EMCC European Monitoring Centre on Change

‘Poland: ERM comparative analytical report on Emerging

  • Observatory: EMCC
  • Topic:
  • Published on: 21 March 2011



About
Country:
Poland
Author:
Marta Trawińska
Institution:

Disclaimer: This information is made available as a service to the public but has not been edited by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. The content is the responsibility of the authors.

In the Polish policy debate, there appears only one of the five emerging forms of entrepreneurship: self-employment. The issues in connection to which it reoccurs most often are occupational activisation of women and youth, or its functioning as an instrument of the labour market policy (to decrease the rate of unemployment). It has been also treated as a problem to be solved, as a form of forced changes of working conditions. Such public recognition of self-employment has been present since the mid 1990's, and especially after 2004 in the context of EU adherence (in operational programmes). Despite the clear presence of self-employment in the policy discussion, self-employment is not an object of interest for specific research. Standardised structural data are available only for self-employment.

The questionnaire

Part I: Public/policy discussion

General policy discussions and policy approach

Do the public/policy discussions specifically deal with the different forms of business activities, since when and for how long?

Table 1: Presence of the different emerging forms of entrepreneurship in the public debate
 

Yes, continuously since xx year? (Please indicate year)

Yes, on and off in the last 10 years

(Please indicate yes where it applies)

Yes, has been on the public agenda, but since xx year it is no longer part of the agenda (Please indicate year)

No, it has never been part of the public agenda

(Please indicate X where it applies)

One-person enterprises /self-employed  

YES

   
Part-time entrepreneurs      

X

Parallel entrepreneurs      

X

Serial entrepreneurs      

X

Business transfers and successions      

X

For each of the entrepreneurship/business activities covered by policy discussions, which policy domains are they covered in? Please indicate with an ’X‘ where relevant.

Table 2: Policy domains engaged in the policy discussion of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Labour policies

Educational policies

Economic/Industrial policies

Innovation policies

Regional policies

Other (please specify)

One-person enterprises /self-employed

X

X

X

X

X

European Funding Programmes

Part-time entrepreneurs            
Parallel entrepreneurs            
Serial entrepreneurs            
Business transfers and successions            

In which media and forum do the public debate and policy discussions about the different types of entrepreneurship take place?

Table 3: Media and forums discussing the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Public media such as newspapers and magazines incl. electronic media

Policy documents and analysis

Proposed legislation and/or business support schemes

Others, please specify

One-person enterprises/self-employed

YES – explicitly/implicitly mentioned

YES – explicitly/ implicitly mentioned

YES – explicitly/ implicitly mentioned

YES :

- Statements of employers’ associations (explicitly/implicitly mentioned)

- Statements of trade unions – (explicitly mentioned)

Part-time entrepreneurs

Not mentioned

Not mentioned

Not mentioned

 
Parallel entrepreneurs

Not mentioned

Not mentioned

Not mentioned

 
Serial entrepreneurs

Not mentioned

Not mentioned

Not mentioned

 
Business transfers and successions

Not mentioned

Not mentioned

Not mentioned

 

Specific topics to describe the different types of entrepreneurship

What has motivated the public debate?

Table 4: What has motivated the public debate of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

Type of Entrepreneurship

Motivator

One-person enterprises/self-employed

Identified market or system failures: high unemployment rate, especially among young people and women.

Identified dysfunctionalities:

- forcing employees to become self-employed instead of issuing contract of employment,

- formal/bureaucratic difficulties with establishing (registration) of new business,

- tax rate for self-employment,

- limited access to social benefits (e.g. maternity/paternity leave).

Part-time entrepreneurs

-

-

-

-

What has been the focus of the policy discussion?

To help you answer question 5, we list some examples of key issues that could be addressed in the policy discussion:

Table 5: The policy focus in the public debate within each of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

Parallel entrepreneurs
Serial entrepreneurs
Business transfers and successions

Type of Entrepreneurship

Policy focus

One-person enterprises/self-employed
  • To simplify the administrative procedures and to ease the administrative course of establishing (registration) of a new company, running a business or closing/winding down a company, temporary suspension due to lack of commissions.
  • Special tax or VAT schemes that give preferential treatment to start-ups and entrepreneurs.
  • Precarious work/social security – unemployment schemes, health and safety giving preferential treatment to entrepreneurs.
  • Promoting entrepreneurship.
  • Access to finance: improving access to finance through grants, loans or equity capital.
  • Financial incentives for business creation by the unemployed.
  • Education: raising awareness and training to improve business skills and competences.
  • Counselling and information dissemination, e.g. business planning, information campaigns.
  • Promoting an entrepreneurial spirit among certain population groups, e.g. women, youth.
Part-time entrepreneurs

-

-

-

-

Has the public discussion resulted in a concrete outcome/impact?

Table 6: Outcome or impact of the public debate of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

Parallel entrepreneurs
Serial entrepreneurs
Business transfers and successions

Type of Entrepreneurship

Outcome/Impact

One-person enterprises/self-employed

Changed attitudes towards entrepreneurship: research results show increasing interest in establishing own businesses.

