EMCC European Monitoring Centre on Change

Lithuania: ERM Comparative Analytical Report on Recent Policy Developments related to those Not in Employment, Education and Training (NEET)

  • Observatory: EMCC
  • Topic:
  • Published on: 06 February 2012



About
Country:
Lithuania
Author:
Inga Blaziene
Institution:

Disclaimer: This information is made available as a service to the public but has not been edited by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. The content is the responsibility of the authors.

Neither the issue as such nor the term NEET has been identified or used in Lithuania. Different aspects of the issue have been addressed through different measures without identifying the problem in its entirety. In Lithuania, the most frequent mention is youth unemployment and ensuing youth emigration as well as inadequate match of young professionals to the needs of the labour market.

1. Introduction

1.1 What is the level of interest among the different stakeholders in your country (policy makers, the media, employers and trade unions) in the issue of NEETs? What are their reasons for having a high/ low level of interest in the topic? (Expected length 100 words)

We may say that neither the issue of NEET, nor the term as such is used by different stakeholders in the Lithuania (neither by policy makers or media, nor by employers or trade unions).

Various issues more or less related to the NEETs issue in Lithuania are treated as separate issues. For such issues we may attribute the issue of early school leaving, different employment facilitation issues, skills and qualifications demand and supply measures, etc.

1.2 Using the following table, please identify which sub-groups of NEETs are of particular concern to the different stakeholders in your country. Please indicate the relative importance of each group to the different stakeholders; for each group please state whether they are felt to be of ‘significant concern’, ‘some concern’, or ‘no concern’ to the different stakeholders.

Table 1 – NEETs sub-groups
 

Public/media debate

e.g. the extent to which the issue is discussed within the news media

Mainstream Policy

e.g. the range of policy documents tackling the issue, the amount of investment committed to tackling the problem

Employers

e.g. the extent to which this issue is raised as a concern, e.g. through lobbying / pressure on the government, involvement in the design and/or implementation of relevant policies

Trade unions

e.g. the extent to which this issue is raised as a concern, e.g. through lobbying / pressure on the government, involvement in the design and/or implementation of relevant policies

Young people who are unemployed

Some concern

Significant concern

Some concern

Some concern

Young people who are in ‘precarious’ or unsuitable employment (e.g. temporary contracts, forced self-employment, part-time work, or jobs which are not commensurate with their level of qualifications)

No concern

Some concern

No concern

Some concern

Early school leavers – young people who have dropped out of education before obtaining an upper secondary level qualification

Some concern

Significant concern

Some concern

Some concern

Young people with qualifications which do not meet labour market needs

Some concern

Significant concern

Significant concern

Some concern

Teenage/ single parents

Some concern

Some concern

No concern

No concern

Migrants and minority groups

No concern

Some concern

No concern

No concern

Young people with disabilities

Some concern

Significant concern

No concern

No concern

Young people from workless families

Some concern

Some concern

No concern

Some concern

Young people from disadvantaged areas

Some concern

Significant concern

Some concern

Some concern

Young people with tertiary education who have been unsuccessful in accessing the labour market

Significant concern

Significant concern

Significant concern

Some concern

1.3 Are there any policy measures in your country targeted at those NEETs with tertiary education? If yes please describe these briefly (expected length 100 words).

We can say that there are no special policy measures targeted at young NEET people in Lithuania. Young unemployed people are eligible to all active labour market measures applicable to any other unemployed individuals regardless to their education. The only difference is that people with tertiary education may receive qualification improvement services at Lithuanian universities and/or colleges – in July 2010, the Ministry of Education and Science (SMM) selected and approved 380 qualification improvement programmes targeted at unemployed individuals with tertiary education. The qualification improvement courses will lasts from two month up to one year; as much as 25% of the programmes will be allocated to the acquisition of practical competences and skills. After graduating the programme students will receive certificates on the competences acquired. Universities and colleges proposed a very wide range of programmes, including such programmes as museum educators, organists, cytologists, operators of manufacturing robots, etc.

