understanding of a profession. After having completed all necessary training modules, the trainee can take part in an examination to become, for example, a certified painter.

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local): National.

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?: Administered by BIBB on behalf of BMBF.

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?: ESF and BMBF.

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?: A more general measure.

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education?: No.

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?: Yes.

VerA

Description of the measure: aims and objectives: The initiative seeks to support apprentices to prevent them abandoning their apprenticeship.

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local): National.

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?: The initiative was set up by the Senior Expert Service (SES) and its umbrella organisation, the Association of German Chambers of Industry and Commerce (Deutscher Industrie- und Handelskammertag, DIHK), the German Confederation of Skilled Crafts (Zentralverband des Deutschen Handwerks, ZDH) and the German Association of Liberal Professions (Bundesverband der freien Berufe, BfB).

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?: BMBF.

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?: Impact on NEETs

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education?: No.

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?: Not specifically.


2.2.6 Please provide a more detailed description of the measure which you think is the most effective measure in your country to foster the employability of NEETs (this measure should be additional to those included in the table above). In addition to the questions raised in the table above, your description should include the details outlined below:


  • When was it introduced and why? How long will it run for?
  • Is it a mainstream or pilot project?
  • What is the scale of the initiative and how much funding has been allocated to it?
  • Who runs the initiative (is it a public, private or third sector initiative)?
  • What is the target group? How many young people benefit from it?
  • What activities are involved?
  • What are the success factors?
  • Is there any formal evidence of its success (both quantitative and qualitative)?

The “Pact on Apprenticeships” (Ausbildungspakt) remains one of the most effective measures for fostering employability amongst school leavers and training them for their future working life. Introduced by the federal government and the Confederation of German Employers’ Associations (Bundesvereinigung der Deutschen Arbeitgeberverbände, BDA), the Federation of German Industries (Bundesverband der Deutschen Industrie, BDI), the DIHK, the ZDH, the BfB and the BA in 2004, it was renewed in 2010 with two new pact partners, the federal government’s Commissioner for Migration, Refugees and Integration, and the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Cultural Affairs of the Länder (Kultusministerkonferenz, KMK). The pact runs until 2014 and the partners hope to create on average per annum: 60,000 new vocational training positions, 30,000 places for students with entry-level qualifications, 10,000 places with special entry-level qualifications, and add 30,000 new companies to the list of those training young people (DE1011029I).

The Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Technologie, BMWi) has published figures on the success of the pact. In 2010, 70,300 new vocational training positions were recorded as a result of efforts by the chambers of commerce and crafts and business and employer organisations. 42,800 establishments were persuaded to take on apprentices for the first time. Establishments additionally provided 29,010 positions for entry-level qualifications. Finally, the public administrations also played their part: the share of apprentices in the federal administration reached 7.7% (compared with a target of 7%).

Removing practical and logistical barriers


2.2.7 Please provide an overview of your country’s approach to removing practical and logistical barriers for NEETs. Where does the focus of policies and measures lie?

As the table below shows, support measures available comprise transport subsidies to reach the workplace, travel expenses, partial allowances for work clothes, subsidies when two households need to be set up for a new job, allowances for removals, etc.


2.2.8 Please complete the table below with a brief description of up to three policies/ measures to remove practical and logistical barriers to employment for NEETs in your country. Where possible you should use only one word or Yes/No (e.g. how is the measure funded? answer: regional; is this measure a NEET specific measure? answer: Yes).


Table 6 - Access to employment: Measures to remove practical and logistical barriers

Access to employment: Measures to remove practical and logistical barriers

Name of measure

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local)

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education?

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?

Grants for travel expenses (Reisekostenbeihilfe):

Description of the measure: aims and objectives: Unemployed persons or those threatened by unemployment receive a one-off reimbursement of their travel expenses, i.e. when they take up a job at another location than their home town.

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local): National.

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?: Unilateral.

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?: National funding (administered by BA).

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?: A more general measure.

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education?: No.

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?: No.

