EMCC European Monitoring Centre on Change

Italy: ERM CAR on 'Emerging forms of entrepreneurship'

  • Observatory: EMCC
  • Topic:
  • Published on: 21 March 2011



About
Country:
Italy
Author:
Diego Coletto
Institution:

Disclaimer: This information is made available as a service to the public but has not been edited or approved by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. The content is the responsibility of the authors.

In Italy, small-scale entrepreneurship and self-employment have long characterised the country’s entire productive system. In the past 20 years, major changes in the economy and the labour market have favoured the growth of new forms of entrepreneurship and self-employment in many respects different from the more traditional ones. In recent years the debate has mostly concentrated on the introduction of different criteria with which to distinguish dependent employment from self-employment, ways to simplify bureaucratic procedures, and reform of social security provisions for self-employed workers and micro-entrepreneurs. Overall, the forms of entrepreneurship considered by the ERM study have been the object of sporadic debate in Italy, while quantitative and qualitative data on such forms are generally scarce.

The questionnaire

Part I: Public/policy discussion

General policy discussions and policy approach

Do the public/policy discussions specifically deal with the different forms of business activities, since when and for how long?

Table 1: Presence of the different emerging forms of entrepreneurship in the public debate
 

Yes, continuously since xx year? (Please indicate year)

Yes, on and off in the last 10 years

(Please indicate yes where it applies)

Yes, has been on the public agenda, but since xx year it is no longer part of the agenda (Please indicate year)

No, it has never been part of the public agenda

(Please indicate X where it applies)

One-person enterprises /self-employed

1990s

     
Part-time entrepreneurs  

Yes

   
Parallel entrepreneurs  

Yes

   
Serial entrepreneurs  

Yes

   
Business transfers and successions

1990s

     

For each of the entrepreneurship/business activities covered by policy discussions, which policy domains are they covered in? Please indicate with an ’X‘ where relevant.

Table 2: Policy domains engaged in the policy discussion of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Labour policies

Educational policies

Economic/Industrial policies

Innovation policies

Regional policies

Other (please specify)

One-person enterprises /self-employed

X

 

X

 

X

 
Part-time entrepreneurs

X

 

X

 

X

 
Parallel entrepreneurs    

X

     
Serial entrepreneurs    

X

X

   
Business transfers and successions

X

 

X

 

X

 

In which media and forum do the public debate and policy discussions about the different types of entrepreneurship take place?

Table 3: Media and forums discussing the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Public media such as newspapers and magazines incl. electronic media

Policy documents and analysis

Proposed legislation and/or business support schemes

Others, please specify

One-person enterprises/self-employed

Explicitly mentioned

Explicitly mentioned

Explicitly mentioned

 
Part-time entrepreneurs

Implicitly mentioned

Explicitly mentioned

Implicitly mentioned

 
Parallel entrepreneurs

Implicitly mentioned

Implicitly mentioned

   
Serial entrepreneurs  

Explicitly mentioned

   
Business transfers and successions

Explicitly mentioned

Explicitly mentioned

   

Specific topics to describe the different types of entrepreneurship

What has motivated the public debate?

In general, the main issues that have motivated public debate in recent years have concerned the growth and spread of ‘new generation’ forms of self-employment. It has therefore been necessary to define new criteria with which to differentiate among persons in self-employment. The search for these new criteria has often been driven by the emergence of the lack of income protection and social security coverage for the ‘new generation’ of self-employed workers not protected by the professional orders.

The debate has also been frequently motivated by the demands for administrative simplification raised by self-employed workers not affiliated to professional orders, small-scale entrepreneurs and professionals with VAT positions, and the organisations representing their interests.

In this regard, the debate has recently focused on two measures introduced by the government in May and June 2010 and intended to reduce the burden of bureaucratic procedures for businesses, and particularly for medium and small-sized enterprises (SMEs). The measures envisage the extension to the Regions and to independent administrative authorities of the measurement system, the reduction of administrative requirements (through the creation of business agencies as accredited private subjects), the introduction of ex ante recognition of the informative obligations that weigh on enterprises, streamlining of the obligations relative to the treatment of employees’ personal information, and reform of the one-stop counters for businesses.

