EMCC European Monitoring Centre on Change

Portugal: ERM comparative analytical report on emerging forms of entrepreneurship

  • Observatory: EMCC
  • Topic:
  • Published on: 21 March 2011



About
Country:
Portugal
Author:
Heloísa Perista and Janine Nunes
Institution:

Disclaimer: This information is made available as a service to the public but has not been edited or approved by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. The content is the responsibility of the authors.

Most of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship which are the focus of this CAR are not dealt with by public/policy discussions in Portugal. Entrepreneurship in general has though been much emphasised in this debate. The exception to this lack of visibility is self-employed. Actually, self-employment has deserved specific attention in the policy and public discussion for over twenty years now, namely as a means to escape unemployment. Specific groups, such as women, immigrants and young people have been particularly targeted by the incentives to self-employment (and entrepreneurship).Labour statistics reflect this panorama and also provide company and demographic data on self-employed.

The questionnaire

Part I: Public/policy discussion

General policy discussions and policy approach

Do the public/policy discussions specifically deal with the different forms of business activities, since when and for how long?

Table 1: Presence of the different emerging forms of entrepreneurship in the public debate
 

Yes, continuously since xx year? (Please indicate year)

Yes, on and off in the last 10 years

(Please indicate yes where it applies)

Yes, has been on the public agenda, but since xx year it is no longer part of the agenda (Please indicate year)

No, it has never been part of the public agenda

(Please indicate X where it applies)

One-person enterprises /self-employed

1988

     
Part-time entrepreneurs      

x

Parallel entrepreneurs      

x

Serial entrepreneurs      

x

Business transfers and successions      

x

For each of the entrepreneurship/business activities covered by policy discussions, which policy domains are they covered in? Please indicate with an ’X‘ where relevant.

Table 2: Policy domains engaged in the policy discussion of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Labour policies

Educational policies

Economic/Industrial policies

Innovation policies

Regional policies

Other (please specify)

One-person enterprises /self-employed

x

x

x

x

x

Gender equality - Female entrepreneurship

Part-time entrepreneurs            
Parallel entrepreneurs            
Serial entrepreneurs            
Business transfers and successions            

In which media and forum do the public debate and policy discussions about the different types of entrepreneurship take place?

Please indicate whether they are implicitly (e.g. publications are covering entrepreneurs in general with implicit implications for the different forms of entrepreneurs/business activities) covered and/or explicitly mentioned (for instance parallel entrepreneurs are explicitly mentioned in publications) in these publications

Table 3: Media and forums discussing the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Public media such as newspapers and magazines incl. electronic media

Policy documents and analysis

Proposed legislation and/or business support schemes

Others, please specify

One-person enterprises/self-employed

Implicitly

Explicitly

Explicitly

 
Part-time entrepreneurs        
Parallel entrepreneurs        
Serial entrepreneurs        
Business transfers and successions        

Specific topics to describe the different types of entrepreneurship

What has motivated the public debate?

Please specify for each of the five forms of entrepreneurship:

Table 4: What has motivated the public debate of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

Type of Entrepreneurship

Motivator

One-person enterprises/self-employed

Self-employment has been often faced, at policy level, as a strategy to escape unemployment and, simultaneously, to revitalise local economies.

The public debate has though emphasised some specific features that may act as a constraint to self-employment (and to entrepreneurship in general) which call for improvement of financial incentives for business creation, administrative procedures, fiscal regulations, and labour law.

On the other hand, the need to raising entrepreneurial spirit among Portuguese people (young people in particular) has also been often addressed in public debate.

What has been the focus of the policy discussion?

To help you answer question 5, we list some examples of key issues that could be addressed in the policy discussion:

Please specify for each of the five forms of entrepreneurship:

Table 5: The policy focus in the public debate within each of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

Part-time entrepreneurs  
Parallel entrepreneurs  
Serial entrepreneurs
Business transfers and successions  

Type of Entrepreneurship

Policy focus

One-person enterprises/self-employed

Public debate on entrepreneurship has usually included the promotion of self-employment.

Different policy focus have been addressed in this debate:

1. The need to ease the administrative burden of establishing (registration) a new company.

2. The improvement of companies’ VAT schemes.

3. Raising entrepreneurial spirit among young people, namely through education – awareness raising and training to improve business skills and competences of the youngsters attending basic and secondary schools, as well as universities.

4. Financial incentives (including access to credit in favourable conditions) and technical support for business creation by young people, namely those who are looking for a first job.

