EMCC European Monitoring Centre on Change

Slovakia: ERM comparative analytical report on Recent Policy Developments related to those Not in Employment, Education and Training (NEET)

  • Observatory: EMCC
  • Topic:
  • Published on: 06 February 2012



About
Country:
Slovakia
Author:
Eneke Hanzelová
Institution:

Disclaimer: This information is made available as a service to the public but has not been edited by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. The content is the responsibility of the authors.

The issue of NEETs is not explicitly reflected by policy makers, media, employers and trade unions. Nevertheless, it is related to unemployment of young people up to 25 years which is significant in the country. Active labour market policy measures aimed at the reduction of youth unemployment and increasing their employability are also applied to NEETs. For instance, graduate practice, subsidized employment of young people, labour market training and retraining, promoting of self-employment of young people. Besides, there are also measures to prevent early school leaving and their reintegration available. For instance, financial subsidies for the meal and purchase of school supplies and teacher’s assistant of Roma pupils.

1. Introduction

1.1 What is the level of interest among the different stakeholders in your country (policy makers, the media, employers and trade unions) in the issue of NEETs? What are their reasons for having a high/ low level of interest in the topic? (Expected length 100 words)

The issue of NEETs is not explicitly reflected by policy makers, media, employers and trade unions. Nevertheless, it does not mean that the interest in young people lacks in Slovakia where high unemployment of young people up to 25 years is significant. According to Eurostat, the unemployment rate of young people made 33.6% in 2010 that was the fourth highest unemployment rate among EU 27 member states. The interest of stakeholders to NEET is mediated through the issue of youth unemployment and through issue of disadvantaged position of young people in the labour market. Among them Slovak government shows the top interest in the issue what can be documented by the National Reform Program of the Slovak Republic for 2010-2014 ( http://www.finance.gov.sk/Documents/Ifp/NPR/NPR%20SR_2011-2014_EN.pdf ) according to which the government undertakes to:• improve the quality of basic education,• maintain the rate of early school leaving at 6%,• improve conditions for inclusion in school education of children from socially excluded communities,• increase the level of education funding,• improve the level of school digitizing.

The interest in the issue of young people is constantly dedicated by printed and electronic media (dailies SME, Pravda, economic newspapers), by public and private TVs. Trade unions and employers pay attention to youth unemployment within the social dialogue. Issue of youth unemployment has been a frequently discussed topic especially during submitting comments on recent amendments to the Labour Code in 2011.

1.2 Using the following table, please identify which sub-groups of NEETs are of particular concern to the different stakeholders in your country. Please indicate the relative importance of each group to the different stakeholders; for each group please state whether they are felt to be of ‘significant concern’, ‘some concern’, or ‘no concern’ to the different stakeholders.


Table 1 – NEETs sub-groups
 

Public/media debate

e.g. the extent to which the issue is discussed within the news media

Mainstream Policy

e.g. the range of policy documents tackling the issue, the amount of investment committed to tackling the problem

Employers

e.g. the extent to which this issue is raised as a concern, e.g. through lobbying / pressure on the government, involvement in the design and/or implementation of relevant policies

Trade unions

e.g. the extent to which this issue is raised as a concern, e.g. through lobbying / pressure on the government, involvement in the design and/or implementation of relevant policies

Young people who are unemployed

Significant concern

Significant concern

Some concern

Some concern

Young people who are in ‘precarious’ or unsuitable employment (e.g. temporary contracts, forced self-employment, part-time work, or jobs which are not commensurate with their level of qualifications)

Some concern

Some concern

No concern

No concern

Early school leavers – young people who have dropped out of education before obtaining an upper secondary level qualification

Some concern

Some concern

No concern

No concern

Young people with qualifications which do not meet labour market needs

Some concern

Some concern

Some concern

Some concern

Teenage/ single parents

No concern

No concern

No concern

No concern

Migrants and minority groups

Some concern

Significant concern

No concern

No concern

Young people with disabilities

Some concern

Some concern

No concern

No concern

Young people from workless families

Some concern

Some concern

No concern

No concern

Young people from disadvantaged areas

No concern

No concern

No concern

No concern

Young people with tertiary education who have been unsuccessful in accessing the labour market

Some concern

Some concern

Some concern

Some concern

Other (please specify):

.

       

1.3 Are there any policy measures in your country targeted at those NEETs with tertiary education? If yes please describe these briefly (expected length 100 words).

