EMCC European Monitoring Centre on Change

Questionnaire for ERM CAR on 'Emerging forms of entrepreneurship'

  • Observatory: EMCC
  • Topic:
  • Published on: 21 March 2011



About
Country:
Netherlands
Author:
R.H. van het Kaar
Institution:

Disclaimer: This information is made available as a service to the public but has not been edited or approved by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. The content is the responsibility of the authors.

In the Netherlands, there is a substantial amount of information on one person enterprises/self-employed. This is not the case for the other categories (with the partial exception of part time employers). The public debate is very much restricted to self employed. In the near future it will be possible to link a wealth of demographic information to the activities of some of the abovementioned categories of entrepreneurs.

The questionnaire

Part I: Public/policy discussion

General policy discussions and policy approach

Do the public/policy discussions specifically deal with the different forms of business activities, since when and for how long?

Table 1: Presence of the different emerging forms of entrepreneurship in the public debate
 

Yes, continuously since xx year? (Please indicate year)

Yes, on and off in the last 10 years

(Please indicate yes where it applies)

Yes, has been on the public agenda, but since xx year it is no longer part of the agenda (Please indicate year)

No, it has never been part of the public agenda

(Please indicate X where it applies)

One-person enterprises /self-employed

Yes, since early 1990s

     
Part-time entrepreneurs  

yes

   
Parallel entrepreneurs      

x

Serial entrepreneurs      

x

Business transfers and successions  

yes

   

For each of the entrepreneurship/business activities covered by policy discussions, which policy domains are they covered in? Please indicate with an ’X‘ where relevant.

Table 2: Policy domains engaged in the policy discussion of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Labour policies

Educational policies

Economic/Industrial policies

Innovation policies

Regional policies

Other (please specify)

One-person enterprises /self-employed

x

 

x

   

Fiscal, pensions, representation in national fora

Part-time entrepreneurs            
Parallel entrepreneurs            
Serial entrepreneurs            
Business transfers and successions    

x

     

In which media and forum do the public debate and policy discussions about the different types of entrepreneurship take place?

Please indicate whether they are implicitly (e.g. publications are covering entrepreneurs in general with implicit implications for the different forms of entrepreneurs/business activities) covered and/or explicitly mentioned (for instance parallel entrepreneurs are explicitly mentioned in publications) in these publications

Table 3: Media and forums discussing the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Public media such as newspapers and magazines incl. electronic media

Policy documents and analysis

Proposed legislation and/or business support schemes

Others, please specify

One-person enterprises/self-employed

yes

yes

yes

 
Part-time entrepreneurs

To some extent

To some extent

   
Parallel entrepreneurs        
Serial entrepreneurs        
Business transfers and successions

yes

     

Specific topics to describe the different types of entrepreneurship

What has motivated the public debate?

Please specify for each of the five forms of entrepreneurship:

Table 4: What has motivated the public debate of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

Type of Entrepreneurship

Motivator

One-person enterprises/self-employed

Stimulating entrepreneurship. Raising the labour participation rate; blocking bogus forms of self employment

Stimulating entrepreneurship. Raising the labour participation rate

Securing employment in situations where succession is a problem

What has been the focus of the policy discussion?

To help you answer question 5, we list some examples of key issues that could be addressed in the policy discussion:

Please specify for each of the five forms of entrepreneurship:

Table 5: The policy focus in the public debate within each of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

Part-time entrepreneurs
Parallel entrepreneurs  
Serial entrepreneurs  
Business transfers and successions

Type of Entrepreneurship

Policy focus

One-person enterprises/self-employed

Promoting entrepreneurship; incentives for business creation by unemployed persons; representation of self employed in the bipartite and tripartite organs; tax treatment of self employed; bogus self employed from foreign countries; abolishment of insurance against disablement for self employed; the exact legal status of self employed; self employed and social security

Tax treatment

Securing employment in situations where succession is problematic.

Has the public discussion resulted in a concrete outcome/impact?

Yes: increase in the number of self employed; representation of self-employed in the Social and Economic Council (Sociaal Economische Raad, SER); more favourable tax treatment of self employed; more positive attitude towards entrepreneurship. Rise in general employment level.