Training allowance (Ausbildungsgeld):

Description of the measure: aims and objectives: This allowance seeks to support young persons with disabilities who have so far taken part neither in vocational training nor in a measure preparing them for vocational training, nor been employed in a workshop for the disabled.

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local): National.

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?: Unilateral.

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?: National funding (administered by BA).

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?: A more general measure.

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education?: No.

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?: Yes.

Vocational training allowances (Berufsausbildungsbeihilfe, BAB):

Description of the measure: aims and objectives: Trainees receive BAB if they cannot live with their parents during their training or schooling, because their school or establishment is too far away from home. BAB aims at overcoming economic hardships which might hamper or prevent training.

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local): National.

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?: Unilateral.

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?: National funding (administered by BA).

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?: A more general measure.

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education?: No.

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?: No. However, special regulations for people with disabilities exist.

Employer incentives


2.2.9 Please provide an overview of your country’s approach to incentivising employers to recruit young people (who are NEET). Where does the focus of policies and measures to incentivise employers lie? Where possible you should use only one word or Yes/No (e.g. how is the measure funded? answer: regional; is this measure a NEET specific measure? answer: Yes).

There are a variety of measures in Germany aiming at incentivising employers to recruit young people. The first measure presented focuses on financial incentives to companies that take on apprentices from establishments which were closed or had to file for insolvency under certain circumstances. However, other measures also aim at combating a lack of skilled labour and giving juveniles from disadvantaged backgrounds or with educational deficits a chance to learn a profession.


2.2.10 Please complete the table below with a brief description of up to three policies/ measures to incentivise employers in your country.


Table 7 - Access to employment: Employer incentives

Access to employment: Employer incentives

Name of measure

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local)

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education?

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?

Bonuses for apprenticeship positions ( Ausbildungsplatzbonus):

Description of the measure: aims and objectives: The bonus is paid for apprentices whose training was cut short by the closure of their establishment. Companies taking these apprentices on and offering them a chance to complete their training are financially supported by BA. Rules for application and bonus payments were loosened in 2009 during the economic crisis.

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local): National.

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?: Unilateral

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?: National funding

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs? A more general measure

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education?: No.

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?: No.

Bridges to vocational and continuous training ( Brücken in die Aus- und Weiterbildung) introduced by the social partners in the metal and electrical industry in Lower Saxony in 2010:

Description of the measure: aims and objectives: The programme consists of two components: 1. The social partners agreed to set up a scholarship for apprentices who successfully completed their training and passed their examinations. They are given the chance to participate in another training measure, which is supported by their companies with a monthly € 400 plus the public grants. 2. The programme supports youngsters with a school leaving certificate from a basic secondary school. Companies taking them on as apprentices receive a single payment of € 5,000.

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local): Regional.

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?: First component: bilateral, i.e. employer association and union. Second component: unilateral, i.e. employer association.

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?: Private funding.

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?: NEET-specific.

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education?: No.

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?: Yes, partly (if pupils with low schooling are considered as disadvantaged).

‘1,000 for 1,000’ introduced by the social partners in the chemical industry in 2010:

Description of the measure: aims and objectives: The Mining, Chemicals and Energy Industrial Union (Industriegewerkschaft Bauen-Agrar-Umwelt, IG BCE) and the German Federation of Chemicals Employers’ Associations (Bundesarbeitgeberverband Chemie, BAVC) agreed to set up a fund to support apprentices in the industry. Firms which continue to employ apprentices who have successfully completed their training but were not to be retained as employees due to the economic crisis, receive € 1,000 per month from the fund for a maximum period of one year.

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local): National.

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?: IG BCE, BAVC, administered by the Support Association for the Chemicals Industry (Unterstützungsverein der chemischen Industrie, UCI).

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?: Private funding.

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?: NEET-specific.

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education?: No.

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?: No.