Implemented new legislation:

- Revision of Labour Code (published in the Journal of Laws of 2002 No. 135, item 1146). The act regulates that it is not permissible to replace the contract of employment by a civil law agreement if the same conditions of work are preserved. The act is implemented to prevent forced self-employment.

- The Act on employment promotion and labour market institutions (Ustawa o promocji zatrudnienia i instytucjach rynku pracy) (published in the Journal of Law of 2004, No. 99, item 1001). The act provides tools for financial, legal assistance, consultation and advice to the unemployed who want to start businesses.

- Revision of Personal Income Tax Act (Ustawa o podatku dochodowym od osób fizycznych) (published in the Journal of Laws of 2006 No. 217, item 1588). The act changes the definition of economic activity for the sake of forced self-employment.

- Revision of Act on Freedom of Economic Activity (Ustawa o swobodzie działalności gospodarczej) (published in the Journal of Law of 2009, No. 18, item 97). The act provides administrative solutions to facilitate establishing (registration) of a new company and running a company.

New business promotion schemes:

- Operational Programmes based on European Funds such as: Human Capital (Priority 6, Measure 6.2: Support and promotion of entrepreneurship and self-employment); Innovative Economy (Priority 3, Measure 3.1: Initiating of innovative activity).

- Academic Business Incubators – it is presently the largest academic initiative aiming at promotion of entrepreneurship among young Poles. Academic Business Incubators operate within 31 universities in Poland.

- ‘Entrepreneurship 101’ as a school subject.

- Increase in number of self-employment.

-

-

-

-

Overall assessment

Within the last couple of years, to which extent has the public and policy discussion been more focused on the following different types of entrepreneurship compared to the business policy/entrepreneurship debate in general?

Table 7: Increased focus at the emerging forms of entrepreneurship?

Part-time entrepreneurs
Parallel entrepreneurs
Serial entrepreneurs
Business transfers and successions
 

To a low degree To a high degree

 

1

2

3

4

5

One-person enterprises/self-employed        

x

Part-time entrepreneurs

x

       
Parallel entrepreneurs

x

       
Serial entrepreneurs

X

       
Business transfers and successions

X

       

Please list the main sources of information in the search for the above

Government sources: Ministry of Economic Affairs; Ministry of Labour and Social Policy ; Ministry of Regional Development; Ministry of National Education; Ministry of Science and Higher Education; The Chancellery of the Prime Minister ; The Journal of Law ; “Friendly State” Parliamentary Committee (Komisja Nadzwyczajna “Przyjazne Państwo”).

Employers’associations: Business Centre Club; Polish Confederation of Private Employers Leviathan; Polish Business Roundtable; Polish Chamber of Commerce; Polish Craft Association, Employers of Poland

NGOs and think tanks: Foundation for Small and Medium Enterprises; Institute for Private Enterprise and Democracy; The Gdańsk Institute for Market Economics ; The Sobieski Institute; Institute for Structural Research; Civil Development Forum; Adam Smith Center ; CASE - Center for Social and Economic Research

Trade Unions: NSZZ “Solidarnosc”; The All Poland Alliance of Trade Unions; The Trade Unions Forum

Electronic and printed media: Gazeta Wyborcza (http://wyborcza.pl/0,0.html); Rzeczpospolita (http://www.rp.pl/temat/2.html); Gazeta Prawna (http://www.gazetaprawna.pl/), Dziennik (http://www.dziennik.pl/).

Other: Academic Business Incubators; EU Operational Programmes documents: Human Capital, Innovative Economy; Polish Agency for Enterprise Development; Social Insurance Institution ; Tripartirte Commission for Social and Economic Affairs ; Central Statistical Office

Part II: Standardised structural data

Which standardised business statistics are available covering the different forms of entrepreneurship/business activities (explicitly or implicitly, i.e. also data that could be used to describe these forms of entrepreneurship without being published with this specific objective/heading)?

Table 8: Availability of business statistics about the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Type of data available

Indicate access to data by an ‘X’ in the first column

First published

Indicate year

Time series of data

(Biannually, annually, quarterly, monthly, once only, other)

Data source for the data

One-person enterprises/ self-employed

Number of enterprises

X

1). 1992 (first research using the Labour Force Survey methodology)

2). 1999

1).quarterly

2).annually

Central Statistical Office (Główny Urząd Statystyczny, GUS):

1). Labour Force Survey

2). From the National Business Registry (REGON)

Enterprises by branch (for the fourth level of classification PKD is compatible with NACE).

x

1).1997

2). 1999

1).quarterly

2).annually

Central Statistical Office:

1). using Polish Classification of Activities (PKD), which is compiled on the basis of NACE (since 2008 by NACE rev.2)

2). from the Official National Business Registry (REGON)

Available only for regional level – NUTS 2 (voivodeships).

x

1).1992

2). 1999

1).quarterly

2).annually

Central Statistical Office:

1). Labour Force Survey

2). from the Official National Business Registry (REGON)

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

       

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

       

Exports

       

Employment

       

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

x

1999

Annually

Central Statistical Office - from the National Business Registry (REGON)

