EMCC European Monitoring Centre on Change

Slovenia: ERM comparative analytical report on emerging forms of entrepreneurship

  • Observatory: EMCC
  • Topic:
  • Published on: 21 March 2011



About
Country:
Slovenia
Author:
Matija Rojec
Institution:

Disclaimer: This information is made available as a service to the public but has not been edited by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. The content is the responsibility of the authors.

In Slovenia, there are no specific public or policy discussions on the emerging forms of entrepreneurship, such as one person enterprises/self-employed not employing any workers, part-time entrepreneurs, parallel entrepreneurs, serial entrepreneurs and business transfers and successions. As far as statistical data are concerned, one can find data on one-person enterprises/self-employed but not on other forms. Possibly some other data may be extracted from existing data bases but this is not readily done by the statistics, nor are these data openly accessible. Public and policy discussions on entrepreneurship in Slovenia concentrate on how to promote entrepreneurship and how to reduce various barriers to entrepreneurship.

QUESTIONNAIRE

Part I: Public/policy discussion

General policy discussions and policy approach

Do the public/policy discussions specifically deal with the different forms of business activities, since when and for how long?

Table 1: Presence of the different emerging forms of entrepreneurship in the public debate
 

Yes, continuously since xx year? (Please indicate year)

Yes, on and off in the last 10 years

(Please indicate yes where it applies)

Yes, has been on the public agenda, but since xx year it is no longer part of the agenda (Please indicate year)

No, it has never been part of the public agenda

(Please indicate X where it applies)

One-person enterprises /self-employed      

X

Part-time entrepreneurs      

X

Parallel entrepreneurs      

X

Serial entrepreneurs      

X

Business transfers and successions      

X

Public/policy discussions in Slovenia have not specifically dealt with any of the specified emerging forms of entrepreneurship.

For each of the entrepreneurship/business activities covered by policy discussions, which policy domains are they covered in? Please indicate with an ’X‘ where relevant.

Table 2: Policy domains engaged in the policy discussion of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Labour policies

Educational policies

Economic/Industrial policies

Innovation policies

Regional policies

Other (please specify)

One-person enterprises /self-employed            
Part-time entrepreneurs            
Parallel entrepreneurs            
Serial entrepreneurs            
Business transfers and successions            

Policy discussions in Slovenia have not specifically dealt with any of the specified emerging forms of entrepreneurship. In general, entrepreneurship related policy discussions in Slovenia are focused on: (i) how to reduce/eliminate barriers for more intensive entrepreneurship activities, (ii) how to motivate more people to be engaged in entrepreneurship activities, and (iii) which policy measures to adopt in order to stimulate entrepreneurship.

In terms of the above table, discussion on entrepreneurship in general have been present in the context of economic/industrial policies and labour policies, to some extent also in the context of innovation and regional policies.

In which media and forum do the public debate and policy discussions about the different types of entrepreneurship take place?

Table 3: Media and forums discussing the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Public media such as newspapers and magazines incl. electronic media

Policy documents and analysis

Proposed legislation and/or business support schemes

Others, please specify

One-person enterprises/self-employed        
Part-time entrepreneurs        
Parallel entrepreneurs        
Serial entrepreneurs        
Business transfers and successions        

Media and forums in Slovenia have not specifically dealt with any of the specified forms of entrepreneurship. Otherwise, entrepreneurship related issues in general are broadly covered in media (in specific journals, such as Revija Podjetnik /Review Entrepreneur/ or Revija Obrtnik /Review Craftsman/, as well as in the most broadly distributed newspapers, such as Delo, Dnevnik, Finance; there are TV broadcasts on entrepreneurship intended to promote it and to stress the main problems, there are internet forums such as Info Svet – podjetnikovo informacijsko središče /Info World – Entrepreneur’s Information Point/, Mladi Podjetnik /Young Entrepreneur/, Podjetniški portal /Entrepreneurship Portal/), policy documents and analysis (promotion of entrepreneurship has been traditionally put forward as rather important in all the strategic documents related to Slovenian development), as well as in legislation/business support schemes proposals (e.g. recent Akcijski načrt za izvajanje Akta za mala podjetja /Action Plan for the Implementation of Small Enterprises Act/, Supporting Environment for the Entrepreneurship Act, Measure 10: Promotion of entrepreneurship and enterprise competitiveness in the Framework of Economic and Social Reforms for Increasing the Welfare in Slovenia, etc.).