Presently, there are no measures explicitly aimed at those NEETs with tertiary education. Due to the high unemployment risk of young people up to age 25, this age group is classified as a disadvantaged group in the labour market. On this basis young people, including those with tertiary education, have preferential access to all active labour market programs set in the Act No. 5/2004 Coll. on Employment Services (http://www.employment.gov.sk/index.php?SMC=1&id=1153).

A special program that directly aimed at young people up to age 25 entitled “Graduate Practice”, that provide them with opportunity to acquire the professional skills and work experiences with a certain employer. Graduate Practice takes up to 6 months. During this practice, young people are entitled to a monthly flat-rate financial contribution (185 €). According to the Centre for Labour, Social Affairs and Family (UPSVAR), thanks to Graduate Practice program 21,200 young people had acquired work experience in 2010 (http://www.upsvar.sk/statistiky/aktivne-opatrenia-tp-statistiky/aktivne-opatrenia-trhu-prace-2010.html?page_id=13325). Through this program and also through other active labour market programs, e.g. education and training for labour market, subsidies for hiring young people, supporting the start-up of self-employment by young people, financial incentives for commuting to work, the labour market exclusion and NEET of young people have been effectively prevented.

2. NEET Policies and Measures

2.1 Measures to tackle early school leaving

Preventive Measures to tackle early school leaving


2.1.1 Please provide a short overview of your country’s approach to preventing early school leaving. Where does the focus of policies and measures to prevent early school leaving lie?

According to the Eurostat, the share of early school leavers from education and training of the population aged 18-24 made 4.7 % in 2010 that is threefold lower than the EU average. (http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/setupModifyTableLayout.do). Nevertheless, preventing early school leaving makes an important part of overall social policies aimed at preventing youth unemployment and thus NEETs. The highest risk of early school leaving is among children and pupils with socially excluded background (particularly among Roma communities). To prevent early school leaving among youth from the families at risk of poverty, to reduce truancy and keep them in schooling, the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family (MPSVR SR) introduced a special program providing financial subsidies for meal in school canteens and for the purchase of school supplies (workbooks, textbooks, individual devices etc.) in 2004. Provision of subsidies is bound to school attendance.


2.1.2 Please complete the table below with a brief description of up to three policies/ measures to prevent early school leaving in your country. Where possible you should use only one word or Yes/No (e.g. how is the measure funded? answer: regional; is this measure a NEET specific measure? answer: Yes).


Table 2 - Early School Leaving: Preventive measures
Early School Leaving: Preventive measures
Name of measure

Description of the measure: aims and objectives

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local)

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?

Measure 1:

Teacher’s assistant of Roma pupils

Aims and objectives: One of the main causes of failure of Roma pupils in schools is a bad command of the Slovak language. To improve the language skills of the Roma pupils the position of teacher's assistant has been established. The assistant is a teacher's helpmate who assists pupils to overcome language and learning difficulties, help them to adapt to school environment and plays the intermediary role between the school and pupil's families.

The objective of the measure is aimed to improve access to education of the Roma children and pupils, to eliminate language barriers and to increase their chances for further education.

Scale of measure: National level

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral? It is unilateral

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure?It is a general

measure that has an impact on NEET.

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group? It is a measure targeted at the young people from the minority group in particular.

Measure 2:

National project of the social field work

Aims and objectives:

The MPSVR SR is developing a national projects of the social field work within the Roma communities. The project will focus on improving the quality of field social work in the Roma communities. Presently, about 400 field workers operate in Roma communities. They provide advice and assistance for community inhabitants, mediate contacts with the authorities, doctors and schools. They are also active in the prevention of drug addiction, crime and truancy especially among young people. However, it is necessary to coordinate and to monitor this activity and to provide professional support to field workers. Main objective of the national project is to coordinate activities of the social field workers and to increase their professional skills.

Scale of measure: National level

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral: Unilateral

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)? Implementation of the project would costs € 520,000, which will be financed from the European Social Fund.

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs? It is specifically targeted at the young people from the minority group.


Measure 3:

National project of establishing community centres

Aims and objectives:

It is a national project presently developed by the MPSVR SR. The project is aimed at establishing and strengthening community centres within the Roma communities. Community centres should meet certain standards, i.e. should provide essential services for families and children. These services would include supporting activities aimed at improving access of the Roma children to the school education and at improving outcomes of their education. Within the project, the pre-school clubs, low cost kindergartens and clubs for mothers with small kids will be established.