Table 4: What has motivated the public debate of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

Type of Entrepreneurship

Motivator

One-person enterprises/self-employed

  • Studies highlighting the existence of forms of self-employment that differ from traditional ones in their socio-economic conditions and levels of social security protection.
  • Debate on the legal regulation of self-employment, in which it is increasingly forcefully argued that self-employment should be defined using criteria tied to social security, rather than exclusively to the distinction between self-employment and subordinate employment.
  • Surveys that have emphasised shortcomings in terms of visibility, representation and social security for self-employed workers who do not belong to professional orders.
  • Growth of ‘economically dependent’ self-employment (on contracts for project work and employer-coordinated freelance work), which frequently conceal forms of substantially dependent employment.
  • Growth in the number of people working with VAT positions. This numerical growth has coincided with increased fragmentation: this category, in fact, comprises one-person entrepreneurs, consultants often working in innovative sectors, but also workers for a single contractor with working hours established by the latter, or precarious workers often employed sporadically.
Part-time entrepreneurs
  • Constant and significant presence of irregular work in the Italian economic system.
  • Studies that have underlined the ineffectiveness of normative regulation and social protection.
  • Need to find more effective ways to promote female entrepreneurship.
Parallel entrepreneurs
  • Academic and political debate has shown the constant and significant presence of irregular work in the Italian economic system.
  • Need for small-scale entrepreneurs to diversify their activities.
  • Excessive complexity of bureaucratic procedures.
Serial entrepreneurs
  • Studies have stressed the uncoordinated and ineffective nature of measures designed to stimulate and support spin-offs and business incubators to develop new forms of entrepreneurship.
Business transfers and successions
  • Medium-to-high business mortality rate. Research has shown that business transfer, especially in the crafts sector, is a factor that may crucially contribute to increasing the business mortality rate.
  • Difficulties are apparent in the financial aspects of family business transfers (especially ones to do with the transfer of the entrepreneurial and managerial role, succession tax, and the division of capital).
  • Lack of fiscal, organisational, managerial and psychological consulting services to help outgoing and incoming entrepreneurs in an effective way.

What has been the focus of the policy discussion?

In general, the debate has concentrated on the introduction of policies designed both to reduce the abuse of forms of self-employment and quasi-subordinate work, and to increase the rights and protections of these workers. Moreover, the debate on the new entrepreneurial forms has often concerned the need for policies better able both to sustain the birth and growth of new businesses and to encourage the regularisation of entrepreneurial activity in the underground economy. Accordingly, the attention has focused on the need for policies designed to simplify bureaucratic procedures for businesses and to reduce their tax burden. Also emphasised is the need to provide greater support for young and female entrepreneurs.

As regards business transfers, especially in the crafts sector, attention has focused on the need for services able to prevent the difficulties that often arise in business transfers, especially in the case of small family enterprises. Moreover, the debate has highlighted the need for services able to act in all the areas involved in business transfers, i.e. fiscal, managerial, administrative, psychological and social.

Table 5: The policy focus in the public debate within each of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

Type of Entrepreneurship

Policy focus

One-person enterprises/self-employed

Focus on:

  • policies to reduce the use of bogus forms of self-employment.
  • Policies for the introduction of new forms of social protection (pensions, income support).
  • Fiscal policies to reform the tax regime currently applied to self-employed workers (regional tax, benchmark revenues for tax declarations – the so-called studi di settore).
Part-time entrepreneurs

Focus on:

  • policies to encourage regularisation of work in the underground economy.
  • Policies to support female and young entrepreneurs.
Parallel entrepreneurs

Focus on:

  • policies to simplify bureaucratic procedures and to reduce the tax burden.
  • Policies to encourage regularisation of work in the underground economy.
Serial entrepreneurs

Focus on:

  • policies to simplify bureaucratic procedures and to reduce the tax burden.
  • Policies to strengthen support for new forms of entrepreneurship.
Business transfers and successions

Focus on:

  • policies to promote services furnishing forms of consultancy to both incoming and outgoing entrepreneurs.