Specific topics to describe the different types of entrepreneurship

What has motivated the public debate?

Please specify for each of the five forms of entrepreneurship:

Table 4: What has motivated the public debate of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

Type of Entrepreneurship

Motivator

One-person enterprises/self-employed

Non-existent

Non-existent

Non-existent

Non-existent

Non-existent

There has not been any public debate which would specifically deal with the specified emerging forms of entrepreneurship. In general, discussion on entrepreneurship has been motivated with: (i) generally accepted recognition that Slovenia has an under-average level of entrepreneurship activity (as documented by GEM), (ii) a number of barriers to entrepreneurship activity.

What has been the focus of the policy discussion?

To help you answer question 5, we list some examples of key issues that could be addressed in the policy discussion:

Please specify for each of the five forms of entrepreneurship:

Table 5: The policy focus in the public debate within each of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

Part-time entrepreneurs
Parallel entrepreneurs
Serial entrepreneurs
Business transfers and successions

Type of Entrepreneurship

Policy focus

One-person enterprises/self-employed

Non-existent

Non-existent

Non-existent

Non-existent

Non-existent

There has not been any public debate which would specifically deal with the specified emerging forms of entrepreneurship. The public discussion on entrepreneurship in general has been has been focused on the following issues:

  • How to improve the overall climate for entrepreneurship and to promote entrepreneurship in general. The main problems identified are: cultural/social norms are not in favour of entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship education at secondary school level is non-existent, high entry barriers on the market (policy measures favour existing entities), low level of general competencies for firms’ establishing, non-stimulating attitude to entrepreneurship and innovation
  • How to eliminate the main barriers for entrepreneurship. The main barriers identified are the following: inadequate regulatory and policy framework with a lot of red tape and high taxes, economic policy focus and support is not in favour of entrepreneurship, problems in transferring R&D results to industry (low level of science-industry cooperation), inadequate financial support for entrepreneurship, inadequate government schemes for the promotion of entrepreneurship, inadequate support to fast-growing firms, payment delinquency, high labour costs, high taxes, inefficient judicial system, difficulties to get business premises, construction permits etc.
  • What kind of legal changes are necessary to promote entrepreneurship. Supportive Environment for Entrepreneurship Act (OGRS 102/2007) has been adopted.
  • What kind of business support schemes would help promoting entrepreneurship. A number of measures have been adopted, e.g. Akcijski načrt za izvajanje Akta za mala podjetja (Action Plan for the Implementation of Small Enterprises Act) (adopted by the Government on May 6, 2010), Measure 10: Promoting entrepreneurship and competitiveness of companies as a part of Framework of Economic and Social Reforms for Increasing the Welfare in Slovenia (adopted by the Government on November 3, 2005), Program ukrepov za spodbujanje podjetništva in konkurenčnosti za obdobje 2007-2013 (Programme of Measures for the Promotion of Entrepreneurship and Competitiveness in the Period 2007-2013) adopted by the Government in 2006, a number of programmes of the Public Agency of the Republic of Slovenia for Entrepreneurship and Foreign Investments (JAPTI) relating to development of Slovenian business environment for entrepreneurship, knowledge for business and development of infrastructure and innovation in the corporate sector. They relate to information and consulting services for potential entrepreneurs, entrepreneurs beginners and growing enterprises, calls for participation in various entrepreneurship promoting programmes (e.g. innovation voucher, training of employees, etc.).

What kind of institutional changes are necessary in order to promote entrepreneurship, e.g. establishment of Public Agency of the Republic of Slovenia for Entrepreneurship and Foreign Investments (JAPTI).Has the public discussion resulted in a concrete outcome/impact?

Yes: There have been several outcomes.