Please specify for each of the five forms of entrepreneurship:

Table 6: Outcome or impact of the public debate of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

Part-time entrepreneurs
Parallel entrepreneurs  
Serial entrepreneurs  
Business transfers and successions

Type of Entrepreneurship

Outcome/Impact

One-person enterprises/self-employed

Yes: increase in the number of self employed; representation of self-employed in the Social and Economic Council (Sociaal Economische Raad, SER); more favourable tax treatment of self employed; more positive attitude towards entrepreneurship. Stricter control on bogus self-employment by Labour Inspectorate. Clarity on the legal status of self employed

More favourable tax and social security treatment

Overall assessment

Within the last couple of years, to which extent has the public and policy discussion been more focused on the following different types of entrepreneurship compared to the business policy/entrepreneurship debate in general?

Table 7: Increased focus at the emerging forms of entrepreneurship?

Part-time entrepreneurs
Parallel entrepreneurs  
Serial entrepreneurs  
Business transfers and successions  
 

To a low degree To a high degree

 

1

2

3

4

5

One-person enterprises/self-employed        

x

Part-time entrepreneurs  

x

     
Parallel entrepreneurs

x

       
Serial entrepreneurs

x

       
Business transfers and successions  

x

     

Please list the main sources of information in the search for the above

Research publications and papers (mainly from the Central Statistical Office)

Government and policy publications (background reports and studies)

Public (national/regional) entrepreneurship information services (mainly from the Chamber of Commerce)

Legislation proposed or passed (e.g. fiscal treatment of self employed)

Press releases by ministries and other authorities (e.g. on the representation of self-employed in the Social and Economic Council)

Newspapers (financial press)

Part II: Standardised structural data

Which standardised business statistics are available covering the different forms of entrepreneurship/business activities (explicitly or implicitly, i.e. also data that could be used to describe these forms of entrepreneurship without being published with this specific objective/heading)?

Table 8: Availability of business statistics about the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Type of data available

Indicate access to data by an ‘X’ in the first column

First published

Indicate year

Time series of data

(Biannually, annually, quarterly, monthly, once only, other)

Data source for the data

One-person enterprises/ self-employed

Number of enterprises

x

1950

annually

CBS (Central Statistical Office)

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

x, 4

1995

annually

CBS (Central Statistical Office)

Availability of regional data (please specify)

x

1970

annually

CBS (Central Statistical Office)

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

x

1993

annually

CBS (Central Statistical Office)

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

x

1990

 

CBS (Central Statistical Office)

Exports

       

Employment

x

1970

 

CBS (Central Statistical Office)

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

x

1970

 

CBS (Central Statistical Office)

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

x

1970

 

CBS (Central Statistical Office)

survival rate of enterprises

       

Others, specify:

       
Part-time entrepreneurs

Number of enterprises

       

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

       

Availability of regional data (please specify)

       

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

       

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

       

Exports

       

Employment

       

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

       

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

       

Survival rate of enterprises

       

Others, specify:

       
Parallel entrepreneurs

Number of enterprises

       

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

       

Availability of regional data (please specify)

       

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

       

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

       

Exports

       

Employment

       

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

       

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

       

survival rate of enterprises

       

Others, specify:

       
Serial entrepreneurs

Number of enterprises

       

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

       

Availability of regional data (please specify)

       

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

       

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

       

Exports

       

Employment

       

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

       

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

       

survival rate of enterprises

       

Others, specify:

       
Business transfers and successions

Number of enterprises

       

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

       

Availability of regional data (please specify)

       

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

       

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

       

Exports

       

Employment

       

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

       

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

       

survival rate of enterprises

       

Others, specify:

       

Is it possible to crosstab or merge the demographic data identifying the individual persons running any of the five forms of entrepreneurships/business activities with the company data specified in question 9 in a common database for analytical purpose?

No: At present: no. The Central Statistical Office however is working on a Social Statistic Database (Sociaal Statistisch Bestand, SSB) in which different types of demographic information can be linked to entrepreneurship/business activities. The system will become operational towards the end of 2010, and will not be open to the general public due to privacy rules. The database will contain very different types of statistics, including data on social security data, taxes, educational background, and housing.