Scale of measure: National

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral? Unilateral

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)? The implementation of the project will costs € 4 million, which will be financed from the European Social Fund.


2.1.3 Please provide a more detailed description of the preventive early school leaving measure which you think is the most effective measure in your country (this measure should be additional to those included in the table above). In addition to the questions raised in the table above, your description should include the details outlined below:


  • When was it introduced and why? How long will it run for?
  • Is it a mainstream or pilot project?
  • What is the scale of the initiative and how much funding has been allocated to it?
  • Who runs the initiative (is it a public, private or third sector initiative)?
  • What is the target group? How many young people benefit from it?
  • What activities are involved?
  • What are the success factors?
  • Is there any formal evidence of its success (both quantitative and qualitative)?

The Program of subsidies for school boarding and for purchasing school supplies for children and pupils from disadvantaged background.

The most effective preventive early school leaving measures is the Program of subsidies for children and pupils from socially disadvantaged background and from the families at the risk of social exclusion. The Program provides financial subsidies for school boarding (meal in the school canteen) and for purchasing the school supplies (textbooks, workbooks and individual devices). The provision of subsidy is tied to the children's attendance in kindergarten and pupils´ attendance in the school classes. It was introduced by the MPSVR SR in order to increase school attendance of children in preschools and pupils in primary and secondary schools in 2004. Increasing the school attendance is an essential precondition for early school leaving reducing. It is a mainstream program, carried out at the national level with a long-term duration. The subsidies for school boarding and for school supplies are provided by social departments of the district offices of UPSVAR. According to MPSVR SR, in 2010, the average monthly number of children and pupils who have been granted for school boarding was almost 78,000 and the number of children and pupils who have been granted for school supplies was nearly 83,000. (http://www.rokovania.sk/Rokovanie.aspx/BodRokovaniaDetail?idMaterial=19761). The total costs of the Program amounted to €15 million in 2010. The key success factor of this measure can be considered the proper selection of the target group and choosing the right ways and means to improve school attendance of children and pupils. Despite the relatively long run of the Program, quantitative or qualitative information about its implementation and outcomes is not available, so far.

Reintegration measures to tackle early school leaving


2.1.4 Please provide a short overview of your country’s approach to the reintegration of early school leavers. Where does the focus of policies and measures lie?

Reintegration measures are based on the awareness of negative effects of early school leaving on growing number of poor qualified people with low chances in the labour market and a high unemployment risk. In 2010, according to the LFS data, the unemployment rate of persons with primary school education was four times higher compared with those with secondary education. In accordance to this fact, reintegration measures to tackle early school leaving are intended to improvement of access to education and increasing school success of children and pupils in general and especially of children and people from socially disadvantaged backgrounds. As an example of such a measure the Scholarship program for secondary school students from families dependent on welfare benefits can be considered. The scholarship is provided monthly and its amount depends on students school grades.


2.1.5 Please complete the table below with a brief description of up to three policies/ measures to reintegrate early school leavers in your country. Where possible you should use only one word or Yes/No (e.g. how is the measure funded? answer: regional; is this measure a NEET specific measure? answer: Yes).


Table 2 - Early School Leaving: reintegration measures
Early School Leaving: Reintegration measures
Name of measure

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local)

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?

Measure 1:

Pilot project “Completing primary school“

Description: The pilot project was aimed at enhancing the employability of the unemployed persons without completed primary education and improving their access to further education. The project was implemented in 2004-5 in six Slovakian districts with a high proportion of unemployed persons without completed primary education.

Scale of measure: Regional

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral? Unilateral

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)? National state funding

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs? General measure that also has an impact on NEETs.

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group? Measure is specifically targeted at young people from socially disadvantaged background.

Measure 2:

Scholarships for the secondary school students from the families dependent on welfare benefits.

Description: The scholarship is provided to the secondary school students from socially disadvantaged backgrounds. The scholarship is intended to cover expenses associated to education at the secondary school (e.g. accommodation, travel costs, school boarding and school supplies).

Scale of measure: National

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral? Unilateral

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)? National state funding

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs? General measure which also has an impact on NEETs.

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group? Measure is specifically targeted at young people from socially disadvantaged backgrounds.