Please specify for each of the five forms of entrepreneurship:

Table 6: Outcome or impact of the public debate of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

Part-time entrepreneurs
Parallel entrepreneurs
Serial entrepreneurs
Business transfers and successions

Type of Entrepreneurship

Outcome/Impact

One-person enterprises/self-employed

Non-existent

Non-existent

Non-existent

Non-existent

Non-existent

There has not been any public debate on the specified emerging forms of entrepreneurship. These are examples of the outcome/impact of public debate on entrepreneurship in general:

  • Early stage entrepreneurial activity in Slovenia increased from 4.6% in 2002 to 6.4% in 2008 (GEM Slovenija 2008).
  • The number of enterprises increased from 91,250 in 2002 to 111,201 in 2007. The highest increase has been in the category of micro enterprises (with 1-9 employees), i.e. from 73,346 to 89,611 (Rus and Rebernik, 2009).
  • Percentage of population in the age between 18 and 64 years who looks forward to business opportunities increased from 29.85% in 2002 to 44.75% in 2008; percentage of those who believe that they have knowledge and capabilities for entrepreneurial activity increased from 44.3% to 50.8%, but the percentage of those who believe that they will start a new business in the next three years decreased from 12% to 10% (GEM Slovenija 2008).
  • In the 2002-2008 period, the following framework conditions for entrepreneurship in Slovenia improved: financial support, government policy in terms of support and regulation, government programmes, transfer of R&D in the business sector, business and expert infrastructure, cultural and social norms, perceiving of business opportunities, motivation for entrepreneurial activity. All in all, framework conditions for entrepreneurship in Slovenia have slightly improved in the 2002-2008 period (GEM Slovenija 2008).
  • Akcijski načrt za izvajanje Akta za mala podjetja (Action Plan for the Implementation of Small Enterprises Act), adopted by the Slovenian Government on May 6, 2010.
  • Program ukrepov za spodbujanje podjetništva in konkurenčnosti za obdobje 2007-2013 (Programme of measures for the Promotion of Entrepreneurship and Competitiveness for the period 2007-2013) (Ministry for Economy, 2006.) The programme has been ammended in March 2009 (http://www.podjetniski-portal.si) ; it is based on four inter-related pillars, i.e. promotion of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship friendly environment, knowledge for the business sector, development and innovations, promotion of SMEs with equity and debt financing.
  • Adoption of the Supportive Environment for Entrepreneurship Act (OGRS 102/2007).
  • Increasing attention is given to the promotion of entrepreneurship within the Public Agency of the Republic of Slovenia for Entrepreneurship and Foreign Investments (JAPTI). JAPTI is the main government agency for the implementation of entrepreneurship policy. Its basic task is to promote entrepreneurship and creation of positive climate for the development of entrepreneurship; in 2010-2011 JAPTI’s programmes are concentrated on development of business environment for entrepreneurship and competitiveness, knowledge for business, development of infrastructure and innovations in the business sector. JAPTI launched the so called Podjetniški portal (Entrepreneurship Portal), which provides information and consulting services for potential entrepreneurs, entrepreneurs beginners and growing enterprises. This includes information on various calls for the provision of support to entrepreneurship.
  • Chamber of Craft and Small Business of Slovenia offers a wide variety of information and consulting services to entrepreneurs engaged in craft activities.

Overall assessment

Within the last couple of years, to which extent has the public and policy discussion been more focused on the following different types of entrepreneurship compared to the business policy/entrepreneurship debate in general?

Table 7: Increased focus at the emerging forms of entrepreneurship?

Part-time entrepreneurs
Parallel entrepreneurs
Serial entrepreneurs
Business transfers and successions
 

To a low degree To a high degree

 

1

2

3

4

5

One-person enterprises/self-employed          
Part-time entrepreneurs          
Parallel entrepreneurs          
Serial entrepreneurs          
Business transfers and successions          

In the last couple of years, public and policy discussion has not been focused on the above types of entrepreneurship at all.

