EMCC European Monitoring Centre on Change

Greece: ERM comparative analytical report on emerging forms of entrepreneurship

  • Observatory: EMCC
  • Topic:
  • Published on: 21 March 2011



About
Country:
Greece
Author:
Apostolis Kapsalis
Institution:

Disclaimer: This information is made available as a service to the public but has not been edited or approved by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. The content is the responsibility of the authors.

There is a significant lack of information and statistics referring to emerging forms of entrepreneurship in the case of Greece. Where informations are available they concern either the section of one person enterprises or the section of business transfers and successions.This questionnaire has been answered in collaboration with colleagues / scientific collaborators of the General Confederation of Small Businesses and Trades (GSEVEE) and the National Confederation of Greek Commerce (ESEE).GSEVEE constitutes the supreme and most massive union of Professionals, Craftsmen and Merchants across the country. It is a Third Level Small Enterprises’ Organisation and one of the major Social Partners (GSEE, GSEVEE, ESEE, SEV) which co-sign the National General Collective Agreement (EGSSE). ESEE consists primarily of Greek traders’ associations and secondarily of federations of traders’ associations.

The questionnaire

Part I: Public/policy discussion

General policy discussions and policy approach

Do the public/policy discussions specifically deal with the different forms of business activities, since when and for how long?

Table 1: Presence of the different emerging forms of entrepreneurship in the public debate
 

Yes, continuously since xx year? (Please indicate year)

Yes, on and off in the last 10 years

(Please indicate yes where it applies)

Yes, has been on the public agenda, but since xx year it is no longer part of the agenda (Please indicate year)

No, it has never been part of the public agenda

(Please indicate X where it applies)

One-person enterprises /self-employed  

X

   
Part-time entrepreneurs      

X

Parallel entrepreneurs      

X

Serial entrepreneurs      

X

Business transfers and successions  

X

   

For each of the entrepreneurship/business activities covered by policy discussions, which policy domains are they covered in? Please indicate with an ’X‘ where relevant.

Table 2: Policy domains engaged in the policy discussion of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Labour policies

Educational policies

Economic/Industrial policies

Innovation policies

Regional policies

Other (please specify)

One-person enterprises /self-employed  

X

X

     
Part-time entrepreneurs            
Parallel entrepreneurs            
Serial entrepreneurs            
Business transfers and successions          

X (easing administrative burden)

In which media and forum do the public debate and policy discussions about the different types of entrepreneurship take place?

Please indicate whether they are implicitly (e.g. publications are covering entrepreneurs in general with implicit implications for the different forms of entrepreneurs/business activities) covered and/or explicitly mentioned (for instance parallel entrepreneurs are explicitly mentioned in publications) in these publications

Table 3: Media and forums discussing the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Public media such as newspapers and magazines incl. electronic media

Policy documents and analysis

Proposed legislation and/or business support schemes

Others, please specify

One-person enterprises/self-employed  

X

X

 
Part-time entrepreneurs        
Parallel entrepreneurs        
Serial entrepreneurs        
Business transfers and successions  

X

X

 

Specific topics to describe the different types of entrepreneurship

What has motivated the public debate?

Please specify for each of the five forms of entrepreneurship:

Table 4: What has motivated the public debate of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

Type of Entrepreneurship

Motivator

One-person enterprises/self-employed

Their large presence. They constitute almost 25% of the total number of enterprises in Greece.

Part-time entrepreneurs  
Parallel entrepreneurs  
Serial entrepreneurs  
Business transfers and successions

Many family businesses

What has been the focus of the policy discussion?

To help you answer question 5, we list some examples of key issues that could be addressed in the policy discussion:

Please specify for each of the five forms of entrepreneurship:

Table 5: The policy focus in the public debate within each of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

Type of Entrepreneurship

Policy focus

One-person enterprises/self-employed

Precarious work/social security – unemployment schemes and health and safety

Financial incentives for business creation by unemployed people

Facilitate business creation through administrative simplification

Part-time entrepreneurs  
Parallel entrepreneurs  
Serial entrepreneurs  
Business transfers and successions

Ease the administrative burden of transferring ownership

Has the public discussion resulted in a concrete outcome/impact?

No:

Yes: Χ

First of all, it should be stressed that this is not exactly the outcome of an original and well-formed public dialogue. For this reason, although the vast majority of the associations of self-employed people disagree, the government recently adopted Law 3844/2010 on the full deregulation of liberal professions, which is expected to take effect early 2011.

At the same time, Law 3846/2010 establishes certain cumulative criteria-evidence in favour of salaried employment for pseudo self-employed people without, however, changing substantially the overall status of this category of employed persons or the regime of their employment and insurance.

Finally, it should be stressed that in the context of dealing with the economic crisis and combating unemployment, certain state financial aid programmes were recently announced which target individual entrepreneurship and re-training of self-employed people, which are expected to take a concrete form (beneficiaries, term) by the end of 2010.