5. Financial incentives and technical support for creation of self-employment by unemployed people, namely those who are recipients of unemployment benefit.

6. Financial incentives (including access to credit in favourable conditions) and technical support for the promotion of entrepreneurship among immigrants, as a means to facilitate their economical and social integration.

7. Promotion of female entrepreneurship, as a means to promote gender equality in the labour market and in decision-making, namely through provision of consultancy and technical support.

Has the public discussion resulted in a concrete outcome/impact?

Yes:

Please specify for each of the five forms of entrepreneurship:

Table 6: Outcome or impact of the public debate of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

Part-time entrepreneurs  
Parallel entrepreneurs  
Serial entrepreneurs  
Business transfers and successions  

Type of Entrepreneurship

Outcome/Impact

One-person enterprises/self-employed

New business promotion schemes, backed up by new legislation, may be seen as an outcome of the different policy topics raised in public debate (as presented in the previous question – to facilitate the combined analysis of the contents of tables 5 and 6, the same numbering of the topics will be followed).

1. Enterprise on the spot (Empresa na hora): creation of a new company in a single desk and at the same day. This initiative is still expanding, now existing 188 desks all over the country.

2. Reduction in the period of VAT re-imbursement to companies: from 90 to 60 days (30 days in 2011 for companies which register for VAT monthly re-imbursement) (Law 2/2010, of 15 March).

3. i) Publication of Education for Entrepreneurship Guidelines, addressed to basic and secondary schools (Ministry of Education, 2006).

ii) Creation of offices to support entrepreneurship (and employment) in higher education institutions.

4. i) Programme to support entrepreneurship and self-employment creation - Microinvest and Invest (Portaria 985/2009, of 4 September).

ii) Self-employment creation – non-refundable subsidy to young people with a disability who want to create their own job.

5. Programme to support entrepreneurship and self-employment creation (Portaria 985/2009, of 4 September).

6. Promotion of immigrant entrepreneurship.

7. Support to female entrepreneurship (QREN 2007-2013 – Human Potential Operational Programme).

Part-time entrepreneurs  
Parallel entrepreneurs  
Serial entrepreneurs  
Business transfers and successions  

Overall assessment

Within the last couple of years, to which extent has the public and policy discussion been more focused on the following different types of entrepreneurship compared to the business policy/entrepreneurship debate in general?

Table 7: Increased focus at the emerging forms of entrepreneurship?
 

To a low degree To a high degree

 

1

2

3

4

5

One-person enterprises/self-employed  

x

     
Part-time entrepreneurs          
Parallel entrepreneurs          
Serial entrepreneurs          
Business transfers and successions          

Please list the main sources of information in the search for the above

Francisco, Ana Paula, Ferreira, José Soares and Mendes, Teresa (2006) Guide for Entrepreneurship Education, (Guião de Educação para o Empreendedorismo), Ministry of Education.

Available at: http://www.dgidc.min-edu.pt/cidadania/Documents/Empreendedorismo.pdf

National Strategic Reference Framework for 2007 – 2013 (QREN), the Human Potential Operational Programme for 2007-2013 (POPH), (Quadro de Referência Estratégico Nacional 2007-2013, Programa Operacional do Potencial Humano 2007-2013).

Available at: www.qren.pt/download.php?id=1154

National Reform Plan 2008-2010 ( Plano Nacional de Reformas 2008-2010) Lisbon Strategy Portugal a New (Estratégia de Lisboa, Portugal Novo).

Available at: http://www.planotecnologico.pt/en/lisbon-strategy/nrp_en/list.aspx

XVIII Constitutional Government Program (Programa do XVIII Governo Constitucional).

Available at: http://www.portugal.gov.pt/pt/GC18/Documentos/Programa_GC18.pdf

Decree nº 985/2009 of 4 September (Portaria nº985/2009, de 4 de Setembro).

Available at: http://dre.pt/pdf1sdip/2009/09/17200/0599105996.pdf

Law nº 2 / 2010 of 15 March, (Lei nº2/2010 de 15 de Março).

Available at: http://webmanager.ipc.pt/mgallery/default.asp?obj=2613

Headline: Empreendedorismo: Governo abre em Março novo fundo de apoio a empresárias, Lusa, 1 March 2009

Available at: http://noticias.sapo.pt/lusa/artigo/9373299.html

Part II: Standardised structural data

Which standardised business statistics are available covering the different forms of entrepreneurship/business activities (explicitly or implicitly, i.e. also data that could be used to describe these forms of entrepreneurship without being published with this specific objective/heading)?