Please list the main sources of information in the search for the above

  • Obrtno-podjetniška zbornica Slovenije. 2010. Statistični pregled Obrt v številkah 2009. Ljubljana (Chamber of Craft and Small Business of Slovenia: Statistical Examination Slovenian Craft in Figures 2009).
  • Publication Craft and Small Business of Slovenia: Statistical Examination Slovenian Craft in Figures is available on annual basis since 1997 (http://www.ozs.si/).
  • Rebernik, M., Tominc, P., Pušnik, K. 2009. Rast podjetniške aktivnosti v Sloveniji. GEM Slovenija 2008 (Growth of entrepreneurship activity in Slovenia. GEM Slovenia 2008). Maribor: Ekonomsko poslovna fakulteta.
  • Rebernik, M., Tominc, P., Pušnik, K. 2010. Slovensko podjetništvo v letu krize. GEM Slovenija 2009 (Slovenian entrepreneurship in the year of crisis. GEM Slovenia 2009). Maribor: Ekonomsko poslovna fakulteta (Faculty of Economics and Business).
  • GEM Slovenija publication is available on annual basis since 2002 (http://www.gemslovenia.org/home/)
  • Rus, M, Rebernik, M. 2009. Slovenian Enterprises in 2007. In Širec, K., Rebernik, M. (Eds.), Dynamics of Slovenian Entrepreneurship, Slovenian Entrepreneurship Observatory 2008, Maribor: Faculty of Economics and Business.
  • Other publications of Slovenian Entrepreneurship Observatory (http://en.epfip.uni-mb.si/). The Observatory each year presents a review of Slovenian SME demographics and in-depth research of current topics in the field of entrepreneurship.
  • Public Agency of the Republic of Slovenia for Entrepreneurship and Foreign Investments (JAPTI) (http://www.japti.si/home)
  • Ministrstvo za gospodarstvo (Ministry for Economy). 2006. Program ukrepov za spodbujanje podjetništva in konkurenčnosti za obdobje 2007-2013 (Programme of measures for the Promotion of Entrepreneurship and Competitiveness for the period 2007-2013). Ljubljana, the amendments of the Programme as of March 2009 (http://www.podjetniski-portal.si) ;
  • Supportive Environment for Entrepreneurship Act (OGRS 102/2007).
  • Akcijski načrt za izvajanje Akta za mala podjetja (Action Plan for the Implementation of Small Enterprises Act), adopted by the Slovenian Government on May 6, 2010.

Part II: Standardised structural data

Which standardised business statistics are available covering the different forms of entrepreneurship/business activities (explicitly or implicitly, i.e. also data that could be used to describe these forms of entrepreneurship without being published with this specific objective/heading)?

Data sources for entrepreneurship activity in Slovenia are Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia (SORS) with Labour Market (http://www.stat.si/eng/tema_demografsko_trg.asp) and Business Entities statistics (http://www.stat.si/eng/tema_ekonomsko_poslovni.asp), Chamber of Craft and Small Business of Slovenia (OZS) with data on Craft Entities (Annual statistics – publication Craft in Figures, http://www.ozs.si/prispevek.asp?IDpm=90), Slovenian Entrepreneurship Observatory (SPO) with annual publication on entrepreneurship activity in Slovenia (http://en.epfip.uni-mb.si/research/slovenian-entrepreneurship-observatory/), and GEM Slovenija with its annual publication (http://en.epfip.uni-mb.si/research/gem/). Slovenian Entrepreneurship Observatory bases its statistics on the data of Agency of the Republic of Slovenia for Public Legal Records and Related Services (AJPES; http://www.ajpes.si/?language=english); AJPES collects financial statements of all the business entities in Slovenia. These data sources offer a broad variety of data on enterprises, however, of all the above specified emerging forms of entrepreneurship only data on one-person enterprises/self-employed is available. The existing data bases do not enable to extract any data on part-time entrepreneurs, parallel entrepreneurs, serial entrepreneurs or business transfers and succession.

Another possible source of data is the Business Register of Slovenia (see Business Register of Slovenia Act, OGRS 49/06) kept by AJPES, but the data from the register are not processed in a way that would provide data on emerging forms of entrepreneurship. In principle, specifically structured data bases, available upon request and after payment of certain compensation, based on the Business Register data may provide additional information on various forms of entrepreneurship.