Has the public discussion resulted in a concrete outcome/impact?

As regards support for new businesses and self-entrepreneurship, in existence for some years have been specific norms at both national and regional level (following reform of Title V of the Italian Constitution, which led to the devolution of various powers concerning work and employment from the state to the regional administrations, according to the Constitutional law no. 3 of 18 October 2001. (IT0212107F).

At national level, legislative decree 185/2000 sets out a series of measures intended to promote and support new entrepreneurial initiatives in the form of self-employment and micro-enterprise.

At regional level, some regions have approved measures intended to foster the birth of new businesses. Such initiatives are often targeted on young people and women. For example, in the early months of 2010, the Lombardy regional government issued a legislative decree (no. 1040) intended to harmonise regional initiatives for entrepreneurship, especially in regard to women and young people. The decree provided for the opening of an agency for the start-up of new businesses and self-employment, and the creation of a fund to disburse subsidies for such activities.

In the economically weaker areas of the country, in some cases, regional laws have been enacted with the purpose of fostering self-entrepreneurship and the emergence of entrepreneurial activity from the underground economy. In general, these laws do not make explicit reference to the forms of entrepreneurship treated in this study, but rather to micro-entrepreneurship and forms of self-employment not regulated by the professional orders.

As regards social security, the main measures approved in most recent years have concerned the introduction of norms regulating economically dependent self-employment and, in general, forms of atypical work (IT0404303F; IT0712029I; IT0707019I). Moreover, among the measures adopted by the government to counter the negative effects of the economic crisis, decree law 78/2009 introduced, for the years 2009 and 2010, incentives for workers on benefits to start up new businesses. The incentives consist in the lump-sum payment of income support (i.e. Wages Guarantee Fund schemes or unemployment benefit) for a number of monthly allowances equal to those authorized, but not yet received.

In general, the birth of new forms of entrepreneurship, but especially the changes that have taken place in the broad and heterogeneous category of self-employment not regulated by professional orders, have generated ample debate on the possibility of modifying the legislation regulating these forms of work and, more specifically, the distinction among dependent employment, self-employment, and business activity. The debate has given rise to various proposals for reform, some of which have been formalised in parliamentary bills. These proposals have not yet been converted into law. They concern the draft bill on the “Statute of Self-employed workers”, presented by the main opposition party (Democrat Party - Partito Democratico, PD) to the Italian Senate in April 2010. The proposal, besides defining the bill’s range of application (physical persons habitually engaged in professional work on a self-employed basis), lays down guidelines for the state, regional governments and local authorities in promoting and supporting the business activities of small entrepreneurs, crafts-persons, traders, and professionals. Among the measures envisaged by the document are: (1) support for training and retraining in the skills necessary for the activity; (2) support for the start-up and consolidation of the business activity; (3) promotion of mobility; (4) support for training courses; (5) new forms of income protection in the case of temporary inactivity or cessation of activity; (6) forms of support for social security and supplementary health insurance; (7) simplification of administrative procedures; (8) guarantees for debt and credit collection. The second part of the draft bill is devoted to economically dependent self-employment.

Also at regional level, a number of bills concerning a ‘statute on self-employment and small business’ have been proposed: for example, bill no. 433/2009 presented to the Veneto Regional Council by the Lega Nord Party.

Recent months have seen measures to solve, or at least to reduce, the problems of scant visibility and representation that have often emerged in discussions on self-employment, micro-entrepreneurship, and new forms of entrepreneurship. Created in May 2010 was the Network of Italian Firms (Rete Imprese Italia), a body representing the five main confederations promoting the interests of traders, artisans and small firms (Confcommercio, Confersercenti, Confartigianato, CNA and Casartigiani). These are organisations that jointly represent around 2 million firms (around 14 million employees, equal to 60% of the Italian labour force).