Please specify for each of the five forms of entrepreneurship:

Table 6: Outcome or impact of the public debate of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

Type of Entrepreneurship

Outcome/Impact

One-person enterprises/self-employed
Part-time entrepreneurs  
Parallel entrepreneurs  
Serial entrepreneurs  
Business transfers and successions

Overall assessment

Within the last couple of years, to which extent has the public and policy discussion been more focused on the following different types of entrepreneurship compared to the business policy/entrepreneurship debate in general?

Table 7: Increased focus at the emerging forms of entrepreneurship?
 

To a low degree To a high degree

 

1

2

3

4

5

One-person enterprises/self-employed    

X

   
Part-time entrepreneurs

X

       
Parallel entrepreneurs

X

       
Serial entrepreneurs

X

       
Business transfers and successions  

X

     

Please list the main sources of information in the search for the above

Part II: Standardised structural data

Which standardised business statistics are available covering the different forms of entrepreneurship/business activities (explicitly or implicitly, i.e. also data that could be used to describe these forms of entrepreneurship without being published with this specific objective/heading)?

Available data could be found especially for self-employed in the Hellenic Statistical Authority (ELSTAT). It is noteworthy that specific data that this questionnaire asks are not published but can be found to some extent if asked by the ELSTAT.

Another source of data is the EUROSTAT database, especially the Structural Business Statistics database.

Table 8: Availability of business statistics about the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Type of data available

Indicate access to data by an ‘X’ in the first column

First published

Indicate year

Time series of data

(Biannually, annually, quarterly, monthly, once only, other)

Data source for the data

One-person enterprises/ self-employed

Number of enterprises

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Availability of regional data (please specify)

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Exports

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Employment

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Others: ___________

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

survival rate of enterprises

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Others, specify:

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Part-time entrepreneurs

Number of enterprises

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Availability of regional data (please specify)

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Exports

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Employment

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Others: ___________

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Survival rate of enterprises

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Others, specify:

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Parallel entrepreneurs

Number of enterprises

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Availability of regional data (please specify)

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Exports

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Employment

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Others: ___________

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

survival rate of enterprises

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Others, specify:

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Serial entrepreneurs

Number of enterprises

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Availability of regional data (please specify)

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Exports

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Employment

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Others: ___________

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

survival rate of enterprises

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Others, specify:

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Business transfers and successions

Number of enterprises

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Availability of regional data (please specify)

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Exports

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Employment

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Others: ___________

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

survival rate of enterprises

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Others, specify:

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Is it possible to crosstab or merge the demographic data identifying the individual persons running any of the five forms of entrepreneurships/business activities with the company data specified in question 9 in a common database for analytical purpose?

No: Χ

Yes:

Table 9: Availability of demographic statistics about the entrepreneur within the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Type of data available

Indicated access to data by an ‘X’ in the first column

First published

Indicate year

Time series of data

(Biannually, annually, quarterly, monthly, once only, other)

Data source for the data

One-person enterprises/ self-employed Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Gender

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Ethnicity

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Civic status (married, single, children)

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Age

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Geographical location

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Educational background (last registered education)

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Working hours of the entrepreneur

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Income of the entrepreneur

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Other types of data (Specify):

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Part-time entrepreneurs Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Gender

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Ethnicity

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Civic status (married, single, children)

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Age

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Geographical location

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Educational background (last registered education)

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Working hours of the entrepreneur

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Income of the entrepreneur

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Other types of data (Specify):

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Parallel entrepreneurs Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Gender

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Ethnicity

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Civic status (married, single, children)

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Age

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Geographical location

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Educational background (last registered education)

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Working hours of the entrepreneur

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Income of the entrepreneur

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Other types of data (Specify):

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Serial entrepreneurs Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Gender

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Ethnicity

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Civic status (married, single, children)

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Age

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Geographical location

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Educational background (last registered education)

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Working hours of the entrepreneur

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Income of the entrepreneur

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Other types of data (Specify):

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Business transfers and successions Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Gender

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Ethnicity

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Civic status (married, single, children)

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Age

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Geographical location

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Educational background (last registered education)

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Working hours of the entrepreneur

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Income of the entrepreneur

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Other types of data (Specify):

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Is the data freely accessible or does it require registration, payment and/or a special effort to access the data? Please explain the accessibility for each of the forms of entrepreneurs/business activities and datasets referred to above.

Table 10: List of statistical sources about the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

List data source/dataset

Explain the accessibility

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

n.a

Part III: Research

Please describe studies and research available nationally for each of the forms of entrepreneurs/business activities.

Table 11: List of studies and research about the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

List the references (author’s name, title of publication etc, year of publication, organisation)

A short summary of the contents (e.g. topic covered, methodology applied)

One-person enterprises/self-employed

N.Daskalakis, (2010), ‘Financing Practices and Preferences for Micro and Small Firms’, unpublished manuscript.

The topic covered is access to finance. The methodology used is analysing quantitative data through the use of a questionnaire.

Part-time entrepreneurs    
Parallel entrepreneurs    
Serial entrepreneurs    
Business transfers and successions    

Apostolis Kapsalis, Labour Institute of Greek General Confederation of Labour (INE/GSEE)

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