The Lithuanian Labour Exchange (LDB) has developed a special web site – talents bank – to register highly skilled job searchers. The following persons are eligible for the registration at the Talents Bank:

  • University graduates;
  • University students for master’s degrees;
  • Students of universities and non-university higher schools, who are at least in the third year of studies;
  • Employed high skilled professionals looking for better jobs.

Individuals registered with the Talents Bank should also meet some additional qualification requirements (knowledge of a foreign language, computer literacy, etc.). This database provides an opportunity for employees to find jobs meeting their qualifications and for employers to find suitable employees with higher qualifications.

2. NEET Policies and Measures

2.1 Measures to tackle early school leaving

As early school leaving level in Lithuania is currently relatively low (8-9%), Lithuania does not expect big progress in this respect in future and seeks for maintaining the current situation, which is relatively good. Lithuania will seek for early school-leaving level not exceeding 9% in 2020.

Preventive Measures to tackle early school leaving

2.1.1 Please provide a short overview of your country’s approach to preventing early school leaving. Where does the focus of policies and measures to prevent early school leaving lie?

In 2010, an Information System of Not-learning Children and Non-attending Pupils was created, in which data about not learning children living in each municipal territory were accumulated, analyzed and regularly updated. With a view to better assessment of the existing situation, there are surveys and researches regularly carried out in Lithuania at the instance of the SMM which enable assessment of various aspects of the problem.

In reducing early school leaving of young people, Lithuania envisages to:

  • develop the infrastructure of pre-school education and a variety of services;
  • reduce the quality differences in pre-primary and general education between regions (urban/rural), between boys and girls, and special educational needs persons;
  • improve the education support infrastructure and develop manifold services provided for socially vulnerable groups, for people with disabilities and special educational needs persons;
  • increase curriculum flexibility and create alternative opportunities to acquire basic and/or secondary education;
  • improve the infrastructure for practical vocational training at vocational education and training establishments;
  • develop students’ career management skills;
  • encourage young people to continue studies at vocational schools and obtain a marketable vocational qualification.

The aforementioned measures are implemented through the special programmes: Pre-school and Pre-primary Education Development Programme 2011-2013, Implementation Programme for the Provisions of National Education Strategy 2003-2012, National Vocational Guidance Programme, and Practical Vocational Training Resource Development Programme.

2.1.2 Please complete the table below with a brief description of up to three policies/ measures to prevent early school leaving in your country. Where possible you should use only one word or Yes/No (e.g. how is the measure funded? answer: regional; is this measure a NEET specific measure? answer: Yes).

Table 2 - Early School Leaving: Preventive measures
Early School Leaving: Preventive measures
Name of measure

Description of the measure: aims and objectives

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local)

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?

Measure 1:

Social pedagogues at schools

Most schools have on staff social pedagogues, who are directly responsible for responding to non-attendance problems. School social pedagogues offer counselling to families, they organize social skills development groups for pupils having behaviour problems, implement prevention programmes and, together with the class teacher, visit the pupils’ families. Quite often in addressing attendance problems, schools act in close cooperation with territorial unit inspectors for juvenile affairs and the staff of municipal children’s rights protection departments.

If a solution to the problem is not found or if the school does not have the necessary specialists, the municipality pedagogical psychological service is approached to identify the learning or behaviour problems of a child and to seek possible solutions. The services have on their staff special pedagogues, speech therapists, psychologists, neurologists. Both parents and teachers can approach pedagogical psychological services for assistance.

Scale of measure: national

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral: unilateral

How is the measure funded: national state funding

Is this a NEET-specific measure: no

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group: no

Measure 2:

Prevention programmes

Schools implement and run prevention programmes aimed at reducing manifestations of bullying and violent behaviour, suicides, addictions and other destructive habits. The programmes are meant to contribute to creating a safe learning environment in schools.