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

x

1999

Annually

Central Statistical Office – from the National Business Registry (REGON)

survival rate of enterprises

 

1999

Annually

Central Statistical Office – from the National Business Registry (REGON)

Others, specify:

       
Part-time entrepreneurs

Number of enterprises

       

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

       

Availability of regional data (please specify)

       

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

       

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

       

Exports

       

Employment

       

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

       

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

       

Survival rate of enterprises

       

Others, specify:

       
Parallel entrepreneurs

Number of enterprises

       

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

       

Availability of regional data (please specify)

       

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

       

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

       

Exports

       

Employment

       

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

       

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

       

survival rate of enterprises

       

Others, specify:

       
Serial entrepreneurs

Number of enterprises

       

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

       

Availability of regional data (please specify)

       

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

       

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

       

Exports

       

Employment

       

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

       

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

       

survival rate of enterprises

       

Others, specify:

       
Business transfers and successions

Number of enterprises

       

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

       

Availability of regional data (please specify)

       

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

       

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

       

Exports

       

Employment

       

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

       

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

       

survival rate of enterprises

       

Others, specify:

       

Is it possible to crosstab or merge the demographic data identifying the individual persons running any of the five forms of entrepreneurships/business activities with the company data specified in question 9 in a common database for analytical purpose?

No data available

Table 9: Availability of demographic statistics about the entrepreneur within the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Type of data available

Indicated access to data by an ‘X’ in the first column

First published

Indicate year

Time series of data

(Biannually, annually, quarterly, monthly, once only, other)

Data source for the data

One-person enterprises/ self-employed Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner        
Gender        
Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age        
Geographical location        

Educational background (last registered education)

       
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

       
Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur        
Other types of data (Specify):        
Part-time entrepreneurs Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner        
Gender        
Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age        
Geographical location        

Educational background (last registered education)

       
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

       
Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur        
Other types of data (Specify):        
Parallel entrepreneurs Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner        
Gender        
Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age        
Geographical location        

Educational background (last registered education)

       
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

       
Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur        
Other types of data (Specify):        
Serial entrepreneurs Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner        
Gender        
Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age        
Geographical location        

Educational background (last registered education)

       
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

       
Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur        
Other types of data (Specify):        
Business transfers and successions Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner        
Gender        
Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age        
Geographical location        

Educational background (last registered education)

       
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

       
Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur        
Other types of data (Specify):        

Is the data freely accessible or does it require registration, payment and/or a special effort to access the data? Please explain the accessibility for each of the forms of entrepreneurs/business activities and datasets referred to above.

Table 10: List of statistical sources about the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

List data source/dataset

Explain the accessibility

1. BAEL (Central Statistical Office)

General data is freely available, but for more details one has to apply for it (by fulfilling a form on the website, it’s a chargeable service)

2. The National Business Registry (REGON) (Central Statistical Office)

General data is freely accessible, but for more details one has to apply for it (by fulfilling a form on the website, it’s a chargeable service)

   
   
   
   

Part III: Research

Please describe studies and research available nationally for each of the forms of entrepreneurs/business activities.

Table 11: List of studies and research about the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

List the references (author’s name, title of publication etc, year of publication, organisation)

A short summary of the contents (e.g. topic covered, methodology applied)

One-person enterprises/self-employed

1.Title: Samozatrudnienie - droga do sukcesu czy porażki? : czynniki rozwoju przedsiębiorczości na lokalnym rynku pracy : analiza aktywności ekonomicznej osób samozatrudnionych na Dolnym Śląsku (in English: Self-employment: way to success or failure? Factors of business development on local labour market: analysis od economic activity of the self-employed in Lower Silesia region)

Authors: Robert Majkut, Jacek Pluta, Piotr Żuk

Year: 2007

Publishing house: Wydawnictwo Akcydens.

2. Title: Pracujący Polacy 2006 (in English: Working Poles 2006) and Pracujący Polacy 2007 (in English: Working Poles 2007)

Author: Juliusz Gardawski

Year: 2006, 2007.

Funded and commissioned by: Polish Confederation of Private Employers Leviathan (Polska Konfederacja Pracodawców Prywatnych Lewiatan).

3. Title: Samozatrudnienie. Analiza wyników badań (in English: Self-employment. Research result analysis)

Authors: Rafał Drozdowski, Piotr Matczak.

Year: 2004

Commissioned by: Polish Agency for Enterprise Development

1. Qualitative and quantitative research on self-employed in Lower Silesia region – barriers and opportunities of establishing and running own business.

2. Quantitative research (survey) on attitudes towards several aspects of occupational activity among different types of employees including self-employed.

3. Qualitative and quantitative research (survey) on self-employed in Poland. Presenting multi-dimensional sociological portrait of self-employed Poles (regional profiles, knowledge and attitudes towards self-employment).

Part-time entrepreneurs    
Parallel entrepreneurs    
Serial entrepreneurs    
Business transfers and successions    

Marta Trawińska, Institute of Public Affairs

Useful? Interesting? Tell us what you think. Hide comments

Add new comment