Measure 3:  


2.1.6 Please provide a more detailed description of the reintegration early school leaving measure which you think is the most effective measure in your country (this measure should be additional to those included in the table above). In addition to the questions raised in the table above, your description should include the details outlined below:


  • When was it introduced and why? How long will it run for?
  • Is it a mainstream or pilot project?
  • What is the scale of the initiative and how much funding has been allocated to it?
  • Who runs the initiative (is it a public, private or third sector initiative)?
  • What is the target group? How many young people benefit from it?
  • What activities are involved?
  • What are the success factors?
  • Is there any formal evidence of its success (both quantitative and qualitative)?


The path to better education Programme - the Project of motivating scholarships for Roma students.

Experience shows that Roma students are leaving secondary school early without completed secondary education. In order to keep Roma students at school and to assist them to complete secondary education, the Prešov Self -Governing Region started with implementation the Project of motivating scholarships. In addition to scholarships, tutoring and career counselling for Roma students are planned. The project has a regional scope and is carried out at the Prešov Self-Governing Region. The total project budget is estimated at €100,000 of which 95% will be financed by the Roma Education Fund, which is a Swiss foundation. The scholarships will be provided primarily to students of higher classes to motivate them completing the secondary education. The project has started in March 2011 and will last 12 months. Because the early stage of the Project, quantitative and qualitative evidence relating to the project results are not yet available.

2.2 Measures to facilitate access to employment

Facilitating the transition from school to work


2.2.1 Please provide an overview of your country’s approach to facilitating school to work transitions. Where does the focus of policies and measures to facilitate transitions lie?

Many young people In Slovakia faced serious difficulties when transiting from school to work. The main barrier of young people entering the labour market is the lack of job experience and professional skills. Young people in Slovakia, as already stated, have been granted by the status of disadvantaged groups in the labour market, which provides them with privileged access to employment services and preferential insertion into the programs of active labour market measures. To facilitate the transition from school to work the following measures are applied:


  • Program of "Graduate Practice" (gaining work experience and professional skills with an employer)
  • Subsidized employment of young people (wage subsidies to employers to hire young people)
  • Programs of labour market training and retraining (providing training and retraining courses)
  • Promoting of self-employment of young people(financial allowance to start-up of self-employment)
  • Supporting work commuting (financial allowance for commuting).

2.2.2 Please complete the table below with a brief description of up to three policies/ measures to facilitate school to work transitions in your country. Where possible you should use only one word or Yes/No (e.g. how is the measure funded? answer: regional; is this measure a NEET specific measure? answer: Yes).


Table 4 - Access to employment: Measures to facilitate school to work transitions
Access to employment: Measures to facilitate school to work transitions
Name of measure

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local)

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education?

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?

Measure 1:

Promoting of self-employment of young people (Temporary unbended conditions for financial allowance to start-up of self-employment by young people)

.

Description of measure: The global economic crisis has worsened the prospects of young people in the labour market and embarrassed their integration into the labour market. To mitigate the aggravated situation of young people during the economic crisis, the conditions for acquiring a financial allowance to self-employment star-up for young people were temporarily liberalized (three-month waiting period has been removed from February 2009 until the end of 2010). Financial allowance to self-employment star-up is part of the standard scheme of active labour market measures. This measure had a positive impact on the transition of young people into the labour market and on reduction of the risk of long-term unemployment.

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral? Unilateral

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)? European funding+ national state budget funding

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs? General measure which also has an impact on NEETs.

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education? Measure also applies to those with tertiary education

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group? General measure applies to all young people without distinction of social backgrounds.

Measure 2:  
Measure 3:  


2.2.3 Please provide a more detailed description of the school-to-work transition measure which you think is the most effective measure in your country (this measure should be additional to those included in the table above). In addition to the questions raised in the table above, your description should include the details outlined below:


  • When was it introduced and why? How long will it run for?
  • Is it a mainstream or pilot project?
  • What is the scale of the initiative and how much funding has been allocated to it?
  • Who runs the initiative (is it a public, private or third sector initiative)?
  • What is the target group? How many young people benefit from it?
  • What activities are involved?
  • What are the success factors?
  • Is there any formal evidence of its success (both quantitative and qualitative)?