Table 8: Availability of business statistics about the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Type of data available

Indicate access to data by an ‘X’ in the first column

First published

Indicate year

Time series of data

(Biannually, annually, quarterly, monthly, once only, other)

Data source for the data

One-person enterprises/ self-employed

Number of enterprises

x

1974

Quarterly and annually

Statistics Portugal (INE), Labour Force Survey

Enterprises by branch (agriculture, animal production, hunting, forestry and fishing; industry, construction, energy and water; services)

x

1974

Quarterly and annually

Statistics Portugal (INE), Labour Force Survey

Availability of regional data (please specify) (Portugal, Mainland, Azores and Madeira)

X

1974

Quarterly and annually

Statistics Portugal (INE), Labour Force Survey

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

       

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

       

Exports

       

Employment

       

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

       

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

       

survival rate of enterprises

       

Others, specify:

       
Part-time entrepreneurs

Number of enterprises

       

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

       

Availability of regional data (please specify)

       

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

       

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

       

Exports

       

Employment

       

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

       

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

       

Survival rate of enterprises

       

Others, specify:

       
Parallel entrepreneurs

Number of enterprises

       

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

       

Availability of regional data (please specify)

       

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

       

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

       

Exports

       

Employment

       

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

       

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

       

survival rate of enterprises

       

Others, specify:

       
Serial entrepreneurs

Number of enterprises

       

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

       

Availability of regional data (please specify)

       

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

       

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

       

Exports

       

Employment

       

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

       

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

       

survival rate of enterprises

       

Others, specify:

       
Business transfers and successions

Number of enterprises

       

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

       

Availability of regional data (please specify)

       

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

       

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

       

Exports

       

Employment

       

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

       

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

       

survival rate of enterprises

       

Others, specify:

       

Is it possible to crosstab or merge the demographic data identifying the individual persons running any of the five forms of entrepreneurships/business activities with the company data specified in question 9 in a common database for analytical purpose?

Yes:

There is no limitation since company and demographic data have the same data source.

Table 9: Availability of demographic statistics about the entrepreneur within the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Type of data available

Indicated access to data by an ‘X’ in the first column

First published

Indicate year

Time series of data

(Biannually, annually, quarterly, monthly, once only, other)

Data source for the data

One-person enterprises/ self-employed Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner        
Gender

x

1974

Quarterly and annually

Statistics Portugal (INE), Labour Force Survey

Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age        
Geographical location

x

1974

Quarterly and annually

Statistics Portugal (INE), Labour Force Survey

Educational background (last registered education)

x

1974

Quarterly and annually

Statistics Portugal (INE), Labour Force Survey

Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

       
Working hours of the entrepreneur

x

1974

Quarterly and annually

Statistics Portugal (INE), Labour Force Survey

Income of the entrepreneur        

Other types of data (Specify):

Occupation

x

1974

Quarterly and annually

Statistics Portugal (INE), Labour Force Survey

Part-time entrepreneurs Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner        
Gender        
Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age        
Geographical location        

Educational background (last registered education)

       
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

       
Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur        
Other types of data (Specify):        
Parallel entrepreneurs Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner        
Gender        
Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age        
Geographical location        

Educational background (last registered education)

       
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

       
Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur        
Other types of data (Specify):        
Serial entrepreneurs Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner        
Gender        
Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age        
Geographical location        

Educational background (last registered education)

       
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

       
Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur        
Other types of data (Specify):        
Business transfers and successions Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner        
Gender        
Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age        
Geographical location        

Educational background (last registered education)

       
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

       
Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur        
Other types of data (Specify):        

Is the data freely accessible or does it require registration, payment and/or a special effort to access the data? Please explain the accessibility for each of the forms of entrepreneurs/business activities and datasets referred to above.

Table 10: List of statistical sources about the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

List data source/dataset

Explain the accessibility

Statistics Portugal (INE), Labour Force Survey

Accessible on-line in www.ine.pt

   
   
   
   

Part III: Research

Please describe studies and research available nationally for each of the forms of entrepreneurs/business activities.

No studies or research were found focusing on the emerging forms of entrepreneurship.

Table 11: List of studies and research about the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

List the references (author’s name, title of publication etc, year of publication, organisation)

A short summary of the contents (e.g. topic covered, methodology applied)

One-person enterprises/self-employed    
Part-time entrepreneurs    
Parallel entrepreneurs    
Serial entrepreneurs    
Business transfers and successions    

Heloísa Perista and Janine Nunes, Centro de Estudos para a Intervenção Social (CESIS)

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