Scale of measure: national

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral: unilateral

How is the measure funded: national state funding

Is this a NEET-specific measure: no

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group: no

2.1.3 Please provide a more detailed description of the preventive early school leaving measure which you think is the most effective measure in your country (this measure should be additional to those included in the table above). In addition to the questions raised in the table above, your description should include the details outlined below:

Electronic diary

One of the most effective ways to address the non-attendance problem is monitoring lesson attendance and providing information about it to parents.

There is a recently developed e-system in Lithuania, called “Your School”. The final purpose of the project is to create an environment for each school so that all the participants of a training/learning process (students, teachers, students’ parents, school administrations) could find there useful tools, exchange information, follow and discuss school events as well as take active part in the activities of school communities. Electronic diary (ED) is an integral part of the project.

The main purpose of the ED is to replace paper class registers and diaries by electronic ones. The system functions as a web site. The electronic diary can be accessed at http://www.tamo.lt. Many Lithuanian schools have already logged in to the system, which is expected to cover all Lithuanian schools in future. From 1 September 2010 every school has to pay a LTL 100 fee per month (excl. VAT) for using the system.

The system is very useful for the prevention of early school leaving, as it allows children's parents/guardians to see information on the recent achievements and progress of their children, directly communicate with teachers, ask them questions, participate in forums on various issues with parents from other classes, schools and/or countries. The system provides a possibility to send SMS or e-mail to inform parents of their children’s missing school or being late.

Reintegration measures to tackle early school leaving

2.1.4 Please provide a short overview of your country’s approach to the reintegration of early school leavers. Where does the focus of policies and measures lie?

In Lithuania, there is no system created for the reintegration of children to schools providing for a middle level [establishment] for early school leavers to recover their lost learning skills, motivation and self-confidence, acquire social skills and further schooling according to compulsory education programmes.

EU funded project “Returning dropout pupils back to the education system” was started in 2005. Project deliverables included the development of a model for the reintegration of dropouts from mainstream schools and for the prevention of school dropping-out as well as producing recommendations for the implementation of this model. In 2008, a Programme for the Reintegration of Early School Leavers Back into School was approved with a view to reducing the number of children non-participating in mainstream schools and compulsory education programmes. The Programme provided for raising responsibility of municipalities, better coordination of the delivery of education support, improvement of the qualifications of teachers and other professionals, responsibility raising in schools and parents, etc.

2.1.5 Please complete the table below with a brief description of up to three policies/measures to reintegrate early school leavers in your country. Where possible you should use only one word or Yes/No (e.g. how is the measure funded? answer: regional; is this measure a NEET specific measure? answer: Yes).

Table 2 - Early School Leaving: reintegration measures
Early School Leaving: Reintegration measures
Name of measure

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local)

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?

Measure 1:

Pupil activity groups

In Lithuania, activity groups for pupils with lost motivation, not attending or irregularly attending school are established under the programme for “Returning dropout pupils back to the education system”. There are special pedagogues working in these groups, who foster communication skills in children, etc.

Scale of measure: national

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral: unilateral

How is the measure funded: national state funding

Is this a NEET-specific measure: no

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group: no

Measure 2:

Groups for pupils with special needs

In Lithuania, groups for pupils with special needs are set up under the programme for “Returning dropout pupils back to the education system”. According to the pupils’ needs, there are special pedagogues, speech therapists, assisting teachers, social pedagogues and psychologists working in these groups. They directly share in the implementation of individualised education programmes, assist pupils in participating in the education process and consult teachers working with pupils with special educational needs.

Scale of measure: national

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral: unilateral

How is the measure funded: national state funding

Is this a NEET-specific measure: no

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group: no

2.1.6 Please provide a more detailed description of the reintegration early school leaving measure which you think is the most effective measure in your country (this measure should be additional to those included in the table above). In addition to the questions raised in the table above, your description should include the details outlined below:

Youth schools

The first youth schools appeared in Lithuania in 1993; today there are 24 schools of this type functioning in the country. Youth schools are intended for pupils who have learning motivation or social adaptation problems, who tend to drop out from the mainstream education system or, because of socio-economic reasons, do not attend general education schools. Usually, youth schools offer one-year or two-years’ schooling. Graduates of youth schools may re-enter mainstream schools or vocational training schools. Youth schools deliver education programmes that are differentiated in the form and content and individualised to a maximum extent.