2.2.11 Please provide a more detailed description of the employer incentive which you think is the most effective measure in your country (this measure should be additional to those included in the table above). In addition to the questions raised in the table above, your description should include the details outlined below:


  • When was it introduced and why? How long will it run for?
  • Is it a mainstream or pilot project?
  • What is the scale of the initiative and how much funding has been allocated to it?
  • Who runs the initiative (is it a public, private or third sector initiative)?
  • What is the target group? How many young people benefit from it?
  • What activities are involved?
  • What are the success factors?
  • Is there any formal evidence of its success (both quantitative and qualitative)?

Given the existent research literature, this question can only be answered to a limited. A report by the Institute for Employment Research (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung, IAB) and the GIB Gesellschaft für Innovationsforschung und Beratung on behalf of the BMAS focuses on the effectiveness of entry-level qualifications (Einstiegsqualifizierung, EQJ). Introduced by the partners of the ‘Pact on Apprenticeships’ in 2004, EQJ was incorporated into the Social Security Code in 2007. EQJs are long-term internships lasting from 6 to 12 months and particularly support youngsters who do not meet the skill requirements for a regular apprenticeship position.

The programme is national in scale and the BA offers a financial incentive to employers providing EQJ positions. In 2007 39,994 (2008: 32,631; 2009 33,667) applications were accepted by the BA. EQJ participants in the apprenticeship years 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 were interviewed between December 2009 and February 2010. The results show that 74% of the 2007/2008 participants held an apprenticeship position at the time of the interview. This success rate rises to 81% if those respondents who told the interviewer that they already held a job or had begun a university course are included.

3. Conclusion

The above information shows that there are several programmes and measures available in Germany. However, as a study by the Cologne Institute for Economic Research (Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft Köln, IW Köln) from 2010 highlights, only 1.4% of the grants by BA at the federal, state and municipal levels were used in 2006 to support occupational preparation measures (Berufsvorbereitung), compared with 29.5% for vocational training positions and related measures. It should be furthermore noted that funds for programmes are not only drawn from the national or federal state levels, but also from the European level. Programmes, such as rejecting school – the second chance, Good prospects of a vocational training, Eibe or Jobstarter Connect are for example (co-)financed by ESF funds. These measures available to NEETS in Germany are therefore subject to European guidelines and take up their principles.

However, the IW analysis concludes that especially pupils with learning deficits could be supported better by making greater investments and offering more programmes. Another problem identified by the researchers relates to the division of responsibility between the states (Länder) and the national administration. The states have little incentive to invest into their schooling systems, since they are not required to bear the subsequent costs caused by youngsters not skilled enough to take up a vocational training position. Given this situation, the authors call, amongst other things, for more reforms in the schooling system, an emphasis on pre-school education to prevent future failures and a comprehensive education initiative to strengthen the basic skills of juveniles. Finally, better coordination between existent programmes is recommended as well as the flexibilisation of vocational training and the labour market.

References

Becker, Carsten; Dietrich, Hans; Gehrke, Jürgen; Grebe, Tim; Popp, Sandra: Weiterführung der Begleitforschung zur Einstiegsqualifizierung (EQJ) (Continuation of the research on entry-level qualifications, EQJ). Research study by the Institute for Employment Research (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung) and the GIB Gesellschaft für Innovationsforschung und Beratung on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales). Berlin, 2010.

Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung: Berufsbildungsberichte 2008-2011 (Vocational training reports 2008-2011), Bonn 2008-2011.

Institut für berufliche Bildung, Arbeitsmarkt- und Sozialpolitik; Institut für Wirtschaft, Arbeit und Kultur: Evaluationsbericht. Evaluierung des Berufsorientierungsprogramm in überbetrieblichen und vergleichbaren Berufsbildungsstätten (Evaluation of the occupational orientation programme in inter-company or similar training centres), Offenbach, 2010.

Neumann, Michael; Schmidt, Jörg; Werner, Dirk: Die Integration Jugendlicher in Ausbildung und Beschäftigung. Probleme, Programme und Reformpotenziale (The integration of youth into training and employment. Problems, measures and reform potentials). IW-Analysen No. 53. Köln, 2010.



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