In principle, it will therefore be possible to give positive answers the questions below, with the possible exception of ethnicity and working hours.

Yes: See above.

Table 9: Availability of demographic statistics about the entrepreneur within the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Type of data available

Indicated access to data by an ‘X’ in the first column

First published

Indicate year

Time series of data

(Biannually, annually, quarterly, monthly, once only, other)

Data source for the data

One-person enterprises/ self-employed Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner        
Gender        
Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age        
Geographical location        

Educational background (last registered education)

       
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

       
Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur        
Other types of data (Specify):        
Part-time entrepreneurs Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner        
Gender        
Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age        
Geographical location        

Educational background (last registered education)

       
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

       
Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur        
Other types of data (Specify):        
Parallel entrepreneurs Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner        
Gender        
Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age        
Geographical location        

Educational background (last registered education)

       
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

       
Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur        
Other types of data (Specify):        
Serial entrepreneurs Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner        
Gender        
Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age        
Geographical location        

Educational background (last registered education)

       
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

       
Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur        
Other types of data (Specify):        
Business transfers and successions Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner        
Gender        
Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age        
Geographical location        

Educational background (last registered education)

       
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

       
Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur        
Other types of data (Specify):        

Is the data freely accessible or does it require registration, payment and/or a special effort to access the data? Please explain the accessibility for each of the forms of entrepreneurs/business activities and datasets referred to above.

See above for the SSB

At present, information on self employed (an to some extent part time entrepreneurs) is freely available from the Central Statistical Office and the register of commerce (Handelsregister)

Table 10: List of statistical sources about the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

List data source/dataset

Explain the accessibility

Central Statistical Office

Free accessible

Handelsregister (register of commerce)

Paid accessibility

Part III: Research

Please describe studies and research available nationally for each of the forms of entrepreneurs/business activities.

Table 11: List of studies and research about the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

List the references (author’s name, title of publication etc, year of publication, organisation)

A short summary of the contents (e.g. topic covered, methodology applied)

One-person enterprises/self-employed

Several studies by the Central Statistical Office on self-employment, mainly on the number of self-employedEIM Onderzoek voor Bedrijf & Beleid - Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (latest issue, 2004)

Frank van Es &Daniël van Vuuren, A decomposition of the growth in self-employment (study by the Central Planning Bureau (Centraal Planbureau, CPB))

M. Aerts, De zelfstandige in het sociaal recht, Deventer: Kluwer 2007PhD thesis on self employed

I. Groot & A. Houkes, Zelfstandig uit de bijstand, SEO 2008 (in opdracht van SZW)

P. Brouwer & W. Zwinkels, Verzekerd van een vangnet na de WAZ? Gevolgen van afschaffing van de WAZ voor het verzekeren van arbeidsongeschiktheidsrisico’s door zzp’ers, Hoofddorp: TNO Arbeid 2006

F.Dirks, M. Rosenbrand & N. Bosma, De overstap naar het ondernemerschap: levensloop, beweegreden en obstakels, Tilburg: OSA 2003.

EIB, De zelfstandige zonder personeel in de bouw in 2001, Amsterdam: EIB 2002

EIM, determinanten van toe- en uittreding van ondernemers, Zoetermeer:EIM 1999

G.E. Ebers, J. de Muijnck & M. Overweel, ZZP’ers in de tijd gevolgd, Zoetermeer: EIM 2002.

S. Lagerveld, K. Minderhoud & W. Zwinkels, Zeker verzekerd? Arbeidsongeschiktheidsverzekeringen voor zzp’ers nu en straks, Hoofddorp: TNO Arbeid 2004

Y.M. Prince, A. Bruins & P.Th. Van der Zijden, Ondernemen in de Zorg, Zoetermeer: EIM 2005

H. van den Tillaart, Monitor Etnisch Ondernemerschap 2000: Zelfstandig ondernemerschap van etnische minderheden in Nederland in de periode 1990-2000, Nijmegen: ITS 2001

J. van Velden, C. Jansen, I. Vossen & E. van der Boom, Ondernemend de uitkering uit: Onderzoek naar het starten van een bedrijf vanuit een uitkeringssituatie, Rotterdam: Ecorys 2006.

R.H. van het Kaar, HSI

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