The tasks and challenges facing the youth school in Lithuania have been changing and it necessary to introduce certain corrections into its vision and to change society’s negative attitude toward these schools and their pupils. In 2009 the ‘Alternative education project’, was launched with a view to systematic strengthening of youth schools. Among the most effective tools developed through the Project are three-type ‘Descriptions of Youth Centres’ and ‘Productive Learning Model’.

Descriptions of Youth Centres is designed to facilitate successful adaptation to society of children with no previous convictions who are likely to develop various addictions, children with emotional and behavioural problems as well as children who need their spiritual well-being uplifted and learning motivation restored.

The Productive Learning Model is intended to help children who have learning problems or have dropped out of the education system to socialize, to find their place in the system through work activities they have chosen and find attractive which help them realize the practical value of learning. Productive learning is based on individual work, learning in a group and in a real life environment under the guidance of a teacher. Learners’ choice of the practical activity and the learning area depend on how important they find them for themselves; thus individualized syllabus becomes inalienable part of learning.

2.2 Measures to facilitate access to employment

Facilitating the transition from school to work

2.2.1 Please provide an overview of your country’s approach to facilitating school to work transitions. Where does the focus of policies and measures to facilitate transitions lie?

We may say that the systematic approach to facilitating school to work transitions has not been created in Lithuania. Policies and measures aimed at facilitating transitions may include student/youth vocational guidance (in schools, universities, youth employment centres), special websites designed with ESF aid to provide information on [the choice of] occupations, labour market (re)integration and active labour market policy measures (ALMPM) available for school leavers/graduates applying to the labour exchange, and Lithuanian Labour Exchange (LDB) Youth Labour Website, which is designed specially for youth. Likewise, the above-mentioned measures may include career days organised by vocational training and higher schools together with business representatives to help employers to find employees they need and to provide students with opportunities to know their potential employers.

2.2.2 Please complete the table below with a brief description of up to three policies/ measures to facilitate school to work transitions in your country. Where possible you should use only one word or Yes/No (e.g. how is the measure funded? answer: regional; is this measure a NEET specific measure? answer: Yes).

Table 4 - Access to employment: Measures to facilitate school to work transitions
Access to employment: Measures to facilitate school to work transitions
Name of measure

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local)

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education?

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?

Measure 1:

Youth employment centres

The main task of youth employment centres is to prompt young people’s integration into the labour market, to assist them in getting better understanding about the social environment and the labour market, and to solve their employment. The services are free of charge, and registration is optional. 11 Youth Centres operate throughout Lithuania. They provide information and counselling for young jobseekers; introduce to young people the world of professions; organize informative events and practical training, assist in preparation for job interviews, consult on how to introduce yourself to an employer, how to be motivated in searching a job promote entrepreneurship. The Centres provide free of charge internet for job search, profession descriptions and  informative movies about occupations, professional orientation tests, information about conditions for studies in higher education institutions consultation on writing CV and a motivational letter.

Scale of measure: national

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral: unilateral

How is the measure funded: national state funding

Is this a NEET-specific measure: no

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education: no

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group: no

Measure 2:

University/college career planning centres

There are vocational guidance and career centres functioning at the largest Lithuanian universities and colleges providing consultancy to future university students on issues relating to the choice of career, information to students and university/college graduates as well as to Lithuanian and foreign companies on professional career, and consulting on the issues relating to planning, human resource management, organisation of internships and placement of young professionals. In addition, these centres monitor career of university/college graduates and consult them on the job-search strategies and tactics.