Also the main Italian trade-union confederations have recently proposed new forms of representation. In February 2010, the General Confederation of Italian Workers (Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro, Cgil) inaugurated its Consulta del Lavoro Professionale, a body representing professionals enrolled with the professional orders, workers engaged in unregulated professional activities, and self-employed workers economically dependent on a single contractor. This body has presented a first bargaining platform which proposes benefits (for illness, accident, pregnancy and unemployment) for professionals with 70% of their earnings from a single contractor; tax exemptions for individual workers with non-business VAT positions; and reform of the system of ‘social shock absorbers’. In October 2009, the Italian Confederation of Workers’ Trade Unions (Confederazione italiana sindacati lavoratori, Cisl) founded the Federation of Temporary-Agency Workers, Self-employed and Atypical Workers (Federazione Lavoratori Somministrati Autonomi Atipici, FELSA) resulting from the merger between the Association of atypical and temporary-agency workers (Associazione Lavoratori Atipici e Interinali, Alai-Cisl) and the Coordination of Independent Workers in Commerce and Services (Coordinamento lavoratori autonomi del commercio e servizi, Clacs-Cisl). The new federation has around 50,000 members. It has recently proposed a number of changes, especially in (1) social security, with the aim to reach the same contributions for workers with VAT positions and quasi-subordinate workers; (2) the creation of a fund to disburse sickness and maternity benefits; and (3) the creation of a supplementary healthcare fund.

Table 6: Outcome or impact of the public debate of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

Type of Entrepreneurship

Outcome/Impact

One-person enterprises/self-employed
  • Legislative decree 185/2000 on promotion and support for new business initiatives in the form of self-employment and micro-enterprise.
  • Legislative decree 78/2009, which has temporarily introduced incentives for workers on benefits intending to start up new businesses. The same decree has introduced various measures – the majority of them temporary – to reduce the negative effects of the economic crisis. Specifically, (1) extension of the ‘social shock absorbers’ to workers and sectors not covered by the ordinary ‘social shock absorbers’: e.g. commerce and tourism; project workers, temporary workers, and apprentices. In the case of project workers, the decree provides for a one-off payment amounting to 10% of earnings in the previous year if the recipient has worked in a sector or area of the country defined ‘in crisis’ for at least three months, for a single contractor, and who has not had contributions paid for at least two months. Also envisaged are measures to reduce the tax burden on firms by means of instruments such as increased tax deductibles and reduced tax advances, payment of VAT upon invoicing (IT0812029I).
Part-time entrepreneurs
  • Legislative decree 185/2000 on promotion and support for new business initiatives in the form of self-employment and micro-enterprise.
  • Legislative decree 78/2009, which has temporarily introduced incentives for workers on benefits intending to start up new businesses.
Parallel entrepreneurs
  • Legislative decree 185/2000 on promotion and support for new business initiatives in the form of self-employment and micro-enterprise.
  • Legislative decree 78/2009, which has temporarily introduced incentives for workers on benefits intending to start up new businesses.
Serial entrepreneurs
  • Legislative decree 185/2000 on promotion and support for new business initiatives in the form of self-employment and micro-enterprise
Business transfers and successions

-

Overall assessment

Within the last couple of years, to which extent has the public and policy discussion been more focused on the following different types of entrepreneurship compared to the business policy/entrepreneurship debate in general?

Table 7: Increased focus at the emerging forms of entrepreneurship?
 

To a low degree To a high degree

 

1

2

3

4

5

One-person enterprises/self-employed      

X

 
Part-time entrepreneurs  

X

     
Parallel entrepreneurs

X

       
Serial entrepreneurs

X

       
Business transfers and successions  

X

     

Please list the main sources of information in the search for the above

  • Legislation proposals.
  • Policy reviews and proposals from trade and branch organisations.
  • Research publications and papers.
  • Government programmes and initiatives (websites, brochures and leaflets).
  • Public (national/regional) entrepreneurship information services.
  • Press releases by ministries and other authorities.

Part II: Standardised structural data

Which standardised business statistics are available covering the different forms of entrepreneurship/business activities (explicitly or implicitly, i.e. also data that could be used to describe these forms of entrepreneurship without being published with this specific objective/heading)?