An efficient tool for the transition of young people from school to the labour market is the "Graduate Practice," which is a work experience program for school leavers.Graduate practice is a tool of active labour market measures explicitly aimed at young people. The measure is aimed at eliminating the main handicap of school leavers, which is the lack of practical experience. It provides for young people the opportunity to acquire practical experience directly at the employer's premises. The Graduate Practice takes at least 3 months and at most 6 months. After completion the practice, a young person obtains a confirmation on completion of the graduate practice from the respective employer. In 2010, almost 21,200 school leavers attended the scheme which is financed from European funds and national state budget funds.

Measures to foster employability


2.2.4 Please provide an overview of your country’s approach to fostering employability among NEETs. Where does the focus of policies and measures lie?

Measures fostering employability of young people are implemented through programs of labour market training and retraining, which is part of a national scheme of active labour market policies. These programs are available to all job seekers, but due to disadvantaged position in the labour market young people have a priority access to these programs. Nevertheless, as statistics shows (http://www.upsvar.sk/statistiky/aktivne-opatrenia-tp-statistiky/aktivne-opatrenia-trhu-prace-2010.html?page_id=13325) only 5% of the total number of unemployed young people participated in the re/training programs in 2010.


2.2.5 Please complete the table below with a brief description of up to three policies/ measures to foster employability of NEETs in your country. Where possible you should use only one word or Yes/No (e.g. how is the measure funded? answer: regional; is this measure a NEET specific measure? answer: Yes).


Table 5 - Access to employment: Measures to foster employability (to include apprenticeships)
Access to employment: Measures to foster employability (to include apprenticeships).
Name of measure

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local)

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education?

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?

Measure 1:

Labour market training and retraining

Description of measure: Training and retraining programs aimed at increasing the employability of jobseekers. These programs are designed notably for disadvantaged groups in the labour market, who need to improve their professional skills and thus increase their chances in the labour market. Programs provide to jobseekers training in general skills (computer skills, language command, social skills) and specific skills (vocational training).Training and retraining programs are provided by public employment services.

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local): National

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral? Unilateral

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)? European funds and national state budget funds

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs? General measure which also has an impact on NEETs

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education? No

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group? No.

Measure 2:  
Measure 3:  


2.2.6 Please provide a more detailed description of the measure which you think is the most effective measure in your country to foster the employability of NEETs (this measure should be additional to those included in the table above). In addition to the questions raised in the table above, your description should include the details outlined below:


  • When was it introduced and why? How long will it run for?
  • Is it a mainstream or pilot project?
  • What is the scale of the initiative and how much funding has been allocated to it?
  • Who runs the initiative (is it a public, private or third sector initiative)?
  • What is the target group? How many young people benefit from it?
  • What activities are involved?
  • What are the success factors?
  • Is there any formal evidence of its success (both quantitative and qualitative)?

No project can be identified as the most effective measure in this relation.

Removing practical and logistical barriers


2.2.7 Please provide an overview of your country’s approach to removing practical and logistical barriers for NEETs. Where does the focus of policies and measures lie?

Due to the health handicap, pupils and students with disabilities are more likely to be excluded from the education and the labour market. Therefore, legislation and relevant institutions pay permanent attention to creating equal conditions for the education and access to the labour market for students with disabilities. The life-long learning system in Slovakia is divided into school education and further education. All extraordinary provisions within the school education are based on the recognition of a pupil as required special educational needs, e.g. special accommodation of conditions, content, forms, teaching methods and approaches due to his or her health impairment. Schools are obliged to meet the special requirements of each pupil in order to ensure their right to education and to ensure equal access to all level of education. Schools also can adapt or reconstruct the school premises, e.g. removing architectonical barriers, ensuring entrance to classrooms or toilets, modification of tables or chairs to make it more accessible for pupils and students with disabilities.

Pupils with different types of disabilities may be educated in mainstream schools (primary or secondary) setting (as an individualized integration approach or as a classroom integration approach) or in special schools. According to statistics (http://www.uips.sk/) the majority of disabled pupils and students were educated in inclusive school setting, primary in individualized form of integration in 2009.

Tertiary education for students with disabilities is completely mainstreamed. Tertiary disabled students are provided with special additional financial or in-kind measures, e.g. funds to support disabled students, direct payment for personal assistance, help to purchase a car or device and funds to establish support centres for disabled students. Yung people with disabilities have opportunities to learn within the further education system, which allows them to acquire, expand or deepen their skills. One of the components of the tertiary education is a re/training scheme of the active labour market policy aimed at increasing the employability of jobseekers.