Scale of measure: local

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral: unilateral

How is the measure funded: private funding

Is this a NEET-specific measure: no

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education: no

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group: no

Measure 3:

‘First job’ programme

The aim of the “First job” programme is to assist persons who are looking for the first job in getting employed according to the acquired professions or those who don’t have qualifications – in acquiring them. The “First job” programme is designed for young people registered with the LDB: 1) university/college graduates and other qualified persons looking for jobs (LDB’s officers assist them in finding the first job according to their profession and provide them with information on labour market situation, job search methods, filing of documents for employment, etc.); 2) school graduates and other persons without qualifications, looking for the first job (LDB’s officers assist them in planning the professional career, deliver vocational guidance and counselling services as well as create opportunities to acquire professions demanded on the labour market).

Scale of measure: national

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral: unilateral

How is the measure funded: national state funding

Is this a NEET-specific measure: yes

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education: no

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group: no

2.2.3 Please provide a more detailed description of the school-to-work transition measure which you think is the most effective measure in your country (this measure should be additional to those included in the table above). In addition to the questions raised in the table above, your description should include the details outlined below:

Career days

Career days are initiated by universities/colleges of the country and held together with employers. The purpose of the career days is to provide relevant university/college graduates with information on labour market opportunities, potential employers and thus to assist in job finding.

Career-day events give employers an opportunity to find employees they need and provide information about employer-company, current and future needs for human resources. In turn, students have an opportunity to get a better idea of potential employers, specifics of companies’ business, requirements raised for employees, etc.

An advantage of the career days rests in the opportunity for labour market participants – employers and potential employees – to know each other “live”, get a realistic view on the labour market situation and their opportunities in the labour market as well as to make a decision as to future studies, professions, etc.

Measures to foster employability

2.2.4 Please provide an overview of your country’s approach to fostering employability among NEETs. Where does the focus of policies and measures lie?

Fostering of employability among NEETs seems to be a problem that has been most frequently discussed in Lithuania, but failed to be settled for a number of years. According to employers and many experts of Lithuania’s labour market policy, one of the most relevant labour market problems for youth is their inadequate practical availability for work. In Lithuania, a share of young people choosing university studies is still too big, while the share of those choosing vocational training is too small. That is why many graduates approach the labour market with a certain store of theoretical knowledge, but knowledge and skills for practical application thereof are insufficient. Therefore, tackling the problem has been attempted for a number of years by exploring the needs for skills and labour market supply/demand, by improving the organisation of students’ internships and by fostering acquisition of skills in real workplaces, etc.

2.2.5 Please complete the table below with a brief description of up to three policies/ measures to foster employability of NEETs in your country. Where possible you should use only one word or Yes/No (e.g. how is the measure funded? answer: regional; is this measure a NEET specific measure? answer: Yes).

Table 5 - Access to employment: Measures to foster employability (to include apprenticeships)
Access to employment: Measures to foster employability (to include apprenticeships).
Name of measure

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local)

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education?

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?

Measure 1:

Mapping the needs for specialists and skills

In 2010, in view of the needs for the country’s economic, social and cultural development in planning the training of professionals, a research study ‘Mapping the needs for specialists and skills’ was undertaken by the order of the MES. The purpose of this study was to prepare a study the findings of which were to be used in developing a map of the needs for professionals and skills by economic sectors for the period 2011–2016 and also to further address the shaping of public policy. Framework on forecasting and satisfying the needs for professionals and skills.

Scale of measure: national

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral: unilateral

How is the measure funded: European funding

Is this a NEET-specific measure: no

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education: no

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group: no

Measure 2:

Apprenticeship

In 2008, after adaptation of the new edition of the Law on Vocational Education, a new form of organisation of vocational education – apprenticeship – was introduced in Lithuania. According to the Law, when the form of apprenticeship is applied, a provider of vocational education shall conclude employment and vocational education contracts. Practical training of a person shall be organised in his/her workplace, and theoretical education may be carried out in a vocational training establishment, following the conclusion by the provider of vocational education of a vocational education contract with this establishment and a student. Unfortunately, apprenticeship (probably for the lack of traditions and mechanisms promoting its practical application) has been so far very scarcely applied in Lithuania, though it could be a proper measure to foster employability.