Table 8: Availability of business statistics about the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Type of data available

Indicate access to data by an ‘X’ in the first column

First published

Indicate year

Time series of data

(Biannually, annually, quarterly, monthly, once only, other)

Data source for the data

One-person enterprises/ self-employed

Number of enterprises

X

1996

Annually

Istat, Statistical archive of active firms (Asia)

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

X - Nace Rev.2

Availability of regional data

X (2001-2006; data for local administrations with more than 5,000 inhabitants)

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

X

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

X

     

Exports

       

Employment

X

     

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

X

     

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies

X

     

Survival rate of enterprises

       

Others, specify:

       
One-person enterprises/ self-employed

Number of enterprises

X

1990

Quarterly

Unioncamere - Firms’ Register

 

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

X - Nace Rev.2

 

Availability of regional data

X (1993-2010; reference unit: province)

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

X

Economic performance e.g.:

       

Turnover

X

     

Export

X

     

Employment

X

     

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

       

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

X

     

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

X

     

Survival rate of enterprises

X

     

Others, specify:

       
One-person enterprises/ self-employed

Number of enterprises

X

1995

Quarterly

Unioncamere - Movimprese

 

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

X - Nace Rev.2

Availability of regional data

X (1995-2010; reference unit: province)

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

X

Economic performance e.g.:

       

Turnover

       

Exports

       

Employment

       

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

       

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

X

     

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies

X

     

survival rate of enterprises

X

     

Others, specify:

       

Others, specify:

       
Parallel entrepreneurs

Number of enterprises

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

n.a.

     

Availability of regional data (please specify)

n.a.

     

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

n.a.

     

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

n.a.

     

Exports

n.a.

     

Employment

n.a.

     

Others: ___________

n.a.

     

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

n.a.

     

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies

n.a.

     

survival rate of enterprises

n.a.

     

Others, specify:

n.a.

     
Serial entrepreneurs

Number of enterprises

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

n.a.

     

Availability of regional data (please specify)

n.a.

     

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

n.a.

     

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

n.a.

     

Exports

n.a.

     

Employment

n.a.

     

Others: ___________

n.a.

     

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

n.a.

     

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies

n.a.

     

survival rate of enterprises

n.a.

     

Others, specify:

n.a.

     
Business transfers and successions

Number of enterprises

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

 

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

n.a.

     
 

Availability of regional data (please specify)

n.a.

     
 

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

n.a.

     
 

Economic performance e.g.:

       
 

Turnover

n.a.

     
 

Exports

n.a.

     
 

Employment

n.a.

     
 

Others: ___________

n.a.

     
 

Sustainability:

       
 

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

n.a.

     
 

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies

n.a.

     
 

survival rate of enterprises

n.a.

     
 

Others, specify:

n.a.

     

Moreover, the National Institute of Statistics (Istituto nazionale di statistica, Istat) participated the European survey ‘Factors of Business Success’ (FOBS). The survey included firms that were born in 2002 and survived in 2005 (Istat, Le nuove attività imprenditoriali, 2005).

Is it possible to crosstab or merge the demographic data identifying the individual persons running any of the five forms of entrepreneurships/business activities with the company data specified in question 9 in a common database for analytical purpose?

No.

Table 9: Availability of demographic statistics about the entrepreneur within the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Type of data available

Indicated access to data by an ‘X’ in the first column

First published

Indicate year

Time series of data

(Biannually, annually, quarterly, monthly, once only, other)

Data source for the data

One-person enterprises/ self-employed Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner

X

2001 (last publication)

Every 10 years

Istat, Censuses

Gender

X

     
Ethnicity

X

     
Civic status (married, single, children)

X

     
Age

X

     
Geographical location

X

     

Educational background (last registered education)

X

     
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

       
Working hours of the entrepreneur

X

     
Income of the entrepreneur

X

     
Other types of data (Specify):        
One-person enterprises/ self-employed Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner  

1992

Quarterly

Istat, Labour Force Survey

Gender

X

     
Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age        
Geographical location

X

     

Educational background (last registered education)

       
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

X

     
Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur

X

     
Other types of data (Specify):        
Part-time entrepreneurs Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner

n.a.