2.2.8 Please complete the table below with a brief description of up to three policies/ measures to remove practical and logistical barriers to employment for NEETs in your country. Where possible you should use only one word or Yes/No (e.g. how is the measure funded? answer: regional; is this measure a NEET specific measure? answer: Yes).


Table 6 - Access to employment: Measures to remove practical and logistical barriers
Access to employment: Measures to remove practical and logistical barriers
Name of measure

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local)

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education?

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?

Measure 1:

Teacher’s assistant for pupils with special learning needs

Description of measure: Practical support provided by assistant of a teacher is available for any pupil/student with disabilities at kindergartens, primary and secondary schools. There are explicit qualification criteria for performing the teacher’s assistant role. One assistant can assist one or more pupils depending of the needs of each pupil. There were 596 full time teacher’s assistants in 2010.

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local): National

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral? Unilateral

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)? State budget funds

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs? General measure which also has impact on NEET´s.

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education? No.

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group? Specifically targeted at young people with disabilities.

Measure 2:  
Measure 3:  

NO

Employer incentives


2.2.9 Please provide an overview of your country’s approach to incentivising employers to recruit young people (who are NEET). Where does the focus of policies and measures to incentivise employers lie? Where possible you should use only one word or Yes/No (e.g. how is the measure funded? answer: regional; is this measure a NEET specific measure? answer: Yes).

Unemployed young people are a group of persons whose employment is supported under the national scheme of active labour market measures by providing financial subsidy to employers. An employer who intends to hire young worker will receive the financial subsidy to cover the labour costs of this worker. The subsidy is tied to the employer's obligation to maintain the established job during the certain period specified by law.


2.2.10 Please complete the table below with a brief description of up to three policies/ measures to incentivise employers in your country.


Table 7 - Access to employment: Employer incentives
Access to employment: Employer incentives
Name of measure

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local)

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education?

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?

Measure 1:

Financial subsidies to establish new jobs

Description: During the economic crisis, when young people in Slovakia faced high unemployment, a new measure aimed at supporting the creation of new jobs, including new jobs for young people was implemented. This measure was temporary and took effect in early 2009 and expired at the end of 2010. Financial subsidies assisted in creation of 6,600 new jobs in 2009-10. In 2010, one out of ten jobs have been created for young people. Financial subsidies were provided under the national scheme of active labour market measures.

Scale of measure: National

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral? Unilateral

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)? European funding + national state budget funding

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs? General measure which has also an impact on NEET´s

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education? YES

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?No.


Measure 2:   Measure 3:  


2.2.11 Please provide a more detailed description of the employer incentive which you think is the most effective measure in your country (this measure should be additional to those included in the table above). In addition to the questions raised in the table above, your description should include the details outlined below:


  • When was it introduced and why? How long will it run for?
  • Is it a mainstream or pilot project?
  • What is the scale of the initiative and how much funding has been allocated to it?
  • Who runs the initiative (is it a public, private or third sector initiative)?
  • What is the target group? How many young people benefit from it?
  • What activities are involved?
  • What are the success factors?
  • Is there any formal evidence of its success (both quantitative and qualitative)?

Slovak approach to incentivising employers to hire young people is based on providing financial subsidies under the national scheme of active labour market policy. Other measures in this area currently haven't been implemented. In this context, it is not possible to give an example of effective measures aimed at incentivising employers to recruit young people.

3. Conclusion

Presently, the risk of NEET´s is reflected at the level of all relevant stakeholders through the issue of high youth unemployment in the country. To the issue of NEETs as such is not given such importance as this issue deserves. The lack of interest to this issue may be explained by lack of available data on the NEETs in Slovakia, including data on its structure. Disinterest to NEET´s causes the absence of measures focused on NEETs in particular. It can be supposed that the issue of NEETs in Slovakia will be a hot topic in the coming years for the reasons of:


  • high and persistent youth unemployment,
  • low job creation,
  • high number of children and young people living with socially disadvantaged backgrounds.
  • To prevent NEETs in Slovakia it would be necessary to:
  • establish a monitoring system for those who left school prematurely,
  • establish return mechanisms into the education system for those who are in NEETs,
  • create a national system of statistical monitoring of NEETs,
  • communicate specific issue of NEETs through mass media.

Eneke Hanzelova, Institute for Labour and Family Research.



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