Scale of measure: national

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral: tripartite

How is the measure funded: private funding

Is this a NEET-specific measure: yes

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education: no

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group: no

2.2.6 Please provide a more detailed description of the measure which you think is the most effective measure in your country to foster the employability of NEETs (this measure should be additional to those included in the table above). In addition to the questions raised in the table above, your description should include the details outlined below:

Creating a model for the organisation of internships

As implementation of proper organisation of students’ internship is still very problematic in Lithuania, in 2010 the MES initiated implementation of 15 projects funded from the European Social Fund for building practical skills in students. The aim of the projects is creating the system of student placements; projects’ activities will cover elaboration of models of practical work, training of placement tutors, creation of web sites containing information on available placements to students and implementation of pilot placements.

Duration of the projects – 2 years. 15 different employer associations and 22 higher schools (9 universities and 13 colleges) are participating in the projects. The projects will be accomplished in 2012. Project deliverables will include the development of 15 models for the organisation of internships; 965 students will have been completed practical courses (internships) in enterprises and non-profit organisations by then.

Removing practical and logistical barriers

2.2.7 Please provide an overview of your country’s approach to removing practical and logistical barriers for NEETs. Where does the focus of policies and measures lie?

We can say that the problem of removing practical and logistical barriers faced by NEETs is underemphasised in Lithuania. Measures to remove practical and logistical barriers have been focused on the acquisition of qualifications rather than on the labour market as such. Such measures might include state aid to students from disadvantageous or less-wealthy families and disabled students to acquire proper education so that they would be able to compete on equal rights in the labour market. With regard to direct measures to remove practical and logistical barriers, we can mention promotion of territorial mobility of the population set forth in the Law on Support for Employment (LSE) and measures addressing employment of people for whom labour market integration is more difficult (social enterprises, subsidies for adjusting workplaces for disabled persons, etc.). However, these measures are not NEET-specific measures; they are more general measures that might as well be applied to NEETs.

2.2.8 Please complete the table below with a brief description of up to three policies/ measures to remove practical and logistical barriers to employment for NEETs in your country. Where possible you should use only one word or Yes/No (e.g. how is the measure funded? answer: regional; is this measure a NEET specific measure? answer: Yes).

Table 6 - Access to employment: Measures to remove practical and logistical barriers
Access to employment: Measures to remove practical and logistical barriers
Name of measure

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local)

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education?

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?

Measure 1:

Social enterprises

Social enterprise is an entity with at least 40% of employees belonging to target groups (disabled, long-term unemployed, unemployed individuals at pre-retirement age, ex-prisoners, etc.). There are also other requirements raised to qualify as a social enterprise. Social enterprises are provided with partial compensation of wages and state social insurance contributions, subsidies for establishing jobs, adjusting workplaces for the disabled, acquiring/adjusting work implements for them, also with subsidies for training of employees in target groups and other support.

Scale of measure: national

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral: bipartite

How is the measure funded: national state funding

Is this a NEET-specific measure: no

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education: no

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group: no

Measure 2:

Financial support in case of employment farther from home

ALMPM, validated in the LSE and promoting territorial mobility of the unemployed, creates a mechanism to reimburse costs of travelling to/from work and accommodation for unemployed people who find jobs farther from home when territorial labour exchanges have no job offers suitable for such people in their place of residence. Transportation costs for formerly jobless people working farther from home could be reimbursed by labour exchanges. The compensation might be paid for three months when travel costs exceed 20% of worker’s wage which is lower than two minimum wages (LTL 1,600 or € 464). Accommodation costs might be reimbursed if a person travels to work once per working week or rarer. Monthly compensation of these costs shell not exceed a half of the minimum wage (LTL 400 or € 116).

Scale of measure: national

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral: unilateral

How is the measure funded: national state funding

Is this a NEET-specific measure: no

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education: no

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group: no

Measure 3:

Social scholarship

Students from families in need, disabled students or orphans studying at Lithuanian universities and/or colleges and meeting certain requirements are eligible to social scholarship amounting to LTL 390 (€ 113). The social scholarship may be granted once per semester.