     
Gender        
Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age        
Geographical location        

Educational background (last registered education)

       
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

       
Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur        
Other types of data (Specify):        
Parallel entrepreneurs Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner

n.a.

     
Gender        
Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age        
Geographical location        

Educational background (last registered education)

       
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

       
Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur        
Other types of data (Specify):        
Serial entrepreneurs Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner

n.a.

     
Gender        
Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age        
Geographical location        

Educational background (last registered education)

       
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

       
Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur        
Other types of data (Specify):        
Business transfers and successions Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner

n.a.

     
  Gender        
  Ethnicity        
  Civic status (married, single, children)        
  Age        
  Geographical location        
 

Educational background (last registered education)

       
  Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        
 

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

       
  Working hours of the entrepreneur        
  Income of the entrepreneur        
  Other types of data (Specify):        

Is the data freely accessible or does it require registration, payment and/or a special effort to access the data? Please explain the accessibility for each of the forms of entrepreneurs/business activities and datasets referred to above.

Table 10: List of statistical sources about the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

List data source/dataset

Explain the accessibility

Istat, Statistical archive of active firms (Archivio statistico delle imprese attive, Asia)

Free

Unioncamere - Firms’ Register (Registro per le imprese)

Access requires registration and payment

Unioncamere - Movimprese

Access requires registration and payment

Istat, Censuses (censimenti)

Partially free

Istat, Labour force survey (Rilevazione sulle forze di lavoro)

Free

Part III: Research

Please describe studies and research available nationally for each of the forms of entrepreneurs/business activities.

Table 11: List of studies and research about the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

List the references (author’s name, title of publication etc, year of publication, organisation)

A short summary of the contents (e.g. topic covered, methodology applied)

One-person enterprises/self-employed

Confartigianato (2009). Alla ricerca del PIL perduto. Rapporto annuale 2010.

Economic-statistical analysis of Italian small firms and the crafts sector. Analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the crafts sector and the main difficulties of the Italian production system.

 

Confartigianato, Giovani imprenditori (2010). IV Osservatorio Confartigianato-Giovani Imprenditori sull’imprenditoria giovanile artigiana in Italia.

Analysis of the effects of the economic crisis on forms of young entrepreneurship. Focus on the strengths of young entrepreneurship and its main weaknesses. Focus on self-employment and apprenticeship.

 

Confartigianato, Donna Impresa (2010). VI Osservatorio Confartigianato Donne Impresa. Imprenditrici fra crisi e ripresa.

Analysis of the effects of the economic crisis on the Italian production system. Results of a survey on female entrepreneurship amid the economic crisis.

 

Censis (2009). La società solida degli ‘invisibili’. Roma: Censis.

Economic and sociological analysis of a segment of the Italian production system represented by: (1) small manufacturers; (2) precarious workers; (3) domestic workers; (4) service workers; (5) workers employed in the informal economy. The report also dwells on the lack of representative bodies for these productive segments, but also on representation (in the sense that there is little information on this phenomenon).

 

Unioncamere (2010). Rapporto Unioncamere 2010.

The report is based on data concerning the characteristics and performances of Italian firms collected daily and processed for administrative purposes and for economic research. The report analyses the dynamics and structural changes ongoing in local business systems and proposes policies for intervention.

 

Cnel (2010). Le trasformazioni del sistema imprenditoriale in Italia. Osservazioni e proposte. Roma: Cnel

The report analyses the main problems of the Italian business system, formulating proposals for their solution. The method used consists of different types of information gathering: ‘conversations’ with opinion leaders, interviews with experts, meta-analysis of various studies and surveys.

 

Di Vico, D. (2010). Piccoli: la pancia del paese. Venezia: Marsilio editore.

The book collects data, testimonials and information on small and micro Italian firms, workers with VAT positions, self-employed workers, and professionals. Case studies on particular Italian businesses highlight the values, fears, and needs of this heterogeneous set of workers and entrepreneurs operating in Italy.

 

Cnel (2005). V rapporto sulle professioni non regolamentate. Roma: Cnel.