Table 8: Availability of business statistics about the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Type of data available

Indicate access to data by an ‘X’ in the first column

First published

Indicate year

Time series of data

(Biannually, annually, quarterly, monthly, once only, other)

Data source for the data

One-person enterprises/ self-employed

Number of enterprises

X

X

X

X

1999

1997

2000

2002

Annually

Annually

Annually

Annually

SORS

OZS

SOP

AJPES

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

X

X

X

1999

1997

2002

Annually

Annually

Annually

SORS – 2 digit

OZS – 1 digit

AJPES – the most detailed possible (individual data)

Availability of regional data (please specify)

X

X

1997

2002

Annually

Annually

OZS

AJPES – the most detailed possible (address of individual company)

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

X

X

1999

2002

Annually

Annually

SORS

AJPES

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

X

X

X

X

1999

1997

2000

2002

Annually

Annually

Annually

Annually

SORS

OZS

SOP

AJPES

Exports

X

2002

Annually

AJPES

Employment

X

X

X

X

1999

1997

2000

2002

Annually

Annually

Annually

Annually

SORS

OZS

SOP

AJPES

Others: ___________

X

2002

Annually

AJPES (all the data from financial statements of firms)

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

X

X

1999

1997

Annually

Annually

SORS

OZS

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

X

X

1999

1997

Annually

Annually

SORS

OZS

survival rate of enterprises

X

1999

Annually

SORS

Others, specify:

       
Part-time entrepreneurs

Number of enterprises

       

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

       

Availability of regional data (please specify)

       

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

       

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

       

Exports

       

Employment

       

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

       

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

       

Survival rate of enterprises

       

Others, specify:

       
Parallel entrepreneurs

Number of enterprises

       

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

       

Availability of regional data (please specify)

       

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

       

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

       

Exports

       

Employment

       

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

       

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

       

survival rate of enterprises

       

Others, specify:

       
Serial entrepreneurs

Number of enterprises

       

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

       

Availability of regional data (please specify)

       

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

       

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

       

Exports

       

Employment

       

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

       

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

       

survival rate of enterprises

       

Others, specify:

       
Business transfers and successions

Number of enterprises

       

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

       

Availability of regional data (please specify)

       

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

       

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

       

Exports

       

Employment

       

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

       

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

       

survival rate of enterprises

       

Others, specify:

       

Is it possible to crosstab or merge the demographic data identifying the individual persons running any of the five forms of entrepreneurships/business activities with the company data specified in question 9 in a common database for analytical purpose?

No, this is not possible.

Table 9: Availability of demographic statistics about the entrepreneur within the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Type of data available

Indicated access to data by an ‘X’ in the first column

First published

Indicate year

Time series of data

(Biannually, annually, quarterly, monthly, once only, other)

Data source for the data

One-person enterprises/ self-employed Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner        
Gender

X

1999

Annually

SORS

Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age        
Geographical location        

Educational background (last registered education)

       
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

       
Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur        
Other types of data (Specify):        
Part-time entrepreneurs Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner        
Gender        
Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age        
Geographical location        

Educational background (last registered education)

       
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

       
Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur        
Other types of data (Specify):        
Parallel entrepreneurs Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner        
Gender        
Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age        
Geographical location        

Educational background (last registered education)

       
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

       
Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur        
Other types of data (Specify):        
Serial entrepreneurs Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner        
Gender        
Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age        
Geographical location        

Educational background (last registered education)

       
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

       
Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur        
Other types of data (Specify):        
Business transfers and successions Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner        
Gender        
Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age        
Geographical location        

Educational background (last registered education)

       
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

       
Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur        
Other types of data (Specify):        

Is the data freely accessible or does it require registration, payment and/or a special effort to access the data? Please explain the accessibility for each of the forms of entrepreneurs/business activities and datasets referred to above.

Table 10: List of statistical sources about the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

List data source/dataset

Explain the accessibility

SORS

Freely accessible

OZS

Freely accessible

SOP

Freely accessible

GEM

Freely accessible

AJPES

Available upon request and after payment of certain compensation

Part III: Research

Please describe studies and research available nationally for each of the forms of entrepreneurs/business activities.