Scale of measure: national

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral: unilateral

How is the measure funded: national state funding

Is this a NEET-specific measure: no

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education: no

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group: yes

Employer incentives

2.2.9 Please provide an overview of your country’s approach to incentivising employers to recruit young people (who are NEET). Where does the focus of policies and measures to incentivise employers lie? Where possible you should use only one word or Yes/No (e.g. how is the measure funded? answer: regional; is this measure a NEET specific measure? answer: Yes).

There aren’t many measures in Lithuania aimed at incentivising employers to recruit young people. According to experts, granting certain privileges to one group in the labour market would reduce employment opportunities to other groups (for example, providing more privileges for employers recruiting young people, might contribute to pushing older people (at the pre-retirement age) away from the market). As for policies and measures to incentivise employers to recruit young people, we can mention ALMPMs and reduced social insurance contributions in case of recruiting young people to first jobs.

2.2.10 Please complete the table below with a brief description of up to three policies/ measures to incentivise employers in your country.

Table 7 - Access to employment: Employer incentives
Access to employment: Employer incentives
Name of measure

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local)

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education?

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?

Measure 1:

Support for the acquisition of job skills

Support for the acquisition of job skills can be organised, inter alia, for persons who are going to start employment career in accordance with the acquired qualification. Employers who recruit persons for the acquisition of job skills shall receive a subsidy to partially compensate for the wage and the insured’s compulsory state social insurance contributions calculated from this wage. The duration of the payment of the subsidy for persons starting employment career might be paid up to 12 month. Employer is not obliged to employ a person permanently, however if the person is not employed after the end of the subsidy payment period, employer has to explain for the LDB the reasons of not employing him. In case if the supervisor of the employed person spends more than 20% of his time for training the new employee, these cost might also be partly compensated by the LDB.

Scale of measure: national

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral: bipartite

How is the measure funded: national state funding

Is this a NEET-specific measure: no

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education: no

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group: no

Measure 2:

Tax privileges

In 2010, a temporary tax privilege was introduced for employers recruiting persons without job experience and starting up their employment activities. A rate of compulsory social insurance contribution for such employers was reduced from 31% to 7.7% only.

Scale of measure: national

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral: bipartite

How is the measure funded: national state funding

Is this a NEET-specific measure: yes

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education: no

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group: no

2.2.11 Please provide a more detailed description of the employer incentive which you think is the most effective measure in your country (this measure should be additional to those included in the table above). In addition to the questions raised in the table above, your description should include the details outlined below:

Subsidised employment

Subsidised employment is an ALMP measure assisting individuals to anchor in the labour market or certain categories of the unemployed, including persons under 29, to access employment.

Employers who recruit unemployed persons shall receive a subsidy (for a certain period of time) to partially compensate for the wage and the insured’s compulsory state social insurance contributions calculated from this wage. The length of subsidised employment (for youth under 29 years of age) shall be up to 6 months.

According to different analyses, effectiveness of this measure exceeds 50%, i.e., more than a half of unemployed participants in this ALMPM continue employment with the employer.

3. Conclusion

We can say that the problem of NEETs is not recognised as such in Lithuania. All policies and measures in this area address either youth employment or unemployment without any focus on whether or not young persons are currently studying (in training); or tackle the problems of labour supply and demand (mis)matches with emphasis being placed on the forecasts of the need for skills and competences in the labour market, improvement of training content and quality as well as enhancement of practical availability of those in training.

In addition, in order to identify and tackle the problem of NEET in its entirety, it is necessary to dispose of and disseminate certain information. In Lithuania, neither the term NEET, nor information of NEETs level is known or published; there are no debates held on this issue and, in turn, no targeted policy pursued.

In spite of the existing situation, there still are quite many different measures in Lithuania that are/might be applied to NEETs to a greater or lesser extent.

Among measures/policy areas, mostly impacted by the EU level action we may attribute the increased attention to the problem of early school leavers, promotion of apprenticeships, initiatives to map labour market supply and demand as well as mobility promotion.

Inga Blaziene, Institute of Labour and Social Research

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