The report illustrates the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the unregulated professions in Italy, for the period 2000-2005. It also suggests policies to deal with the problems highlighted by the analysis.

 

Bologna, S., Fumagalli, A. (1997). Il lavoro autonomo di seconda generazione. Scenari del postfordismo in Italia. Milano: Feltrinelli

The book is a collection of studies on the transition from salaried and subordinate work to self-employment. The authors describe the ten theoretical dimensions of ‘post-Fordist’ self-employment, its potential, and its risks.

 

Moreover, in the past 10 years, various articles on self-employment and the new forms of entrepreneurship have been published in some of the principal Italian social science journals. To be mentioned in particular are the following:

  • Barbieri, P. (1999). Liberi di rischiare. Assetti istituzionali ed individualizzazione dell’offerta di lavoro autonomo. In Stato e Mercato, n. 2 p. 281-308.
  • Barbieri, P. (2001), Self-employment in Italy: Does Labor Market Rigidity Matter? In International Journal of Sociology, v. 31, n. 1, p. 60-100.
  • Accornero, A., Anastasia, B., (2006). È in atto una fuga dal lavoro subordinato? Realtà e prospettive del lavoro autonomo: un po’ di attenzione, please. In Giornale di Diritto del Lavoro e delle Relazioni Industriali, n. 112.
  • Reyneri, E. (2006). Illusioni e realtà del mercato del lavoro italiano. In Giornale di Diritto del Lavoro e delle Relazioni Industriali, n. 111.
  • Bologna, S. (2006). È in atto una fuga dal lavoro subordinato? Dobbiamo rallegrarci se i lavoratori autonomi spariscono? In Giornale di Diritto del Lavoro e delle Relazioni Industriali, n. 111.
 

The principal associations representing small entrepreneurs and the crafts sector sporadically publish reports, newsletters, and studies concerning the forms of entrepreneurship treated in this ERM study.

 

In recent years, numerous studies have been published on ‘economically dependent’ self-employed workers and atypical workers. Some of them are:

  • Altieri, G., Dota, F., Ferrucci, G. (2010). Il lavoro atipico al tempo della crisi: dati e riflessioni sulle dinamiche recenti del mercato del lavoro. Rapporto Ires n. 5/2010.
  • Accornero, A. (2006). San Precario lavora per noi. Milano: Rizzoli.
  • Altieri, G. (2009). Un mercato del lavoro atipico. Roma: Ediesse.
  • Carrieri, M., Altieri, G. (2000), Il popolo del 10%. Roma: Donzelli.
Part-time entrepreneurs

This form of entrepreneurship is implicitly treated in several of the studies cited above.

Parallel entrepreneurs

This form of entrepreneurship is implicitly treated in several of the studies cited above.

Serial entrepreneurs

This form of entrepreneurship is implicitly treated in several of the studies cited above.

Business transfers and successions

Argentin, G, Colombo, S., Fullin, G. (2006). Passaggi d’impresa. La trasmissione dell’azienda artigiana in Lombardia. Milano: Franco Angeli.

The book explores knowledge about business transfer processes by analysing data collected by a survey conducted in Lombardy on business transfers in the region’s crafts sector. The book also sets out guidelines for those tasked with making the process more fluid.

 

Cucculelli, M., Micucci, G. (2008). Family succession and firm performance: Evidence from Italian family firms. Working paper n. 680. Banca d’Italia.

This article contributes to the growing empirical literature on family firms by studying the impact of the founder–chief executive officer (CEO) succession in a sample of Italian firms.

 

Bordogna, L. (1999). Il problema della successione aziendale nel contesto di un distretto industriale. Profili sociologici e organizzativi. In Paolazzi, L., Consolati, L. (a cura di). La successione d’impresa nei distretti industriali. Il caso di Lumezzane. Milano: Il Sole 24 Ore.

 

Corbetta, C., Demattè, C. (1993). I processi di transizione delle imprese familiari. Working paper. Milano: Medio Credito Lombardo.

Diego Coletto, Università degli Studi di Milano

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