Table 11: List of studies and research about the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

List the references (author’s name, title of publication etc, year of publication, organisation)

A short summary of the contents (e.g. topic covered, methodology applied)

One-person enterprises/self-employed    
Part-time entrepreneurs    
Parallel entrepreneurs    
Serial entrepreneurs    
Business transfers and successions    

There are no specific literature on the above mentioned emerging forms of entrepreneurship. The main studies and research in entrepreneurship in Slovenia include:

  1. Activities and publications of the Institute for Entrepreneurship and Small Business Management, a research unit within the Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Maribor, that specialises in the research, education and consultancy in the field of entrepreneurship and small business management. The Institute annually publishes GEM Slovenija and a publication within the Slovenian Entrepreneurship Observatory. Apart from general overview, this publication always has a different thematic issue. The Institute is also engaged in numerous domestic and international research projects on various aspects of entrepreneurship. The emerging forms of entrepreneurship as defined in CAR, have not been the subject of research.
  2. Faculty of Economics of the University of Ljubljana is the second university and research centre on entrepreneurship in Slovenia. Within the Faculty there are Center for Entrepreneurship Development (CRP), and Center for Student Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Creativity (ŠPIK). The intention of ŠPIK is to promote student entrepreneurship, innovativity and creativity via the implementation of business plans which results in establishment of firms.

Selected publications:

  • Obrtno-podjetniška zbornica Slovenije. 2010. Statistični pregled Obrt v številkah 2009 (Chamber of Craft and Small Business of Slovenia: Statistical Examination Slovenian Craft in Figures 2009). Ljubljana. (http://www.ozs.si/). Short summary: Presents the main data and structural characteristics of Slovenian craft.
  • Rebernik, M., Tominc, P., Pušnik, K. Rast podjetniške aktivnosti v Sloveniji. 2009. GEM Slovenija 2008 (Growth of Entrepeneurship Activity in Slovenia. GEM Slovenia 2008). Maribor: Ekonomsko poslovna fakulteta (Faculty of Economics and Business). (http://www.gemslovenia.org/home/). Short summary: This is a standard GEM report with special topics of the development of Slovenian entrepreneurship activity in 2002-2008, entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurship environment in Slovenia.
  • Rebernik, M., Tominc, P., Pušnik, K. 2010. Slovensko podjetništvo v letu krize. GEM Slovenija 2009 (Slovenian Entrepreneurship in the Year of crisis. GEM Slovenia 2009). Maribor: Ekonomsko poslovna fakulteta. (Faculty of Economics and Business) (http://www.gemslovenia.org/home/). Short summary: This is a standard GEM report with special topics of the behaviour of Slovenian entrepreneurship in the period of crisis and of the social entrepreneurship.
  • Širec, K., Rebernik, M. (Eds.). 2009. Dynamics of Slovenian Entrepreneurship. Slovenian Entrepreneurship Observatory 2008. Maribor: Faculty of Economics and Business. (http://en.epfip.uni-mb.si/). Short summary: The publication deals with the dynamics of Slovenian entrepreneurship in 2008, with special accent on some specific topics, like factors influencing early stage entrepreneurial activity, distinctive characteristics of family businesses, reasons for outsourcing, networking among entrepreneurs.
  • Programme of measures for the Promotion of Entrepreneurship and Competitiveness for the period 2007-2013. Ljubljana (Program ukrepov za spodbujanje podjetništva in konkurenčnosti za obdobje 2007-2013) (Ministry for Economy, 2006.), the amendments of the Programme as of March 2009 (http://www.podjetniski-portal.si). Short summary: The Programme is concentrated on three areas of policy measures, i.e. promotion of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship friendly environment, knowledge for business, innovation in the business sector, and promotion of SMEs by equity and credit sources.
  • Šušteršič, J., Damijan, J.P., Zajec Herceg, N. Framework of Economic and Social Reforms for Increasing the Welfare in Slovenia. 2005. Ljubljana: Government Office for Growth. Short summary: Measure 10 of the programme describes ‘Promotion of entrepreneurship and enterprise competitiveness of companies’ introduces and builds interconnected institutions, systems and projects for promoting entrepreneurship and ensuring the efficiency of their operations.
  • Internet forums: Info Svet – podjetnikovo informacijsko središče (Info World – Entrepreneur’s Informnation Point), Mladi Podjetnik (Young Entrepreneur), Podjetniški portal (Entrepreneurship Portal).

Matija Rojec, Organisations and Human Resources Research Centre

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